Monday, 4 July 2016

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Canbury Gardens

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Canbury Gardens

Post to the north Ham and Hawker
Post to the south Kingston


Albany Mews
Albany Park Canoeing and Sailing Centre. Part of Albany Outdoors, Kingston Council
Canbury Gardens
Canbury Gardens. This riverside area had been marshland and osier beds. From 1863. It was known as Corporation Eyot and was a rubbish dump. In 1884, Samuel Gray a local maltster and lighterman who had founded the Canbury Ratepayers' Association in the early 1880s suggested there should be a garden here. Plans were drawn up by Henry Macaulay, the Borough Surveyor, and work began in 1889 on topsoil brought in from the nearby reservoir excavations. The gardens were raised above the tow path and plane trees were planted along it and The Park was opened in 1890. A bandstand was erected in 1891 but later removed for Second World War munitions. There was also an octagonal shelter, benches and lamp column and from the early 1900s sports facilities were added. Surrounding industry has now been largely demolished and anew bandstand has now been erected.
Barge Walk. This is the riverside walk through Canbury Gardens.
Kingston Rowing Club was founded in 1858 by Mr George Bennett at Messenger’s Boathouse, Kingston, from 1861 it was in a building on Raven’s Ait.In 1935 the club moved downstream to the Albany Boathouse in Lower Ham Road. In 1968 the club moved to a custom built premises in Canbury Gardens. Only one year after its founding the club competed at Henley Royal Regatta. In 1897 they were instrumental in the creation of the Amateur Rowing Association. Women were not admitted as members until 1976 but by 1994 the club had its first women captain - who represented Britain at the Barcelona Olympics and who has been followed by others.
Plaque erected by the Thames Landscape Strategy with Working in partnership with the Kingston Aviation Centenary Project to show the history of Aviation in Kingston, including a map of the old factories. The plaque was unveiled by Sir Tommy Sopwith
Boaters Inn. Riverside pub in Canbury Gardens.
Barge Walk Cottage. This appears on maps before 1900
The Pavilion, This is a community resource and centre. The old Council bowling pavilion, dating from the late 19th was going to be demolished. A group of local residents now run it as a community hub.


Lower Ham Road
Boathouse for Leander Sea Scout Troop. The “Leander” Group grew out of the 2nd Kingston Scout Troop which originated from around 1908. The first scoutmaster Erik Robinson was the son of a marine engineer. By 1912, the Troop had begun Sea Scouting activities; their first boat was presented to them by the great-grandson of Captain Francis Grove, who had commanded H.M.S. LEANDER in the early 20th. In 1913 they were based in central Kingston near the Hogs Mill River but from 1921 rented a building in Lower Ham Road. The group now has a fleet of boats and new headquarters.
Albany Boathouse. Gabled boathouse with the Royal Crest built in 1893. It was owned by the Turk family who constructed light river craft. Later they hired out pleasure boats but went out of business in the 1970s. The building was restored recently and is now home to local businessesThe Skiff Club was initially based at the Albany Club in Kingston and in 1897 took over Turk's Albany Boathouse which had been vacated by the Royal Canoe Club that year. In 1914 the Schneider Trophy winning Sopwith float plane was tested on the slipway here. In 1935 Kingston Rowing Club moved here but later went to their present site in Canbury Gardens. It is now the headquarters of an office interiors firm.


Richmond Road
This was once called Canbury Lane


The Albany
The Bank Estate was known as Point Pleasant, Mount Pleasant, Bank Farm and Bank Grove. Created in 1797 by John Nash for Henry St. John. The grounds were landscaped by Humphrey Repton. This was the first completed collaboration between Repton and Nash. The scheme aimed to take advantage of the views both up and down the river. It was later the home of a succession of local gentry. The gardens were said to be magnificent throughout this period. By 1890 it the house was the Albany club, and was later burnt down. The site is now occupied by three blocks of flats. The raised situation still commands the river bend and the two fine Lebanon Cedars which survive may date back to Repton
The three Albany blocks stand out along the river, built on the site of Point Pleasant

Sources
Albany Park Canoeing and Sailing Centre. Web site
Boaters Inn. Web site
Kingston Rowing Club. Web site
London Borough of Kingston. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site
Sampson. All Change
Thames Landscape Strategy. Web site

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham and Hawker

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham and Hawker

Post to the west Ham Lands and Teddington Lock
Post to the south Canbury Gardens


Broughton Avenue
Meadlands Primary School


Dukes Drive
Sewage pumping station – this was extant in the 1930s to the south of the road

Ham Common
Much of the Common was lost when Richmond Park was created, but some remains. The area of crossed by Ham Gate Avenue is mostly scrub and woodland. That on the west side of the main road is like a village green, with a cricket pitch in the middle.
1 Cassell Hospital. The Cassel Hospital was founded by Ernest Cassell in 1919 for the treatment of shell shock. It was located in Penshurst and then went to Stoke on Trent in the Second World War. In 1948 it moved to Ham Common. The building was built in the late 18th and called as Morgan House after its owner John Minter Morgan. In 1879 it had become West Heath School for Young Ladies which moved to Sevenoaks in the 1930s. The building then became became the Lawrence Hall Hotel until 1947. The hospital developed behavioral rather than medicinal techniques through group and other psychotherapies and the idea of a therapeutic community was pioneered here in the 1940s by Weddell and Main. The hospital works with University and Imperial Colleges London as well as the Institute of Psychiatry. It provides services for young people and adults and is managed by the West London Mental Health NHS Trust.
15 Gordon House. 18th house
Forbes House .  In 1936 this was built as a pastiche 18th house by Oswald P. Milne. It was demolished by a developer in the early 1990s and a replacement pastiche 18th house has now been built here by Julian Bicknell.
Langham House Close. 1950s development described by the Twentieth Century Society as “a benchmark against which other apartment blocks can be measured”, it was designed by the architects Stirling and Gowan as an example of Le Corbusier influence. It was a reaction against all-glass facades and thin, precise detailing. It had two- and three-storey with exposed concrete floors, a lot of yellow brick, and thick white-painted trim to the window
Langham House. 18th house once home of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher

Lock Road
Ham Christian Centre. This was built in 1928 as the Ham Free Evangelical Church. Services until 1979. In 1998 it was renovated in by the Richmond based Duke Street Church and is now a is a member of the South East Gospel Partnership. It is used by a number of other organisations – for example The Free Church of Scotland.


