Thursday, 1 October 2015

Riverside, south bank east of the Tower. Ingress Abbey

Riverside – south bank east of the Tower. Ingress Abbey
Riverside modern housing estate surrounding a mansion with a garden full of follies

Post to the north West Thurrock
Post to the south Knockhall

Broadness Salt Marsh
Black Duck Marsh
Bell wharf   19th cement export.  This is the length of wharf that is attached to the land for its full length. It appears to have been built for White’s Swanscombe works which dated from 1825 and at some time a railway was built from here to a jetty in the marsh.
The Channel Tunnel Rail Link passes under here.

Capability Road
The Monks Well. This is in woodland to the south of the road. It is a Garden structure with a well house from the   18th. It has a flint wall with an arch leading to a tunnel and a semicircular chamber with a well shaft. The Ingress Abbey follies are home to three species of protected bats.- they are Pipistrelle, Daubenton, and Brown Long Eared Bat. These sleep in the crevices between the chalk and the flint. It has been refurbished by Crest. It has expansive views across the Cliff Park. There have been reports of a bluish light coming from inside and a low moaning sound like chanting or praying.
Lovers Arch. This is in woodland to the south of the road at the top of a path which goes nowhere. . It is an 18th garden folly of a flint four-centred arch which originally had a wooden seat. It has been refurbished by Crest

Ingress Abbey
Ingress was a manor in Greenhithe. In 1363, it was given to the Dartford Priory by Edward III. At the Dissolution the estate was confiscated and eventually rebuilt under Henry VIII; it was later passed, with the priory to Anne of Cleves. Under Elizabeth it was given to Edward Darbyshire and John Bere. It then passed through a number of hands until 1760 when it became the property of John Calcraft.  In 1820James Harmer bought the site and built the house which currently stands. Harmer's descendants sold off a large part of the grounds to the Empire Paper Mills.
Ingress Abbey. The current building is probably the fifth house on the site, and was built in 1833 for Alderman James Harmer in Tudor Gothic style by architect Charles Moreing. It is said to have been built of stone from Old London Bridge. It is round three sides of a square with the front facing the river. There is a 19th conservatory at the back and a big heraldic beast above the front.  In 1920 APCM sold the house and grounds to the Incorporated Thames Nautical Training College, H.M.S. Worcester. The College closed in 1968 and became the Merchant Navy College which closed in 1988 and in 1995 most of the land was sold to Crest Nicholson for housing who restored the house. In 1001 Pandora International Ltd purchased Ingress Abbey for their Headquarters.
Ingress Abbey V.A.D. Hospital. In 1917 Ingress Abbey was lent by APCM as an annexe to Rosherville Hospital.  It was equipped by H. Osborne O'Hagan, a Director of the company. It was later affiliated with Chatham Military Hospital, Fort Pitt.  It had a Medical Officer, a Matron, 6 nurses and members of the Kent V.A.D. It closed in 1918.
Stable block. This is east of Ingress Abbey and dated as 1833.
Empire Paper Mills.  In 1905 The Wall Papers Manufacturers’ Association purchased 23 acres of the estate for their factory. This were originally known as the Ingress Abbey Paper Mills, described as wallpaper manufacturers for Darwen based Potter & Branch Co., and date from 1906 and 1908, and used a raft of Blue Gum tree piles as a foundation. The original plant was said to be developed from modified American practice.  The plant included 3 Raw Material Warehouses - Esparto, Rag and Paper and the Wood Pulp -on a foreshore embankment placed so that raw materials were stored in direct line from wharf to mill. These were all keyed in to a system of conveyors. There was a power plant with coal handling equipment and a chimney, of 255 ft. steam engines drove the Paper Machines. Including a Corliss type, horizontal cross compound condensing engine driving the line shafting. In the Engine House were two 400 K. W. generating units. There was also a Preparatory Department. Esparto, Bleach, and Rotary Buildings, plus the Causicizing and Recovery Building Evaporating Room and Colour Room, a Beater Building and Wood Pulp Warehouse. There were five bleach towers for esparto and four for chemical fibre. There were also maintenance sections - Smithy and Machine and other similar shops including The Chemical and Physical Laboratories and office facilities. Later a Paper store was later built at the south end of the site near London Road. In the Second World War, including the recycling of banknotes to make toilet paperIt became part of the Reed Group in the early 1950s where they made paper for newsprint and wood free papers and there were rail connections to the main line. The mill continued until the 1980s and the associated railway closed in 1988.
Ingress Abbey wharf. There are ancient landing rights here. A jetty was built for Empire Paper Mills when the mill opened and this area is now being built on as part of the current housing development. Originally it was built as an integral part of the new mill.-It was 625’ long by 32' wide and connected to the shore by three approaches. It extended out into the river 411' ft with a depth of water to allow vessels to come alongside at the lowest. It included a large travelling transporter tower with electrically driven hoists and winches to load vessels and an electrically driven endless cable railway to transport raw materials to warehouses. Coal transshipment was in a different area with a different system to minimise contamination by coal dust. Barges and other small craft were also handled with a special crane and other equipment
The works’ railway system extended the entire length of the wharf, using the works' locomotives. In 1908 this was connected to the South East and Chatham Railway east of Greenhithe Station. It appears that the line to the works ran north eastwards and through the park in front of Ingress Abbey,

Ingress Park Avenue
This is the spine road through the new estate

Lovers Lane
Ha Ha. In the lane are the remains of an 18th Ha-Ha from the time of e mansion house that preceded the current Ingress Abbey. Maps of the mid 19th show Lovers Lane on an embankment and appearing turning at a bridge.
Boundary stone. This is either a boundary marker for the 1833 Ingress estate or maybe a parish boundary stone between Greenhithe and Swanscombe. It is a square stone with B inscribed on one side and I on the other
Folly bridge. This has two arches, the eastern arch larger and the western a smaller. Both arches have flint walls
Lovers Lane pit – this is an old chalk pit to the east of the southern end of Lovers Lane.
Park Cliff Cottages. These were at the northern end of the lane
Barge Yard. This dated from the late 1890s and was on the site of part of the later Empire Paper Mills Wharf at the end of Lovers Lane.

Palladian Circus
Modern housing around a central mound.
Tudor Mound with Hermit's cave. This had once been assumed to have been established during the 16th century, but there is no evidence of its date. It now has a spiral walk up to the top where there appears to be a spire. There is said to be a small flint grotto buried somewhere near the top.