Lower Ham Road
YMCA Hawker Sports Ground. This was the Hawker Co. Sports ground – later known as the Leyland Motors ground and also British Aerospace Sports. When the factory was demolished the sports centre remained and was passed to the local authority. It is now known as the Hawker Centre and managed by the YMCA. This includes a very wide range of sports pitches and a gym as well as a cafe and family and community facilities. These buildings are all that remains of the huge British Leyland/Hawker works


North Weald Road
This is one of several roads built in the 1990s on sites released by the closure of the Hawker factory. Like others it is named after an airfield.

Parkleys
Span. This was part of the fields of Ham Farm – the site of which is in the square to the west. Ham Farm Nursery was established here in the 19the with greenhouses and facilities nearer to Upper Ham Road. The nursery was taken over by Span Developments Ltd in the early 1950s and the Parkleys Estate developed 1954 -1955.  This was a very influential development as the first by Eric Lyons and Geoffrey Townsend. It was designed for first time buyers, offering an endowment mortgage, and the first successful residents’ management companies set up by Span. It was revolutionary in using modern architectural design mixed with traditional materials. The stock and gardener of the former nursery were taken over the estate laid out to keep existing trees and tine landscape is an important integral part of the overall design.


Richmond Road
390 Kingston Fire Station
St George's Industrial Estate. On the site of the Cellon Factory.
380 Cellon. In 1929 the site was developed for the Cellon Doping Company who moved here from the site now covered by the British Legion poppy factory in Richmond. They had previously been the Non-Inflammable Celluloid Company. Alexander Wallace Barr learnt of a German process for using cellulose acetate for "dope" and acquired patent rights to the material. He made this in a shed under the railway arches at Clapham before taking them by car to Sopwith's of Kingston and others. In the Great War the expansion in trade led to a move to new premises in Petersham Road. In Paris he did a deal with the only source of raw materials other than the Germans. After the Great War the company developed industrial paints and cellulose finishes, including Porcelac, for bathroom fittings, and Cerrac lacquers for wood and metal.  In the Second World War they led production through the Society of British Aircraft Manufacturers. The company became part of Pinchin Johnson and was then acquired by Courtaulds in 1960 in order to access its experience in colouring of materials, especially relevant to Cellophane. From 1968 it was part of the International Paint Group. The factory closed in the 1980s and the site became an industrial estate.
380 Nikon House. UK base for Japanese imaging company handling Import, sales and servicing of cameras and microscopes
Hawker Aircraft Company site.
National Aircraft Factory. Because of military demand for aircraft during the Great War the Minister of Munitions set up the National Aircraft Factory.  No.2 “Richmond” factory was built by Dick Kerr in 1917 -1918 on land requisitioned under the Defence of the Realm Act from the Earl of Dysart.
Sopwith works. In 1912 Tom Sopwith set up aircraft manufacture in Kinston expanding to Canbury Park Road. He then leased the National Aircraft Factory and delivered a Snipe, in 1918. Sopwith built 720 aircraft here - Snipes, Salamanders and Dragons, before the armistice.
Leyland Motors. In 1919 the Ministry ended the arrangement with Sopwith and the site was sold to Leyland Motors – although he site was still legally owned by Lord Dysart. Leyland used the factory for converting war surplus Leyland ‘G’ Type lorries.  They then made 17,000 Trojan cars there - the 'can you afford to walk' car which was an early attempt to produce a mass-market car which sold for £140 driven by a four cylinder motorcycle engine. They also made light commercial vehicles, as well as Cub lorries, buses and specially bodied vehicles. In the Second World War they made Lynx lorries, desert water carriers, gearboxes, tank gun drives, Centaur tanks as well as land mines and incendiary bombs. Munitions were made in an underground works in the north west corner – which may still remain. After the war British United Traction trolley buses were built here with AEC.
Hawker. In 1948 Hawker Aircraft – who had taken over Sopwith Aviation bought the works from Leyland Motors. Sopwith had failed when the war ended and had gone into receivership - on the same day Hawker Engineering was formed with the same directors.  In 1958 the Hawker’s management and design organisation moved into a new office block on the site – in brick and stone by Sir Hubert Worthington and Norman Dawbawn and using the profit made from the Hunter. They made Sea Hawks followed by Hunters, Harriers and Hawks. In addition the V/STOL P.1127 development aircraft and Kestrel service evaluation fighters were built at Kingston. There were destructive test rigs where fuselages were set up for stress testing, the high temperature test roar where jet nozzles are tested at high temperature and air flow, and where the original Harrier fuselages were assembled. There were also vertical cylindrical heaters designed to heat the enamel floor space.  Work continued under nationalised British Aerospace and then privatised British Aerospace plc, until its closure in 1992. The works were demolished by Dick Kerr.