Memorial to the Incorporated Thames Nautical Training College, H.M.S. Worcester, on the river bank.  Seats and circular mosaic design at the end of The Boulevard.
Chichester and Arethusa. In 1866, Lord Shaftesbury, promoted the idea of a naval training ship for homeless boys in London and persuaded the Admiralty to loan a redundant 50-gun frigate. It was moored on the Thames off Greenhithe. And managed by the Committee of the National Refuges for Homeless and Destitute Children. In 1873, following a donation from Angela Burdett-Coutts towards, a second ship was established, the Arethusa.  The increase in the use of steam power led to a fall in demand for naval crews and it was decided in 1889 to replace the Chichester. By the late 1920s, the Arethusa in a poor state and was told to leave Greenhithe by the Port of London Authority. In 1932 it was replaced by the Peking with a new mooring at Lower Upnor

Swanscombe Cement Works
A small part of the Swanscombe cement works
is on the eastern edge of the square.
Thames Nautical Training College H.M. S. Worcester
The Thames Nautical Training College for over a hundred years used ships named HMS Worcester. London ship-owners and insurance owners subscribed to the institution to train officers for a seagoing career. The Admiralty loaned a frigate H.M.S. Worcester and it opened in 1862 moving to Greenhithe in 1871. A series of other boats were used and renamed Worcester, The Cutty Sark was also used here during the Second World War. In 1968 Worcester became redundant and was sold to be broken up in Belgium in 1978 and the college used Ingress Abbey. This closed and the land wad sold to Crest Nicholson in 1995.

Baldwin. The River and the Downs
British Listed Buildings. Web ste
Bygone Kent
Children’s Homes. Web site
Gravesend History Society transactions
Lost Hospitals. Web site
Penguin Kent,
Pevsner and Cherry, West Kent
Wheatley and Meulenkamp. Follies

Monday, 7 September 2015

Riverside - south bank east of the Tower. Broadness

Riverside south of the river and east of the Tower  Broadness

A stretch of open marshland containing some useful instrumentation and an isolated community of boats and sheds,  It is however about to become Disneyland (honest!)

Post to the east Northfleet terminal
Post to the north Grays
Post to the west West Thurrock Terminal

Broad Ness Lighthouse. This is to guide vessels from St. Clement's Reach into Northfleet Hope and is 23 miles from London Bridge. It was established in 1885 but the current tower was erected in 1975 and converted to electricity in 1981. It is 43 feet high with a light visible for 12 miles,
Navigation beacon on a buoy near to the northern tip of the Swanscombe Peninsula. The beacon emits light and radio waves to vessels using the river to assist with navigation.

Broadness Creek
Broadness Creek is a tidal inlet full of moorings, old boats, jetties and semi-permanent buildings .
It is the outfall of a number of streams, ditches and dykes through the marshland
Wooden stake and brushwood trackway on foreshore near the mouth of Broadness Creek . This may be prehistoric. Erosion of the foreshore on which the trackway lay showed a layer of flint
Anti-tank blocks. There is a possible Second World War tank trap, made up of 24 large concrete blocks in the river channel

Broadness salt marsh,
This area of marshland is said to be reclaimed land which has had extensive tipping from the cement and the waste industries,
Ferry from West Thurrock.  It is not known where on the Broadness peninsula that the ferry ran to – the point itself seems unlikely given the distance and difficulty of travelling from there.  The site of Bell Wharf may be a good alternative site and several footpaths converge there.
White’s Jetty. White’s Swanscombe works dated from 1825 and at some time a railway was built from here to a jetty in the marsh. Clearly the semi derelict jetty with an arm extending into the river and with rail line embedded in it is more modern and has been rebuilt.  It is however known that the railway line was very early
Radar Scanner – this is a navigational aid belonging to the Port of London Authority
Pylon. This 670 foot tower carries power lines across the river, linking with another on the north bank.  They date from the mid 1960s and are probably the tallest electricity pylons in the UK
Broadness weather station. This belongs to the Port of London Authority and monitors temperature and other weather conditions. It includes an anemometer.

Dartford Council. Web site
London Paramount. Web site
Stoyel and Kidner. The Cement Railways of Kent
Swanscombe Project., Web site
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames
Where Thames Smooth Waters Glide. Web site

Sunday, 6 September 2015

Riverside - south bank east of the Tower. Northfleet Terminal

Riverside – south of the river, east of the tower. Northfleet Terminal

Marshland with one path going to a riverside wharf and a vast aggregates site

Post to the south Botany Marshes
Post to the east North End of Tilbury Dock
Post to the north Grays
Post to the west Broadness

Botany Manor Way
Northfleet Terminal. This discharges with a ship to shore pipe. It handles Sea-Dredged Aggregates. Sand and gravel discharges and processing with conveyor loading of all suitable materials for home or export. This is operated by Cemex. This is a very large building and aggregates company and this is one of very many sites which they operate

PLA Web site

Riverside - south bank east of the Tower. Botany Marshes

Riverside south bank east of the Tower.  Botany Marshes

What was once marshland with many many old and new industrial sites.  Somewhere hidden here is a theatre, with little information and or signage

Post to the south Stonebridge
Post to the east Tilbury Ness
Post to the north Northfleet Terminal

Lower Road
London Bus Company. Depot. They claim to be the leading supplier of vintage buses, operating the largest fleet in the country, offering classic red and green Routemaster buses, single deckers and open top vehicles. Amazing collection of buses.
Britannia House. Old Metal Refinery Studio Theatre. This is part of Walk Tall.  This is a therapeutic organisation and drama school.

Manor (Botany Road) Way
Britannia Metal Refiners. This company are refiners of lead and silver and have been in business since the 1950s.  They are now part of the Swiss based Xstra group.
Britannia Cement Works. This was Macevoy and Henry Holt's works which was built in the 1870s. They became a member of Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers in 1900.  It shut in 1902.
Britannia Terminal. Operated by Mowlem and handles plant and machinery
Tower Wharf. Seacon Terminals Ltd.  Tower Wharf. The wharf has two Berths one of which is covered. There are three 40-tonne gantry cranes operating on covered berth  and two 20-tonne harbour cranes on the main jetty as well as mobile cranes up to 500-tonnes. They have 32,700 square metres of covered storage space on a 22 acre site plus a temperature controlled warehouse for sensitive products. This is owned bit Seacon, a private company owned by the Roth family.  It Was Founded in 1955 as Sea & Continental Waterways Transport Ltd, Seacon
Northfleet Coal and Ballast Co. It is thought that they first opened the wharf in 1868. They dealt in coal, and later chalk,  transhipment. They eventually transferred to Thurrock
Kent Deep Water Wharf Co.  Which became Northfleet Deep Water Wharf Co. dealing with traffic from New Northfleet Paper Mills Ltd.  A new locomotive shed was opened in 19563.
Tower Portland Cement works. This was from 1873 to1880 Goreham, from 1881 to-1900 Tower Portland Cement Co. Ltd and then 1900 APCM (Blue Circle). It was otherwise known as Butchard’s Works. There were six chamber kilns in 1890 Increased later to sixteen. The plant used water transport, although a rail link was later made.
A railway came from this site and passed under Lower Road with a loop to the South Eastern Railway line
Northfleet industrial estate. Trading and light industry stretching to the west of this square
Reservoir – this lies at the back of the north of the estate
Barney Sands. The firm dates to 1939, when three friends, Ron Barney, Roy Sands, and Peter Hartridge made up a company name from their surnames and opened a firm as coachbuilders in Maidstone. In 1946 they moved to Northfleet and in 1976 the firm was bought by West Brothers. They moved into crash repair due to growing demand. In 1986 the Company moved to Northfleet Industrial Estate.

Barney Sands. Web page
Britannia Metal. Web page
Cement Kilns. Web site
Port of London Authority. Web site
Stoyel and Kidner. The Cement Railways of Kent
Walk Tall Facebook page

Friday, 4 September 2015

Riverside - south bank east of the Tower. Northfleet

Riverside – south bank east of the Tower. Northfleet

A strip of an old village and industrial suburb surrounded by deep chalk workings and riverside dereliction - the biggest cement works in the world demolished less than thirty years after it opened ending cement manufacture in the area where it was developed. The Kimberley Clark tissue mill keeps the paper making tradition alive.  Northfleet remains, with the most respectable local pub recommended as 'a good place to go if you want a punch-up' - however, and amazingly, it has the two most important churches in Gravesend, right next door to each other.

Post to the east Rosherville
Post to the north Tilbury Ness
Post to the west Stonebridge
Post to the south Springhead Road

Church Path
St Botolph's National School was on this path behind the church. It opened, in 1838 with the infants’ school following in 1869.  In 1936 it became a Primary (Mixed) School and in the 1980s the  school moved to a different site in Dover Road.
Vicarage. This was built on the site of the school in the 1970s

Council Avenue
26/27 St Peter’s Nursing Home.  This was Northfleet House built by Thomas Sturge for himself with his sister Esther. Later occupied by Alfred Tolhurst, who had entrance gates with polished whale harpoons on them.  Became offices and Town Hall for Northfleet Urban District Council. It is now a nursing home.
Council houses. In the grounds of Northfleet House the first council houses in Northfleet were built in 1926.

Crete Hall Road
This area of Northfleet between the London Road and the river had been acquired by members of the Calcraft family in the early 19th. A description of the site from 1818 says that 17 lime kilns were burning here on land rented from John Calcraft.
Pitcher Shipyard. The area between the road and the river was the site of Pitcher's dockyard. It was laid out by Thomas Pitcher in 1788 on ground levelled as a result of chalk workings. The first launch, that of The Royal Charlotte 123 tons took place on 2 November 1789. In 1813 the Russian fleet was refitted in this yard. The yard was closed in 1825, but re-opened by William and Henry Pitcher, sons of the founder, in 1839, and became one of the largest yards on the river. For some years steamships were built here for the Royal Mail Packet Co., as well as for the government during the Crimean War. The yard finally closed in 1861. A scheme for much larger docks, including a dock large enough to take the Great Eastern was featured in the Illustrated London News in April 1859, but nothing came of it. Largest dock of 500 ft x 74ft and could take Brunel’s Great Western.  Ultimately however the yard was too far from the new engine builders and had no engine maintenance facilities. They also lacked some of the skills as iron hulls became more usual. Mare ran the yard for the Receiver
Northfleet Castle.  Pitcher built a castellated house and gate using material from Old London Bridge. It was a feature of the waterside and was used as offices by Bowater’s in 1926. It was demolished in 1934 although some walls remained.  Illustrations also show an area surrounded by a castellated wall to the east of the gateway and grand buildings facing the river.
Bowater’s Thames Paper Mills, The Company was founded by William Bowater who was a City paper wholesaler. Their first paper manufacturing site was at Northfleet in 1914 but because of the war and design flaws it did not open until 1925. The firm was then led by Eric Bowater and following a deal with Rothermere the firm expanded and opened other mills. By the end of 1930 the output of Bowater's mills was 22 percent of the UK's total output, soon it was 60 percent and they had become the largest newsprint undertaking in Europe and were expanding worldwide. During the Second World War the Northfleet mill closed down completely. But after the war they became the Bowater Paper Corporation and by the mid-1950s were the largest producer of newsprint in the world. They then began to move into tissue production as Bowater-Scott Corporation, with the Scott Paper Company of Philadelphia and a new tissue mill was built at Northfleet designed by Farmer and Dark in 1956.  Expansion world wide continued. After Eric Bowater died over capacity in U.K. newsprint was tackled by the conversion of machines to other types of paper making, and eventually by closures, including Northfleet paper mill in 1973. 
Kimberley Clark Tissue Mill. In 1986, Bowater sold Bowater-Scott to Scott Paper, and in 1995, the US giant Kimberly-Clark purchased them. The Northfleet site continues to manufacture Andrex bathroom tissue
Water tower. Designed by Farmer and Dark and built in 1957. For this they won the Royal Society of British Architects Bronze Medal for 1956-59. The contractors were Higgs and Hill. Said to be still in use despite apparent poor current state.
Caley Bank. Until 1955 there was a column of chalk and clay some 80 feet in height, which had been left by the early chalk diggers. When the dockyard was in operation a flagstaff stood on the top and small cannon which was fired when launches took place. It was demolished by Bowater’s to make space for new buildings but one of the Kimberley Clark buildings is ‘Callybank House’.
Northfleet Thames Terminal. Owned by Kimberley Clark. This is a Deep Water Jetty with a barge bay and an open storage area. It has approval for forest products and is used by Kimberley Clark and customers.

Dock Row
Dock Row originally ran from the site of the Crete Hall roundabout north towards the river. The first houses here were built in about 1789/90 by Thomas Pitcher as accommodation for the workers in his ship yard. The row included the Royal Charlotte inn, and it was later extended. The houses were demolished in the 1930's.
Weslyan Chapel
29 Royal Charlotte Inn. This pub was named after first East Indiamen built by Pitcher. An annual fair and sports known as Royal Charlotte Fair were held here in the 1830s. A new inn, also called the Royal Charlotte was added at the end of the row in 1830/35., but the pub remained until the 1950's

Dover Road
Ye Olde Leather Bottle. Said to be a ghost in the bar every night. The first record of this pub is 1706.  It has acted as a local landmark – where the trams, or whatever, start and finish.

Granby Road
For most of the length of the road this is a footpath only with barriers at either end.
Gay & Blackman brickworks. Northfleet brickfield which in the 1870s was worked by Messrs. Gay and Blackman. It later belonged to George Austin and had a small wharf at the foot of Granby Road.
Engine House. At the bottom of the road was a building called the Mill House. Demolished in 1954, it was apparently erected as an engine house for a stationary engine used to haul trucks.
Tunnel under the road. This runs under from the cement factory site to the 19th shooting range. It has a high flint wall to stabilise the cliff and prevent chalk falls. It is also usually high inside because it was extended down as the pit was dug deeper.