Upper Ham Road
24 Hand and Flower.
Ham and Petersham Cricket Club house

Sources
Behind The Blue Plaques,
Blue Plaque Guide
Cassell Trust. Web site
Field. London Place Names
GLIAS Newsletter
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Greater London Council. Thames Guidelines
London Borough of Richmond. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
London Transport. Country Walks
Nairn. Modern Buildings
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Penguin. Surrey
Pevsner Surrey
Port of London Magazine
Richmond Local History Society. Web site

Sunday, 3 July 2016

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham Lands and Teddington Lock

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham Lands and Teddington Lock

Post to the north Ham Lands
Post to the east Ham and Hawker

Ham Lands
Nature reserve – this covers the area between Riverside Drive and the river. This is  a stretch of low-lying fields extending into grasslands and scrub, sometimes of considerable width following the curve of the Thames. Recently Part of these lands once belonged to Secrett Farm and part were half yearly Lammas lands. Much of Ham belonged to the Dysarts and ensured their privacy but this did not save these lands being dug for gravel in the late 19th.  Freshwater marsh plants provide some of the flora for this strip of diverse habitat. Three types of orchid grow which is partly due to the chalky character of the infill used at the former gravel workings. Other unusual species found in these former water meadows include the bloody cranesbill and salad burnet which also reflect this underlying substrate. The common plants like rosebay willowherb or yarrow are balanced with dittander and moth mullein. This length of well-vegetated riverside attracts a wide range of insects, including 19 species of butterfly. The hawthorn and willow scrub is cover for numerous birds from woodpeckers and whitethroats to willow warblers and reed buntings. There are also amphibians like the grass snake.

River
Teddington Lock.  The lock marks the limit of the Port of London Authority. Downstream of the lock is the Tideway. Above the lock is managed by the Environment Agency. From 1802 plans for locks in between Staines and Teddington, were drawn up but there were problems with landowners and this bit of river has always been a problem to navigation because of shallows. The City of London Corporation obtained an Act in 1810 for construction of locks and weirs here and this was done by Stephen Leach. Work here began in 1810 but there were delays. The lock opened in 1811, built slightly upstream on the site now covered by the footbridge. By 1827 the timber lock needed repair and in 1829 the weir was destroyed by ice and damaged by the 1840s wash from steamers was giving trouble.  In 1848 after Old London Bridge was removed the water level fell by over two feet.  There were proposals to rebuild the lock in 1854 proposals to include capacity for seagoing craft. This opened in 1858 together with the narrow skiff lock.
Barge lock – this has gates which allow it to operate in two sizes. It is the largest lock on the river and was built in 1904–1905.
Skiff lock. This opened in 1858.
Weir – this is bow shaped weir which stretches to Teddington from an island. It dates from 1811 but was rebuilt in 1871
Teddington Lock Footbridge – this is two bridges separated by the island and it opened in 1889
Obelisk. Erected in 1909 to mark the boundary between Thames Conservancy and Port of London Authority jurisdiction. It says "Thames Conservancy Lower Limit 1909".
Thames Aqueducts.  The water supply Ring main passes under here. It was begun in 1960 but it had been suggested in 1935 – a tunnel to take water from the Thames above Teddington to North London.  It is built in 102in diameter tunnel in interlocking concrete rings for 19 miles, starts at Hampton Water Works and finishes at the Lockwood reservoir.  Built by Sir William Halcrow & Partners.


Sources
Clunn. The Face of London
Greater London Council. Thames Guidelines.
London Encyclopaedia.
London Transport. Country Walks
Parker.  North Surrey
Penguin. Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Stevenson. Surrey
Walford. Village London
Wikipedia. As appropriate.

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham Lands

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham Lands

Post to the north. Ham Street riverside
Post to the south, Ham Lands and Teddington Lock

Ashburnham Road
Part of housing development on land given by Wates building company.
St Richards Church of England Primary School. This was originally opened in 1890, to replace Ham Village School.  It was then called St Andrew’s School at Ham Common.  In 1966 the school re-opened on the Wates Estate as St Richard's with St Andrew's Primary School.  The school developed a successful School Choir which sang on television and radio many times.  The school swimming pool opened in 1972 paid for by local fund raising. It was opened by Hugh Wheldon, Managing Director of BBC Television.
St Richard's Church. This church was built on Wates land and the foundation stone was laid in 1964 by Norman Wates. It was designed by Architect Ralph Covell based on the Star of David to make a hexagonal space. There are fourteen stained glass windows by Henry Haig to shown the life of St. Richard. There is an organ by Bevington and Sons dating to 1900 and rebuilt here in 1965. Outside the church is a wooden cross on a mound made by local young people in 2006.

Ham Lands
Coldharbour Farm. Farm buildings present before 1930 and sited in the area of later gravel working
Ham River Grit Co. In 1904 the Earl of Dysart leased part of the farmland for sand and ballast construction. The company was owned by George and William Brice, clay and barge operators from Rochester. A dock was constructed in 1913 and a lock in 1921 allowing barges into the flooded pit. The remains of this system are now used by the Thames Young Mariners. There was also a narrow gauge railway. Later a depot was built on the road to Kingston and the railway extended to it.  During the Second World War the pits ace said to have been used to store parts of the Mulberry Harbour. Later they were filled with rubble from the bombing. After 1952, when extraction ceased, housing was planned for the area. The area was however designated as Metropolitan Open Land.
Light railway – owned by the Ham River Grit Co. This ran along the tow path. One locomotive, Odin, was running on a preserve railway until 2012.
Ham Lands Nature Reserve. This is next to the river and has a mixture of habitats that range including woodland and wetland and contains many plants and animals. Wildflowers attract bees and butterflies and there are many different birds. It has unusual vegetation due to the underlying alkaline rubble instead of the more acidic fluvial deposits. At the southern end of the site is a stretch of natural river bank with shingle.  As the gravel pits were closed the concrete barges used there were abandoned. They gave formed solid lumps of concrete which impact on water movement here.
Kew and Ham Sports Association. The association runs a number of sports facilities here and since 2007 have used the pavilion here.  This has 6 large changing rooms and a large meeting room. Facilities include the Ham Hawks football school run by Kew Association Football Club
The Ranges. This site is entered from Ham Street. Ham Rifle Range operated by Ham and Petersham Rifle and Pistol Club Ltd, which is a private shooting club. The club was founded in 1906 although it is thought it began in 1903.  Charles Hanbury-Tracy, the 4th Lord Sudeley was President of the Ham & Petersham Rifle & Pistol Club from 1906. It has six outdoor ranges for archery, air guns, rifles and Black Powder pistols. There is also a clubhouse and bar.
King George Field. This is entered from Ham Street. The field takes its name from King George V who originally gave the land to the borough. The Foundation was set up as a memorial following the King's death in 1936. It was previously called Walnut Tree Meadow
Thames Young Mariners. This was established in the 1960s on a 25 acre site including the lake. It offers water-based activities in a controlled environment and is recognised as a teaching centre. A rare opportunity to see a surviving area of flood meadow. Drawdock