High Street
From the 16th, this was known as Bow Street,
Vineyard Pit. To the west of St. Botolph's Church there was at one time a cherry orchard called 'Vineyard Field', and it is said that the Archbishop of Canterbury had a vineyard here in the 14th.
Church Path Pit. This pit was dug on the site in the 1860s.  An electronic substation was later installed in it. When the new cement works was built in 1968 a rail connection went through to the works via this pit and new tunnels dug under the main road and a double-track loop line laid.
1-2 Granby Place. These houses date from about 1830.  They are on the site of Northfleet's Manor House.  Granby Place was built as two houses but for a while it was used as one.
Northfleet Manor House which stood behind a high wall.  There was originally also a tithe barn and a farm hare, the manor house was used by archbishops for overnight stays. The earliest known date for it is 1726 and in the late 18th it was used as a school. In 1819 it became the Northfleet workhouse until that was moved to Strood in 1836.  It later again became a school and then a private asylum.  It seems to have gone out of use in the 1880s and demolished in 1909. The garden became part of the churchyard
Car repair garage. Part of the wall between the garage and the old vicarage grounds is mediaeval and is the surviving wall of the manor farm
The vicarage. The building was not lived in and neglected in the 17th and 18th and replaced in 1834. This was demolished in 1961 and relocated elsewhere.
Bow House, this was the south side of the road in the early 19th opposite the present site of the Factory Hall. It was intended as a bazaar, but because it was never finished was known locally as a Folly. It was eventually demolished and the land added to the grounds of Northfleet House by Thomas Sturge.
Lawn House or Northfleet Lodge was built on the corner of Lawn Road and High Street in the early 19th. It was later used for Mechanics Institute meetings and social events. Northfleet Local Board used it from 1876 for their monthly meetings. It was demolished in 1900.
Den's Diner. On the Lawn Road corner. Open air eating.
Edinburgh Castle pub. On the other corner of Lawn Road, probably dates from the 1870s. Probably still open.
Cinema. The Astoria Cinema opened in 1929, replacing the Northfleet Cinema which dated from 1912. And which had closed the previous day. The Astoria Cinema, was run by Lion Cinematograph Ltd.  It had a dance hall and caf√©. The building ran parallel because otherwise it would have fallen into the pit to the rear. By 1936 it had been re-named Strathconia Cinema, and in 1940 it was re-named Star Cinema, and was soon after it was re-named Wardona Cinema. This closed in 1957. The Astoria Dance Hall continued until around 1960 run as a dance school by Miss Marjorie Shade. The building was demolished and there is now a petrol station there, the Astoria garage
Factory Hall. Once called the Blue Circle Club and most recently called Portlands.  It was opened in 1878 and built at the expense of Thomas Bevan by architects Parr and Strong for Bevan's eldest son, Robert's, coming of age. Before 1945, the club was open to all members of the public and was a cultural centre for Northfleet. The building has a grand frontage and the roof lies behind a tall, elaborately decorated parapet with a central coat of arms. It also has early examples of Portland cement decoration. It had two halls, games room, sports facilities, a library and the headquarters of the Northfleet Choral Society plus numerous other local societies were all accommodated. Outside were a bowling green and an outdoor swimming pool opened in 1907. The pool was on the site of the current car park
Lawn Schools.  The Northfleet Primary School or Lawn Road School was the first Board School built in Northfleet. Within two months of the first meeting of the School Board in 1884 they had purchased land between Lawn and Factory Roads, including the sites of the King's Head and Marquis of Granby. Lawn Road School opened in 1886 designed by James Walford in 1893. New buildings included a clock tower - the first public clock in Northfleet – it was demolished following damage in the 1987 storm. There is a plaque to ex-pupil Ted Ditchburn who played football for England
90 Kings Head Pub. This dated from 1710 and was demolished in 1885 for school building.

Lawn Road
Sure Start Centre. Little Gems
31 Dorset Arms. This pub opened in 1851 and closed in 1952.
Flint retaining wall to hold the houses with tunnels built into then.  There are about 30.some are modern and the earlier ones have had many uses.

London Road
1 Library. The building, now flats, was a public library run by Kent County Council. Earlier there had been a sawpit and carpenter's yard in the field here. The building has a perimeter flint wall with a blocked older gateway – which was presumably a garden entrance.
Northfleet County Youth Club. This was in the house next to the Library from the late 1940's to the 1970's. It was originally for boys, but in 1956-1957 it was opened to girls.
Viewing platform on the north side of the road overlooking the river
Electricity junction box cabinet from the early 20th stands on the corner with The Hill.

The Hill
This area is the historic centre of Northfleet with the church and the village green,
Toll Gate. This would have stood roughly where Church Path leaves to the south. It was set up by the Turnpike Trust in 1860 as an additional gate to try to increase the tolls for the road which had been falling since the opening of the railway. The gate was financially successful, but only lasted until 1871 when the Trust was wound up. It was on the site of the village stocks and parish pound
Village pound and stocks. These would have stood in front of the Catholic Church
Northfleet Horse Tram depot. Catholic Church was built on its site. This dated from 1881. The line was extended in 1889 to Huggen's College in 1889 when there were 5 trams and 14 horses operating a half-hourly service on a single track line. It was followed by a short experimental electric line which also ran from the Leather Bottle to Huggins College in early 1889 built by Brush. Two cars were built and the system was electrically arranged to operate in series, as opposed to the parallel method that became normal. There seems to be some doubt as to whether this was ever a true public service since it had ceased by late 1890. The tramway was taken over by the Gravesend and Northfleet Electric Tramways Ltd. in 1901 with a new depot in Old Dover Road.
Our Lady of Assumption. Roman Catholic Church.  Dramatic building a bleak brown brick monolith known locally as ‘the square church’. It replaced Our Immaculate Mother & St Joseph in Rose Street.  It was built in 1914 on the site of the horse tram depot as a memorial to Alfred Tolhurst, solicitor and cement manufacturer. The architect was Giles Gilbert Scott, and the builder was J. B Lingham who lived locally. It is seen as an important building foreshadowing some of Scott’s more famous works – Bankside Power Station/Tate Modern in particular.
Wooden staircase. This was on the other sides of the road to the church leading down to the Volunteers Rifle Brigade practise grounds.
5-6 Alma Cottages built about 1860 and replacing weatherboarded buildings.
7 in the 19th this was a butchers shop with a slaughterhouse to the rear.
14-15 Dove. This was burnt down in 1906
Village Green. This is the area now used as a car park which between the wars was a site for the War Memorial. In the north west corner was a well. Fairs were held here until the early 19th. There was also a wooden weighbridge here for cattle to be taken through the tollgate.
War Memorial, This was erected on the green in 1923 surrounded by railings. It has now been moved to near the lych gate
Northfleet Veterans club. The club is used by the council for voluntary service as well as many local organsiations.
25 Coach and Horses –This is said to date from 1572 and together with the shop next door made up a house, It was known as the Three Horse Shoes 1686 - 1764
Car Park. This is on the area of what was the council yard and fire station
Pit. The pit to the west of the church was at one time a cherry orchard and a field here was called Vineyard Field, a reminder that the Archbishop of Canterbury had a vineyard at North fleet in the 14th century
Forge. This is where horses were shod until the 1930s.  It was on the north side of the road east of Granby Road
St Botolph’s. This is a big church on a Saxon foundation and there is Roman material in the walls. Its massive Norman tower collapsed in 1628 – it was built without proper foundations - and a new one was built using the original material and has eight bells. The church is a virtually complete structure of the early 14th on an impressive scale. There were 13 ancient brasses although only three are left. There is however a model of the Royal Charlotte.
Churchyard. There is an obelisk to almshouse builder Huggins. Ship builder William Pitcher is buried in the northwest corner.
39 Queen's Head was The Crown which dated from 1626 and had extensive grounds with a bowling green to the rear. It was burnt down in 1830 and rebuilt and rebuilt again in 1909.
31 The Heritage. This is thought to be the oldest house now standing here which was formerly the White Hart, later called the Plough Inn
29 Marquis of Granby this was at the top of Granby Road, built in 1886 and closed 1925
Labour Board office built on the site of the Marquis of Granby in the 1950s
Deaves. This building was built by the Local Board as local authority offices in 1884.  In 1920 Northfleet Urban District Council left these offices and sold it to the co-op. They built a new frontage out into the road and used it as a shop with a hall above let out for hire.

The Shore
This is essentially a public footpath crossing a wide expanse of derelict open space with some riverside activity to the north.
Northfleet Cement Works. This opened in 1970 and was on the now derelict site. It was the biggest cement works in Europe. By 1960, the Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers had many cement making plants in this area, in 1967 it was decided to consolidate them into one large works on site of Bevan’s Works. Construction began in 1968 for a cement plant with six kilns with an output of four million tonnes of cement a year of which 20% was for overseas markets. In 1969 the first kiln became operational. Despite impressive figures, the export market was slowing down, and to cut costs half the number of kilns at the Northfleet Works were closed down by 1980.  As costs continued to rise kilns were modified which led to increased energy costs. Economic recession in 1991 led to a fall in output and by 1993, Northfleet Works was working with just one kiln. A second kiln reopened at Northfleet in 1994 in response to demand, but rail operations and excavation at Western Quarry ended. In 2001 Blue Circle Industries was purchased outright by the French Lafarge Group. Northfleet’s long association with cement production ended in 2008, when the works closed. The chimneys were brought down in 2010. There is now a large empty space.
Rail links. In 1969 plans were made for a direct connection between the new cement works and the North Kent Line via a chalk pit on the south of the London Road. A double-track loop line would curve around the perimeter of the cement works, in a continuous loop which meant that trains could exit without the need to reverse. This came into use in 1970. As the works began to close down cement delivery ended and by 1993 the loop line and sidings went out of use. All this was cut back and abandoned when Lafarge took over Blue Circle and the CTRL was built.
Bevan’s Works. This plant was the fifth on the Thames, second only in size during the 19th and early 20th, It was set up when William Aspdin fell out with his partners at Robins Works. Bevan’s was built on identical lines on what had been a brickfield adjacent to Robins.  There was little innovation before APCM took over using wet process bottle kilns throughout. In 1864 there were 17 kilns and another ten had been added by 1903, when some were demolished to make way for the rotary kilns which followed shortly after the formation of APCM . The original rotary kilns were cleared in 1922 to make way for what was the the largest APCM installation of the time, in the 1920s. Demolition of the previous kilns, took five years, and Blue Circle found it difficult to maintain supply. Bevan’s was then until 1929 the largest UK plant. The plant was shut down in 1970, with much of the cement handling and wharfage incorporated into the adjacent Northfleet site. The river was used for most of its transportation with the best deep water jetty on the south bank and it was Blue Circle's main exporting plant. A late 1950s kiln stack remained until demolished in 2010.
Bevan’s Wharf. Until the early 1980s this was busy loading bulk carriers with cement and clinker. This is said not to be in use and Lafarge intend to demolish it
42 Wharf. So named because of its 42 feet depth. Until the early 1980s, this was busy loading bulk carriers with cement and clinker. It is jmo0re modern that the Bevan’s Wharf and uses for it are planned.
Lafarge riverside office block. This has the PLA scanner on it.
London Portland Cement Works. This works was to the east of the Bevan works. It was opened in 1868 by J.C. Gostling and solid in 1876 to the London Portland Cement Co.  It became part of APCM in 1900 but closed in 1908. This works had a private siding from the West Street main rail line and a tramway to pits south of the London Road.
Northfleet Upper lighthouse. This was on the west end of the Associated Portland Cement Company's jetty in 1926 and maintained by Trinity House and was 29 feet high. In 1972 it was replaced with a modern light contained in a room on the roof of the 8 storey office block which now belongs to Lafarge Cement UK Ltd at Bevan’s Wharf. It is still used.
Northfleet Lower lighthouse Trinity House established a light here in 1859 to guide inward bound vessels around the bend from Gravesend Reach to Northfleet Hope. In 1883 the current lighthouse was placed on India Arms Wharf near the pub and was a white occulting light of 10 seconds visible for 6 miles. A red painted iron framework tower is 53 feet high with the light at 48 feet above High Water.  This was unmanned and was inspected three times a fortnight by Trinity House officer. It was originally lit by acetylene while sun valve ensured that the light was off during daylight hours.  It was later converted to town gas and in 1975 converted to the shore electricity supply,
7 India Arms. This was at the foot of Lawn Road and was built by 1780. It was a large and impressive building facing the river. It closed in 1978
Small fort. This was adjoining the pub and built by Major Birch in 1795. It had four guns manned by the Northfleet Volunteers, who also at the time of the Nore Mutiny manned the Gravesend blockhouse.
Howard House.  On the waterside was a red brick Queen Anne house, so named after Jeremiah Howard, a lime merchant. It was built about 1717 for Francis Mackreth, himself a lime merchant.
Howard Square, to the east was a small square of late-18th houses occupied mostly by customs officers and watermen.
Bevan’s war memorial. This stands isolated in the middle of the dereliction. It was designed by Francis William Doyle-Jones, it is a concrete memorial with a seated art deco Britannia in robes and armour with crested helmet, her cloak draped over the back of her throne. The throne stands on a cubed plinth with a bronze plaque which says 'GREAT WAR 1914-1918/EMPLOYEES OF BEVANS WHO MADE THE SUPREME SACRIFICE THEIR NAMES LIVETH FOR EVERMORE' and it lists the names and occupations of the fallen..

Vicarage Drive
A small housing estate on the site of was the vicarage, built in 1834, on the site of an earlier one.  Demolished in 1961 when the present houses were built.