Wates Estate.
Ham Riverside Village. This was developed by building company Wates in the mid 1960s as Ham Riverside Village. There are townhouses with integral garages and 2 storey houses in 3 different sizes. There are also maisonettes. Being built on recently reclaimed land the estate has continued to suffer from subsidence problems

Woodville Road
Woodville Day Care Centre


Sources
Arcadian Times. Web site
Greater London Council. Thames Guidelines
Ham and Petersham Rifle and Pistol Club. Web site
Kew and Ham Sports Association. Web site
Parker. North Surrey
Penguin. Surrey
St Richard’s Church. Web site
St. Richard's School. Web site
Walford.  Village London
Wikipedia. As appropriate

Saturday, 2 July 2016

Riverside - south bank West of the Tower. Ham Street Riverside

Riverside - south bank West of the Tower. Ham Street Riverside

This posting only shows sites south of the river. For sites in this square north of the river go to Twickenham


Post to the east Ham House
Post to the north St.Margarets
Post to the west Twickenham
Post to the south Ham Lands


Ham Street
Ham House entrance and lodges. This is the entry to the stable yard, which is itself in the square to the east
Playing Fields and riverside car park
Ham Well of the Richmond Water Works on the car park site
King George's Fields entrance. The gate piers have the standard heraldic stone plaques that denote all King George's Fields.

Sources

Riverside, south bank, west of the Tower. Ham House

Riverside, south bank, west of the Tower. Ham House

Post to the east Richmond Star and Garter
Post to the west Twickenham and Ham Street Riverside
Post to the north Richmond Riverside and Central

Douglas House Meadow
Petersham and Ham Sea Scouts. This is one of the oldest scout troops still in existence, beginning in 1908. It is called the Phoenix troop because the scout hut has burned down on several occasions.
Spitfire. A Spitfire from the Second World War is rumoured to be buried in the field.

Ham House
Ham House.   Originally built in 1610, Ham House was built for William Murray first Earl of Dysart who was educated with the young Prince Charles.  William was given the lease of Ham House and its estate as a gift from the King in 1626. It had originally been built by Sir Thomas Vavasour in 1610 as a typuical H-plan Elizabethan hioiuse.  From 1637-9 he began alterations to it. After the Restoration the house was owned by his daughter Elizabeth. In 1672, she married the Duke of Lauderdale. They transformed Ham House into one of the grandest houses in England. . The work was done by William Samwell who filled in the space between the arms of the Jacobean H. The house remained in the ownership of Elizabeth’s descendants from her first marriage for nearly 300 years. It was passed to the National Trust in 1948. It is one of the largest early 17th houses in the Greater London area and of great h architectural and decorative interest. The plan of the house is that of an oblong with two wings. It is in brick with stone dressings. 
The North Front. This dates from 1610 and was once part of a courtyard, decorated with the marble busts. The iron gates date from 1672. In 1800, it was opened up as it is now. The Coade stone pineapples and the Coade stone statue of Father Thames, by John Bacon the elder were installed then. The topiary shrubs are clipped into a 17th style-. The trees are Portuguese laurel.
The South Terrace and Platts. This was built 1672-4 to provide a shady walk for ladies. Scented paths were created with box and orange and lemon trees, oleander, myrtle, almond trees and other exotics. The border was replanted in 1997 in the 17th style; the standard trees are Hibiscus syriaca and pomegranate. On the wall are fan trained plums. The eight lawns, or plats, were restored in 1975.  The large trees growing on the outer platts were probably planted are English Oak, Sweet Chestnut and False Acacia.
Stables. The stables were with Ham House in 1610 and they were symmetrical reflecting a new taste. The north east elevation of the stables was extended in 1787and a cupola and weather cock was added.  The interior is more intact, with a timber arch in the Jacobean timber frame. Water was pumped from the north wing of the stable block to the house via underground pipes. The Tollemache family auctioned off the estate in 1948 but kept the stables. They were sold and sold again and Ham House Stables were set up there as a business. Some of the buildings were converted for housing in 1979-80 by Colin Bottomley, retaining one original unit
Gardens. The Duke and Duchess of Lauderdale redesigned the gardens in the latest formal French, Dutch and Italian styles. The results were spectacular, and visitors came to marvel. It was later landscaped by Repton, and restored in the 1970s by the National Trust to the formal layout of the 1670s. They include the Cherry Garden, with lavender parterres hornbeam arbours. There is a 17th orangery with a kitchen garden, a licensed cafe; and a terrace with a Christ's thorn bush.
The Wilderness. A popular idea in 17th gardening, the Wilderness was a geometric arrangement of clipped hedges radiating out from a central point. The hedges were formed into compartments planted with wild flowers and meadow grass, or as a dense shrubbery. These represented wild nature tamed by man,
The Orangery and Garden. This may be the oldest Orangery in the country- built around 1670. It was to provide over-wintering for the Duchess's collection of citrus. It became a laundry in the 19th and is now the Tea Room.
Approach Road. The present approach from Ham Street is not the original. The approach laid out in the 1670s was by two avenues, one from Petersham Road and one from Ham Common. The lodges remain.


Hammerton’s Ferry
Hammerton’s Ferry. In the past there was little demand for cross-river services on this stretch of bank. In 1901 Marble Hill House in Twickenham was bought for the public and the riverside footpath by Ham House became a public right of way so a need was created. In 1909 Walter Hammerton began to operate a regular ferry service here. In 1913 the operators of the Twickenham Ferry, slightly up river took legal action against it. And eventually the House of Lords ruled in favour of Hammerton. The ferry is currently owned by Francis Spencer and operated by Stan Rust. Hammerton's original skiff is now on display at the Museum in Docklands. It operates between a floating boathouse on the north bank of the Thames and small jetty on the south bank.

Polo Ground
Ham Polo Club and Clubhouse. Founded in 1926 and the last active club in Greater London. The ground is in what was the orchard of Ham House converted for their use in 1958.

River Lane
Manor House, Early 18th house,
Courtyards. Built 1964 by L. Manasseh,
Drum House. Built by L. Manessah in 1964. A semicircular projection at one end containing a swimming pool
Petersham Lodge.  The original house was built around  1740 and occupied by Robert Ord in 1778. Max Waechter gave it to the local authority it to preserve it and it was used as a holiday home for governesses.  There is said to be a rotunda in the garden from 1740.
Glen Cottage. This is traditionally where Vancouver lived and where he settled in 1795 to write up his voyages for publication. He died in l799 when he was only 40 and is buried in Petersham churchyard.
Douglas House. The house was built in 1690 as Douglas House and bought in 1969 for use as a German school by the Federal Republic of Germany.  They built a school around the house which became the reception and school offices. It opened in 1971. Later buildings were designed by the German firm Kersten Mertinoff & Struhk, for architects were W H Marmorek and Clifford Culpin & Partners. The school was for children of diplomatic staff from the embassies of West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland
Petersham Lodge Wood. This was once part of the Lodge' landscaped grounds. The wood had been owned by the local council since 1902 and managed jointly with the London Wildlife Trust, assisted by local Petersham Environment volunteers.It is is protested by a dyke along the riverside but some flooding is allowed.

Tree Close
Tree Close. Sheltered housing by Manning & Clamp, 1976

Sources
GLC, Thames Landscape Strategy
Ham House. Web site
London Transport. Country walks
London Encycliopedia
Parker. North Surrey Parker
Petersham Environment Trust.  Web site
Petersham Sea Scouts. Web site
Pevsner and cherry, South London
Pevsner. Surrey
Pritchard. Ham House and its Owners.
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames
Victoria and Albert Museum. Ham House
Walford. Village London

Friday, 1 July 2016

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Richmond Star and Garter

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Richmond Star and Garter

Post to the north Richmond Hill
Post to the west Ham House


Buccleugh Gardens
Buccleugh Gardens . This was once part of Hill Common, common land in the Royal Manor where in the mid 17th tile kilns stood, which was closed down in 1767.  Land was bought here for George Brudenell, Earl of Cardigan and Duke of Montagu to the gardens of his riverside house and the house was rebuilt in the mid 18th. The estate passed to the Duke’s daughter who was married to the Duke of Buccleugh and then their children. The 5th Duke bought Lansdowne House which he demolished added the gardens to his own. The 6th Duke sold the gardens to the Vestry of Richmond and they opened Terrace Gardens.  Buccleuch Gardens was the site of the Duke's House which Richmond Vestry had sold. This was bought back by Richmond Council in 1937 following concerns about drainage on the hill above the gardens and the likelihood of land slips. The park is a narrow riverside strip with some plane trees and shrubs and a lawmen bordered by the Thames Path. The change of slope running north-south along the riverbank marks the flood line of the Thames. There is a 1930s brick shelter on the site of Buccleuch House and arcades from the house are used for storage.  At the entrance is a 20th drinking fountain.
Tunnel. A private tunnel under the road goes to Langham Lodge.
Tunnel. In the 18th the Duke of Montagu linked the two parts of his grounds by a subterranean grotto/tunnel under the Petersham Road. This remains and in Buccleuch Gardens the entrance is a grotto with three bays. In Terrace Gardens are two sets of curving steps.
Buccleuch House.  There appears to have been an 18th cottage on the site of the house which was enlarged for Earl Ferrars in 1725. In the 1709s the site was inherited by the wife of the Duke of Buccleugh and by then a house had been built by the Duke of Cardigan and his family.

Bute Avenue
Bute House was the home of The Earl of Bute when he was Prime Minister. It was demolished in 1908. Bute Avenue used to run northwards to the house but has been cut off by modern development.

Church Lane
St.Peter's Church. This lies on a path leading from the main road, the Domesday Book records that there was then a church in the village.  In 1266 another was built of which some of the chancel remains. This was rebuilt in 1505 and added to in 1600. There were later 17th and 19th additions. The church was originally a chaplaincy of Kingston.
Churchyard.  The walled churchyard has some fine trees. Tombs include the simple grave of George Vancouver of the Royal Navy, who discovered the island off the west coast of Canada that is named after him. This is halfway along the south wall. Other tombs include that of Albert Henry Scott designed by his father George Gilbert Scott. The entrance to the churchyard has a metal arch with lamp erected in 1997.
Petersham Nurseries. This local garden centre was opened in part of the Petersham House grounds in the 1970's.  It was taken over by the Boglione family in the late 1990s who reopened it with a wider offer in 2004. It now includes a Michelin starred restaurant.