British Listed Buildings. Web site
Bygone Kent
Cement kilns. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
DoverKent. Web site
GLIAS Newsletter
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Gravesend Historical Society, Transactions
Gravesham Borough Council. Web site
Hiscock. A History of Gravesend
Historic England. Web site
Kent Rail. Web site
Lighthouse compendium. Web site
Northfleet Heritage Trail. Web site
Northfleet History Group. Web site
St.Botolph's Church and Team Ministry. Web site
Our Lady of the Assumption. Web site
Smith. Defending London’s River
Stoyel and Kidner.  The Cement Railways of Kent
Tolhurst and Hudson. Alfred Tolhurst

Wednesday, 2 September 2015

Riverside - south bank east of the Tower. Rosherville

Riverside south bank east of the Tower. Rosherville

Acres and acres of riverside dereliction, with some scandalous demolitions, awaiting 'regeneration' with tower blocks et al on a useful riverside.  Surrounded by an area which had pretensions and lost them - plus an ex resort and an art deco suburb that only Edith appears to have noticed

Post to the west Gravesend
Post to the south Perry Street
Post to the north Tilbury Docks
Post to the west Northfleet

Burch Road
The road is named after Rosher’s father in law, Benjamin Burch, who was a Limehouse base lime merchant. It was laid out as part of Rosherville New Town in 1830 by H. E. Kendal, the architect
2-6 Houses which date from the first designs for the new town.
Entrance to Rosherville Gardens At the south-west corner of Lansdowne Square and on the bend in Burch Road. This entrance was flanked by a lodge and had a grand gateway topped with sphinxes. There is now a security gate and some dereliction around this area.
39 Rosherville Hotel. This was built for Jeremiah Rosher in connection with the gardens. At the foot of the road on the west side built by H. E. Kendal. This played its part in the Gravesend Yacht Week. On the ground floor was a bar called “Rosherville Shades”.  It was used as a hospital during the First World War and then became flats and was demolished about 1963.  The site now has a tile warehouse open to the public, and a clothing factory.
Rosherville V.A.D. Hospital.  At the outbreak of the Great War the Kent/42 and /92 Voluntary Aid Detachments quickly established two hospitals near Gravesend - and soon they were full. The long disused Rosherville Hotel was then requisitioned and opened in November 1914 with 64 beds for enlisted men. It was affiliated with the Graylingwell War Hospital in Chichester and had a fully equipped operating theatre, and a dispensary. The convalescent patients were entertained by the local population, who arranged whist drives, concerts, and river trips. It closed in 1919.
Shawline House. This is the remains of the hotel. It is a single storey flat roofed building of irregular shape. It was used as drawing offices and before that as a works canteen by Fleetway Press.The building is a remnant of the former Rosherville Hotel which was demolished in 1963.
60 Burch House.  This is shown on maps of the 1860s and marked as such. In the 1930s it was offices for the National Union of Paperworkers with a membership in nearby print works and paper mills.  It now appears to be flats.
Rosherville Court. This was the ‘big’ house built as part of Rosherville on the corner of the main road. It probably dated from around 1850 and was built by George Rosher.  It subsequently had a number of local businessmen and others as residents. By the 1930s it was the Research Department for British Portland Cement Association. Apex House is on the site
St.Mark's Vicarage. On the corner of Burch Road until 1964. A ragstone Gothic building in the same style as the church. It was demolioshed in 1968 and replaced by Apex House,
Apex House. Commercial office block built in the late 1960s presumably for Apex Construction, who make process equipment for the chemical engineering trade, but who left the site in 1988 for a base in Dartford.

Clifton Marine Parade
Slaves Alley.  Beneath the cliffs was a row of cottages, at right angles to the river known as Slaves Alley, in which the 'chalkies' lived
Hit or Miss Pub. The pub had this name in 1805 and it has been conjectured that it refers to a 17th bowling-green nearby, or by a rifle range for volunteer regiments here in the 1860s, or from archery practice in the garden.  The pub was rebuilt in 1929, closed in 1987 and demolished
Bycliffes. This house was built, probably by Cleverley, at the western end of his shipbuilding yard east of Slaves Alley.  It was lived in by a succession of industrialists, who had works on this site, including Gladdish, and Fletcher, and eventually became offices for the Imperial Paper Mills and eventually demolished.
Rails. The road ends at the Northfleet boundary.  Here were tramlines coming down from the chalk pits and lime works to the south and going to riverside wharves for transshipment.

Crete Hall Road
Crete Hall. This was on the east side of the later printing works. It sat in a little miniature park on the riverside with lawns at the back. It was built by Benjamin Burch about 1800 and was later the home of his son-in-law, Jeremiah Rosher. In 1905 it was bought by W. T. Henley’s Telegraph Works, Ltd... It was used as housing for their local manager, and was later used as offices, being demolished in 1937
W.T.Henley. The Henley submarine cable works had been set up in North Woolwich in 1859 and, in order to expand, bought the Crete Hall Estate in 1903.  This first Northfleet works made paper insulated power cables. In 1921 the Henley Tyre and Rubber Co made tyres and balls. They expanded through the 1920s to land in the south and eventually the whole of what had been Rosherville Gardens. In 1939 the site was cleared to build a factory for electrical distribution equipment. During the Second World War the Henley organisation played a major role in development and producing equipment including input into PLUTO.  In 1959 Henleys were taken over by AEI who were in turn taken over by GEC in 1967. In 1997 the cable operations passed to T T Electronics.  Most of the site is cleared but the art deco Engineering Building from 1939 possibly still remains with ship emblems in between windows.  When ships loaded cable it was run in a continuous length from the factory. The art deco research laboratory with ceramic tile decoration has also now gone. The whole site is to be developed for housing.
Fleetway Press. This had begun as Harmsworth's Printing Works opened in 1901 along with their paper making works at Imperial Paper Mills. In the 1960's it became part of the International Publishing Corporation and eventually the Reed Group. It was renamed as Fleetway Press.  Originally there were gas-powered generators, flat-bed and rotary presses, collators and binders.  The works undertook runs of weekly magazines with massive circulations.  By the 1960s it had been modernised with rotary letterpress, and a large sheet-fed offset-litho. They could fold and bind journals as well as produce unsewn paper-backs and children's annuals, and long run comics and weekly women’s magazines. The factory was demolished in 2013.
The Mount. This was a big house owned by Mr. Killick and standing between the Crete Hall Estate and industry. It was bought by Alfred Tolhurst.
British White Lead Company. This had been the Northfleet White Lead Company who had a works on land adjacent to London Road, previously owned by Tolhurst.
Imperial Portland Cement Co took over the white lead works in 1898 and the Little Dockyard to the north and made cement. By 1900 they were part of APCM.
Northfleet Power Station was a coal fired 720 MW power station opened in 1963 by Central Electricity Generating Board on the site of the Red Lion Cement Works. It was oil fired from 1970.  It had two five hundred foot chimneys and a wharf .It closed in 1991 and was demolished, although final demolition of foundations has only taken place in 2015
Red Lion. The current pub dates from around 1900. It now has an attached night club and loud music venue called Leo’s.
Red Lion. The old Red Lion public house was on a site nearer the river to the south of Red Lion Wharf and dated from 1723Sheeps Hill cottages were nearby.
Red Lion Cement Works. This was later the site of the Northfleet Power Station in the 1960's and 1970s. When Alfred Tolhurst built the Red Lion Cement Works about 1880 it had had a previous existence. There were two pits and a tramway which ran under the London Road in a Tunnel.  Tolhurst was a Gravesend solicitor.  He built the cement works in 1896 and was the first cement manufacturer to use locomotives to haul his chalk trucks. He exploited the Red Lion Works to sell chalk as ballast and for cement manufacture. The works became part of APCM in 1912 and was closed during the First World War
Red Lion Deepwater Wharf. In 1894 Tolhurst built the Deepwater Wharf, a wooden T-shaped structure jutting which enabled a large sailing vessel to operate from the wharf at low tide. It carried a tramway and had tipping facilities. Locomotives replaced horses.  The site was not used between the wars but in the Second World War concrete anti-aircraft towers were built here. These  were the 4,500 ton reinforced concrete floating forts designed by Guy A. Maunsell placed in the Thames Estuary to deter enemy mine laying. The first fort was towed down the river in 1942 followed by three more - Shivering Sands, Red Sand Fort and Nore Fort. They are five stalked towers in a star shape with four legs and joined by a walkway.   Holloway Brothers then constructed twenty one towers for the Army, also to be placed in the Thames Estuary to deter German Aircraft. The Red Lion Wharf site was used for the construction of reinforced concrete Floating Dry docks and a single Normandy Bombardment Tower, all designed by Guy Maunsell. The site was finally cleared when the generating station was built in 1951.
Gravesend Welding and Electrical Engineering Ltd. This company which existed from at least the 1920s employed 140 men and in the Second World War and made gun carriages as well and components of Mulberry Harbours.  In peacetime they made machinery of many sorts and also electrical equipment. They had factories here and in Sittingbourne.
Imperial Cement Company's works adjoining Red Lion and closed in the Great War.

Fountain Walk
This is an estate built in the 1960's on the site of large houses which had been demolished.  Flats called Rosher House, owned by the Gravesend Churches Housing Association were built in the late 1970's on the site of St Mark’s church. The entrance road which replaces the tower has a fountain from which the estate takes its name.

Lansdowne Square
Laid out as part of the scheme for Rosherville New Town in 1830, by H. E. Kendal. It was planned as a block of four large villas - 1-8 - surrounded by open space and then terraces and having a strong relationship to the pier which lies downhill of the houses and the river.

London Road
Immediately after crossing the parish boundary the name of the road changes from Overcliffe to London Road.
Rosherville Schools. This small flint school was built in 1871, as church schools by the Rosher family. It became a junior mixed and infant school in 1937.
Tunnel under London Road which now carries Rosherville Way. This dates from about 1870 and carried a tram way from the riverside cement works to pits to the south.
Lodge. This stood at the north side of the road from where a path now descends northwards, This was a road known as the Coach Road and is said to have been a private carriage drive to Crete Hall,
27 Fox and Hounds. Pub which dated from 1839 and has been demolished, probably since 2000.
52 Nisa and post office.  This was once St Marks Social Club
75-81  Shops. This parade of shops, though neglected, are in a pretty art deco style, like so much of this part of Rosherville and very much reflects its period.
Bus Depot. Until about 1930 the site was Johnson's dairy farm. The bus depot was built here to replace an old tram depot in Old Dover Road, which had been compulsory purchased by London Transport along with the buses and routes. It opened in 1937 having been planned for 85 vehicles. It was the first London Transport Country Bus garage to have a staff canteen and also included office accommodation for district staff in a pretty art deco entrance block. There was some air raid accommodation and facilities for dealing with contaminated buses.  Room for expansion was included. The garage is now owned by Arriva.
Rosherville Substation. This was the Northfleet sub station for the Gravesend electric works and the Gravesend coat of arms remain on the building. It is enclosed by the original railings. The supply was extended to Northfleet in 1907. It is still in use as part of UK Power Networks
Rosherville Halt.  This was opened in 1886 by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway to serve Rosherville Gardens and tickets could include admission to the gardens. The West Street railway line went under road in a tunnel.  The station was in a cutting with an island platform and had wide staircases because they expected big crowds. There was a second entrance.  .  In 1886 on Whit Monday 14,000 people visited the gardens which closed in 1910. The station closed in 1933 July. 
Signal box. This was in a recess in the cutting wall. 
The stationmaster's house remained on the bank but now appears to have gone.
Labour Exchange. This closed in 1973 when new offices were opened in The Grove
Fountain Court. This estate marks the site of the London Road entrance to Rosherville Gardens. The garden entrance, built to open in 1864, had a tower with a clock with chimes which played tunes. It was replaced by circular windows. The tower was demolished in 1938, but the entrance remained with its wall plaques until 1965. Remains of the Upper Walk and steps in the cliffs can be seen at the end of the housing estate, and the urns and statues now forming part of the ornamental gardens come from there,.
Rosherville Gardens. Cliff top entrance with a platform, terrace walls, tunnel and stairs to the Gardens built in 1869 by James Pulham and Sons in Pulhamite over brick, clunch and plaster. The staircase leads into a 17 metre sloping tunnel excavated in the chalk. The platform has terrace walls, balustrades and places for statues. One arch in the tunnel once went to an Ionic temple.  Ultimately it now leads out onto the cliff
St. Mark's. This modern church replaces one built in 1855 which was demolished in 1976. The architects were Messrs. H. and E. Rose, and it was paid for by the Rosher family. It was built of Kentish rag which weathered very badly, and extensive repairs were carried out in 1896 under W. and C. A. Bassett Smith, when the four stone angels which stood on supports round the spire were removed. The new church was built in 1977 and included some stained glass windows saved from the original church. The new church was built to be used both as a church as a community centre. The sanctuary can be closed with a screen. It was extended in 1997 to include a room for small group activities and meetings
War memorial. This is outside the new church centre and comes from the original church.
106 Elephant’s Head Pub. This probably dated from 1843. An elephant's head was the crest of the Rosher family. The pub is now apparently Sikh owned along with the two Asian food shops adjacent.

Marina Drive,
Site was until about 1930 a small dairy farm known as Johnson's. The houses were built, like the rest of Rosherville in this period, in an art deco style.

House with gate posts that appear to come from a previous site. May be a path which went down to Bycliffes??
Walkways down the cliff side to Thames Way below. Tunnel is that provided for the Gravesend West Line to run under the road.

Pier Road
Laid out as part of a scheme for Rosherville New Town in 1830, by H. E. Kendal.
32-39 Full Gospel Church. In the 1930s this was known as the Glad Tidings Hall.  It appears to date from between the wars.