Drift Way
This path within Richmond Park runs east-west through Sidmouth Wood.

Hobart
A small playground is built into the communal space at the rear of Hobart Place where the ground opens out, giving space for gardens and added parking. This was part of the Richmond Parish Lands housing scheme off Queens Road

Nightingale Lane
This was originally a straight path down the hillside. In 1810 Richmond Vestry leased part of Hill Common to the then owner of Nightingale Cottage. This area is now the hotel car park and cannot be built on.
Petersham Hotel. The Hotel stands between the remains of Richmond Hill’s Common and Petersham Common. In 1639 was leased and by 1650 a cottage was built in the central section. It was rebuilt in the 1770’s and called Nightingale Cottage and later Ashburnham Lodge. In 1863 the Richmond Hill Hotel Company bought it and built a hotel here designed by John Giles with a tower, high pitched roofs and many balconies. The Portland stone staircase is said to be the tallest unsupported stone staircase in the country with ceiling paintings by Ferdinando Galli. In 1877 the name was changed to ‘The Mansion’ and in 1889 ‘The Mansion Hotel’. In 1922 it became the ‘New Star and Garter Hotel’.  In 1945 the Bank of England bought for a staff hostel calling it ‘Nightingale Hall’. In 1951 it reopened as ‘The Star and Garter Hotel’. In 1978 it was purchased by the Dare family and renamed ‘The Petersham Hotel’. An extension for a restaurant was built in 1957 and there have been further extensions since.


Petersham Common
Petersham Common.  This is land between Petersham Road and Star and Garter Lane. Originally part of the Ham House estate Lord Dysart tried to enclose it. This was opposed by the Commons Preservation, now Open Spaces, Society.the Earl of Davenport transferred the freehold of Petersham Common to Richmond Town Council in 1902 and specified that it be managed by Petersham Common Conservators, and this continues to be the case.

Petersham Meadows
The Meadows were part of the Ham House estate between the 17th and 19th. The land is let to a grazier who maintains a herd on the land which is now owned by the National Trust. At one time there were water meadows. Despite the concrete flood wall, the Thames is regularly allowed to flood these water meadows in the traditional way
Richmond Water Works. Petersham Well No.1 was situated in the north west corner of the meadows, near the river. It is said to have had a chlorination plant attached and pumping equipment.

Petersham Park
Petersham Park. This is a landscaped park on the western edge of Richmond Park. It was a private park from 1686 with a lodge built in 1692 along with formal gardens. In 1734 part of the park was merged in with Richmond Park and avenues of trees were planted. The rest became part of Richmond Park in 1834-35.
Petersham Lodge. In the 1630s when Richmond Park was created a manor house existed on the site which later became known as Petersham Lodge. It was used as a house for the park’s Deputy Keeper, Ludovic Carlell. The Countess of Dysart and her husband took it over when they became the joint Keepers.  In 1686 it was leased the Earl of Rochester. He demolished the lodge and built a new mansion called New Park.  This was burnt down in 1721, and replaced by a new Petersham Lodge for William, Earl of Harrington, later called Viscount Petersham in 1733. It was demolished in the 1830s, when the grounds became part of Richmond Park.
Petersham Gate Playground. This has a sandpit area, a bark pit with a climbing frame and jumping lily pads, an elephant piano, a see-saw, a water play feature and a timber pergola with seats.

Petersham Road
194 Fox and Duck. This was previously The Horse and Groom. The old wooden pub thought to date from the early 18th was demolished in 1940. It had been a staging post on the London to Guildford
road.  It was rebuilt on a slightly different site. There is a small Truman lantern featuring the brewery's 'eagle' trademark.
Petersham lockup. This is said to be the white-boarded, slate roofed building in the Fox and Duck car park. It dates from 1787.
The Russell School.  The school was founded in 1851 as a new village school by Prime Minister John Russell who lived in Pembroke Lodge. The Richmond Park site was given under a Royal Warrant for the education of the poor. In 1891 Russell's interest in the school site handed over to the British and Foreign School Society. In 1943 Petersham Russell Infant School was bombed and a new school needed to be built by Surrey County Council. The Russell School, which opened in 1980, therefore is now housed in the buildings of the Orchard Junior School which opened in 1952 and the new Petersham Russell Infant School built in 1954.
190 Avenue Lodge. One of the original lodges to Petersham Park. It dates from the 17th in plum brick.
188 Farm Lodge. One of the original lodges to Petersham Park. It is 17th but has been refaced in the 18th or 19th in yellow brick.  It had also has been extended at the back
186 Montrose House.  Early 18th brick house. It was built for Thomas Jenner, a Catholic judge. It is named for the Dowager Duchess of Montrose who lived there in the 19th.
184 Reston Lodge.  An early 19th front and cast-iron gates with thick ornament.
182 Lodge at what was the entrance to Bute House. All Saints Church was originally intended to be approached from here, via a driveway through the former grounds of Bute House
145 Rutland Lodge. Thus was built in 1666 for a Lord Mayor of London who was subsequently disgraced for misappropriating funds intended for the rebuilding of London after the Great Fire. The name relates to the Duchess of Rutland who lived here in the 1740s.  It was converted into flats after fire damage in 1967
135 Dysart. This was The Dysart Arms but it is now a very very posh restaurant. The building dates from 1904 in brewers’ Tudor. The oak bar said to have been installed in the 1850s from an 18th war ship. The name is that of the Dysart’s who owned Ham House. The original pub was in an old farmhouse dating from the late 17th. It was then called the Plough and Harrow which was demolished in 1902. Although this is now a posh restaurant the pole which the inn sign hung from is still standing in the street outside. There is also a cast iron 'No public right of way' sign with Hodgsons' Kingston Brewery Co.,Ltd.
Club house for the Ranelagh Harriers running club to the rear of the Dysart Arms.
Petersham Road Lodge. Grand entrance gate to the drive to Ham House with the Dysart Arms. This dates from 1900 and was designed by R D Oliver for the Dysart Family in red brick.  There is a stretch of stock brick walling attaching the gate piers to the gatehouse. The gate piers themselves are partly hidden in ivy.
Ham Polo Club. This is the last polo club in London
Petersham Farm Stables. Livery and riding about. The tenancy of Petersham Farm passed through many hands until 1880 when Mr Hornby and Mr Clarke founded the Hornby and Clarke dairy with milk from the Petersham herd. The lease later passed to Express Dairies and since. Then a series of private firms and individuals have tried to run a dairy herd here.
Petersham Common Woods. A broad leaved woodland, designated as a Site of Metropolitan importance for Nature Conservation. The site links Richmond Park and the Thames. It is owned by Richmond Council and managed by the Petersham Common Conservators
Rose of York. This pub and hotel is in what were the stables of the Petersham Hotel. It was previously called Tudor Close.
146  Langham Lodge

Queen's Road
Wesleyan College. Methodist College to train missionaries. This opened in 1843. It replaced Hoxton Theological College.  Thomas Jackson was the first theological tutor and one of Methodism's greatest scholars. Dr. W.F. Moulton served here for fifteen years. Institute for Foreign study.  It was the Wesleyan Theological Institute 1841-3 and throughout its history it had a special link with overseas missions, and its students include Josiah Hudson, William Goudie and William H. Findlay of India and David Hill of China. Dr.J. Parkes Cadman crossed the Atlantic to become a well-known figure in American Methodism.   Later known as the Richmond College, it became part of London University, whose degrees it awarded until 1971. In 1972, it became Richmond College, an independent, international, non-for-profit, liberal arts college. Now it is Richmond University, The American International University in London.  The original building was by Andrew Trimmer in Bath stone. It is said to be surrounded by rare trees planted by the previous owner of the site. The library was added by Maufe in 1931.  From 1868 the Missionary Society owned the college but from 1885 it trained young men to serve the Methodist Church at home or abroad. In 1902 it was recognised by London University. During the Second World War, it was an administrative centre for the University and it suffered bomb damage in 1940.  It closed for lack of students in 1970. It is an American international university and the original chapel is now used as a theatre. The original entrance was in Friars Style Road but it was moved to Queens Road when the Vineyard School was built.
Lass of Richmond Hill. Young’s pub dating from at least the 1860s. Named for the 18th popular song, which is supposed to be about the Yorkshire Richmond.

Richmond Hill
132 Terrace Cottage. This was once the cottage for the pub, and was probably altered around 1840.
138 Richmond Hill. This house, on the site of an earlier home of William Hickey was rebuilt in 1769 for Christopher Blanchard, Master of the Company of Playing Card Manufacturers and King George III’s card-maker. It is believed the architect may have been Robert Taylor,
142 Doughty House. 18th house. In 1769, the Cook family added an art gallery behind the house. It is named now for Elizabeth Doughty who funded St.Elizabeth's church
The Wick.  This is in the corner of Nightingale Lane. Late 18th house on the site of the Bull's Head Inn designed by architect Robert Mylne for Lady St. Aubyn. The there is an iron lamp-holder at the front.  It has a basement in which there reputedly is a recording studio - it has been the home of musician, currently Pete Townsend.  Past occupants have included the actor John Mills.
Wick House. Designed by Sir William Chambers and Built in 1772 as a weekend home for Joshua Reynolds. It became a hotel in 1916 and later used as an annex to the Richmond Hill Hotel. It was occupied by the army in the Second World War and then bought as a nurses' home for the Star and Garter home.   It is now a private house
144-150 The Richmond Hill Hotel.  This is made up of a number of properties, first built in 1726.  In 1875 it was the Queen's Hotel and later the Richmond Hill Hotel in 1913, which took over Mansfield Place.
Metcalfe’s Hydro. Hotel present in 1910 which used water therapy.
152-158 Richmond Gate Hotel.  This was previously the Morshead Hotel.  The site also includes, Crawford Cottage and Syon House. In the 1960s the hotel was extended to occupy all these properties, with new building and a conference centre.
Star and Garter Home. The modern equivalent of the hospitals at Greenwich and Chelsea for invalid and incurable servicemen. It was named after its predecessor on the site, the Star and Garter Hotel.  The current building is 1921-4 by Sir Edwin Cooper which he designed free of charge with money from Women of the Empire.  It was built by Mowlem’s. There is a marble Memorial Hall. It was opened in 1924.  In 2008 the governors thought that it no longer suited their needs/
Star and Garter Hotel had begun as a small tavern in 1738 and was enlarged until it was a substantial hotel in the early 19th.  The site was originally leased from the Earl of Dysart and named for his membership of the order of the Star and Garter.  It became one of the most famous luxury hotels in the country. Charles Dickens held an annual private dinner here to celebrate his wedding anniversary. It closed in 1906. In 1915 the Auctioneers and Estate Agents Institute of the UK raised the money to buy it and give it to Queen Mary. She gave it to the Red Cross to open a permanent hospital for seriously disabled young men returning from the Great War.  It was unsuitable for wards, and thus rebuilt.
Ancaster House. This is by the park gate. Built in 1772, the house has been attributed to Adam. Latterly it has been the home of the Commandant of the Star and Garter Homes.

Richmond Park
In the 14th was part of the Manor of Sheen and a royal palace was built here. Kings and Queens hunted in the area and under Charles I this was created as a new park – but the public could access it via ladder stiles. Under the Commonwealth the park was given to the City of London. Under George II aristocrats were appointed as Ranger of the Park. It was cleared and drained but a long dispute began about the ladderstiles. Lodges and gates were rejected and eventually public access was easier. In the late 18th three were new plantations and it ceased to be designed for hunting. In 1851 Parliament secured full public access and after the Great War the deer returned and sports facilities set up. It is now managed by the Royal Parks Agency and is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a National Nature Reserve in 2000.
Richmond Gate. The main entrance to Richmond Park from Richmond Hill. This was set up in 1798 and widened in 1896. There are wrought iron gates with the two central gate piers showing the initials GR and CR (for George and Charlotte) painted in gold. The two piers to either side have the date the gates were erected, 1798, in Roman numerals (MDCC and XCVIII).
Richmond Gate Lodge. Built in 1798. Attributed to John Soane, King's Deputy Surveyor of Woods and Forests.
Holly Lodge. Cooper's Lodge was built in 1735 on the site of Hill Farm. It was later known as Lucas's Lodge and as Bog Lodge.  It was renamed Holly Lodge in 1993 and became a base for the Metropolitan Police's Royal Parks Operational Command Unit. There is a game larder in its courtyard, built in 1735.   It is now the Holly Lodge Centre which was founded in 1994 as part of the Royal Parks education programme.  The Centre officially opened on 23 February 1994, but has since become an independent charity. There is also a livery in six old police horse stables there. At the rear is a line of trees said to be 700 years old.
Pembroke Lodge.  This is an 18trh mansion with eleven acres of beautifully landscaped grounds. It was the home of Prime Minister John Russell and the childhood home of Bertrand Russell. It was the regimental headquarters of the Phantom Squad in the Second World War. It is part of the Crown Estate used as a catering, conference and wedding venue as well as tea rooms
Henry VIII mound.  This is now in the grounds of Pembroke House. Henry VII is said to have wanted it built so he could watch the game being driven past and it is the highest point in the park. It is said that Henry VIII stood here in 1536 waiting to see a rocket fired from the Tower of London to announce that his second wife, Ann Boleyn, had been successfully beheaded. – But this is not true because he was in Wiltshire. On the Kingtston Zodiac it is on Sagittarius.  It is thought it may date from the Bronze Age and was afterwards used a as viewpoint for hunting and falconry.
Memorial to Ian Dury. This is a memorial bench sponsored by Warner Chappell Music in Poet’s Corner, Pembroke Lodge. It was designed by Mil Stricevic to enable people to listen to the music of Ian whilst enjoying park views. The back of the bench is inscribed with: Reasons to be cheerful, - he title of one of Dury's songs
Memorial to the poet James Thomson. This is a board with a poem about Thomson by the writer and historian John Heneage Jesse.
Petersham Gate - the entry to the park from Petersham Road
Sidmouth Woods. A path runs through the woods which are protected by a deer proof fence.
'The Way' - St Paul's Cathedral Tercentenary Gates. New gates, which can be viewed through the King Henry's Mound telescope, have been installed on the edge of Sidmouth Woods to mark the tercentenary of St Paul's Cathedral. They are by Joshua De Lisle
Bishops Pond. Which has a resident heron
Conduit Wood. Site of White Conduit. Earliest of the conduit houses built to serve Richmond Palace after the fire of 1499. The Red Conduit and the Petersham Conduit are now gone.
Kidney Wood so called from its shape.
South African War Hospital. In the Great War this was built between Bishops’ Lodge and Conduit Wood.  In 1914, a group of South Africans living in London formed a Committee to und hospital which was eventually built here.  They also supported the hospital with comforts and eventually extensions. There were also occupational and vocational work projects. By 1917 there were 620 beds and in 1918 it amalgamated with the Richmond Military Hospital. The Hospital closed in 1921 and was demolished in 1925. 

Terrace Field
From the early 17th there were brickworks in this area. When they closed in 1767 some acres of grazed meadow were given as royal bounty, and were called Terrace Field.  The park consists of a steep meadow, cut for hay in the late summer to allow the Six Spot Burnet Moth to complete its breeding cycle.  Some sections of the 19th brick walls which divided the former private estates remain: one on the east part of the boundary with Terrace Gardens. There are sets if unusual acorn head bollards here.

Terrace Gardens
This square covers only a brief southern strip of these gardens, built on 17th brickworks.
Three Pigeons Gate – gate into the park from Petersham Road. Late 18th or early 19th brick gate piers with ball finials. It is opposite the former Three Pigeons Inn.
Conservatory with a small service yard behind. This replaces a series of earlier conservatries. In the present buildings back wall is a carved stone relief of Adam and Eve, plus apple tree and snake. This is said to be have come from the Landsdowne estate.
Field Gate. This leads into Terrace Field. Ire is a 19th iron gate within an arch in the brick wall,
Wilderness Garden. This is in the west corner of the park and it is a series of paths and steps, lined in brick and stone, with some possible fabricated stone running through a densely shrubbed and wooded area down the slope from the southernmost end of the Terrace Gardens. These date from at least before the 1860s



Sources
Bollards of London. Web site
Brewery History Society. Web site.
Clunn. The Face of London
English Heritage Web site
Hearsum collection. Web site
Kingston Zodiac,
London Encyclopaedia
London Gardens Online. Web site
London Transport. Country walks
Panorama of the Thames. Web site
Parker. North Surrey Parker, 
Pastscape. Web site
Penguin. Surrey
Petersham Hotel. Web site
Petersham Nurseries. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. South London,
Pevsner. Surrey 
Port of London Magazine
St. Peter’s Church. Web site
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group. Report
Wikipedia. As appropriate