Rosherville Gardens
Rosherville Gardens. These were laid out in 1837 by George Jones in a disused chalk pit on a site bounded by Crete Hall Road, London Road, and Burch Road. He had leased the land from Rosher and set up the "Kent Zoological and Botanical Gardens", which were intended as a botanical garden and educational project. It was to become a popular resort of Londoners. Gardens were laid out with flower beds, paths and many attractions. From 1842 it was renamed Rosherville Gardens. Visitors coming by boat via Rosherville Pier entered from Burch Road but in 1869 a new entrance was made from the London Road with steps inside a tunnel to the gardens below. The remains of this entrance have now been listed.  There was a maze, a hermitage, a lookout tower and a Gothic Hall with Baron Nathan who was the Master of Ceremonies. The Hall was used as a restaurant, ballroom and theatre.  An outdoor dancing platform was built outside it in 1860 and later a Drawing Room Theatre and later Bijou Theatre. An open-air stage was built by the dancing platform. Entertainments included fireworks, tightrope walkers, balloon ascents and a gypsy fortuneteller.  There was much else. In 1872 George Jones died and the gardens were taken over by the Rosherville Gardens Company Ltd. Gradually less people came to the gardens despite in 1886 the provision of Rosherville Halt. In 1900 Rosherville Gardens went bankrupt and re-opened following changes in 1903. However the site continued to lose money and closed in 1913. In 1914 they were the location of a film made by the Magnet Film Company, which planned to make more films there, but the Great War intervened. In 1924 five acres of land were sold to T Henley's Cable Works and in 1939 they bought the rest of the land and the gardens were completely cleared. Recently all 20th building on the site of the Rosherville Gardens have also been completely removed.
Bear Pit. The bear pit of 1837 has recently been excavated and listed. It was an open bear pit with four attached chambers or dens.

Rosherville Place
This tiny row of shops and a pub was on The Shore, facing the river at the bottom of pier road and below the balustrade which continued above it. It has now been demolished, probably in the 1970s – since known families were living there until then. This is probably what was also called ‘Teapot Row’.
1 British Tar. Russell’s Brewery house extant from 1851 until 1914.

Rosherville Way
By pass road from the river southwards on the line of a tram line from the Red Lion Cement Works to pits south of the London Road.

Thames Way
New Road built on the line of the West Street Railway Line

The Shore
Rosherville Place. Shops and a pub built at the eastern end
Rosherville Pier. This was built at the foot of Burch Road in 1840 to bring visitors to the gardens. It was designed by the architect H.E.Kendall for Jeremiah Rosher. The quay walls are constructed in stone rubble with stuccoed gate piers. The steps are of York stone. There is a central entrance in the quay wall with steps leading down to the drawdock, which goes under the road.  The pier which ran from here was wooden.
Drawdock with lower walls of coursed stone
Mine-watching post from the Second World War in yellow brick with a concrete roof.
Ferry from this pier to Tilbury in the mornings and a return trip at night for those who lived at Rosherville and travelled to London by the London, Tilbury and Southend railway.

The Old Sun. Believed to have been present by 1766 but rebuilt in 1905. Now closed and flats and offices, but manages to look open.

Bygone Kent
DoverKent. Web site
Fountain Walk Residents News. Web site
Glazier. London Transport Garages
Gravesend Historical Society, Transactions
Gravesham Borough Council. Web site
Historic England. Web site
Lost Hospitals of London. Web site
Northfleet Heritage Trail. Web site
Romance of the Amalgamated Press
Stoyel and Kidner.  The Cement Railways of Kent
Tolhurst and Hudson. Alfred Tolhurst
Turner.  The W.T.Henley Telegraph Works.

Again Edith must confess to her Gravesend childhood - with a father who worked at one of these factories and houses visited in these streets. So some unsourced memories here.

Sunday, 30 August 2015

Riverside - south bank east of the Tower. Gravesend

Riverside south bank east of the Tower. Gravesend

Gravesend clearly has an extremely interesting town centre - busy commercial riverside, history as a port, lots of industry, incredible numbers of pubs, fortifications, the ferry, pocahontus and etc etc etc.  It is now trying to get together with its history - but slowly - and areas which anywhere else would be showpieces are filled with a sort of squalid vulgarity.  This is a very rough tough town.

Post to the east Milton
Post to the north Tilbury Riverside
Post to the south Gravesend
Post to the west Rosherville

Anglesea Place
This tiny turning is now really just an entrance to the multi storey car park, it was once a back lane with cottages at the rear of New Road
1-2 Railway Bell. 19th weather boarded pub. Said to have opened in 1879. This was originally the Marquis of Angelsea from 1856-1861. It then became the Anglesea Arms then in 1880 it became the Marquis of Angelsea again and in 1910 it changed to the Railway Bell,
Anglesea Centre.  Built in 1974 it is a shopping mall with offices and a car park behind.  Designed by Peter Beake, Bud & Partners. 

Bank Street
In the 15th this was the site of Dame Anne’s Hall and another part was Baldwin’s Acre. This road was cut through in 1850 following a fire, and named from a bank which stood on the corner with the High Street.  The western end is now pedestrianised and the rest is mainly car parks.
1 Hero of Kent. This is described as a ‘beershop’.
Distillery. This was later the address of Gravesend Town Silver Band. It is said have been on the site of the medical centre and that cellars were found during building work.
7 Model aircraft engine workshop owned by Harold Kemp
Hollister’s Electrical Contractors. This firm was here from the 1970s to 1992. They are now in Dover Road East.
8 Gravesend Steam Carriage Works. This seems to have dealt in steam traction engines

Barrack Row
So called from a row of houses at the back of the cinema which were used for housing soldiers.
Railway building in use by a car rental firm.  This may be one of the goods yard buildings.

Bath Street
This was once called Pipe Street. It went to Clifton Baths
Gravesend and North Kent Hospital. Land was given by the Earl of Darnley plus a donation and a new infirmary and dispensary was opened in 1854. In 1884 the Ladies Committee raised money for a children's ward and the name changed to the Gravesend Hospital. Thereafter public subscriptions and volunteer fund raising paid for extensions and equipment. N. C. H. Nisbett was the architect of the new building of 1895.  In 1948, it joined the National Health Service.  The hospital has been greatly extended as it grew the original building was incorporated into the new ones. Early in 2004, part of the hospital was closed down with some services moving to M Block, so that a new Community Hospital could be built here.
National School.  This stood on the east side of the road before 1834. It then joined the Free School in King Street and a new building was erected there.
5 Britannia. This pub was there 1788 – 1909 and has since been demolished.
7 Drysdale’s Engineering works. This was at Town Foundry from 1891. They were electrical, motor and general engineers. Specializing in patent beer displayers for hotel bars and patent bulk beer pasteurizers.
20-21 Ship. This pub was present 1844-1965. This was a Truman’s Pub with a lot of fake half timbering and a big corner porch and door.
75 Sailmaker's Arms. This pub was present in 1849. The name changed to the Prince George in 1853 but closed after a few years
Admiral Duncan. This pub was in Pleasant or Prospect Row 1798-1860 and sited near 78 or 86 Bath Street.
Compass Pub. This was there 1778-1834 and was also called Mariners’ Compass. It had originally been called Noar’s Ark
St Georges Centre. Major town centre shopping mall built on the site of old housing demolished in the 1950s.

Berkeley Road
Hall. Anglo Saxons Friendly Society. Founded in 1877 to support its members in time of need.

Chapel Lane
This road no longer exists – it led from West Street to Church Street and is now merely the flagged pathway leading to St. George's church.
Old Manor House - Pocock, writing in the late 18th said that here was the 'oldest building in Gravesend' but gave no details. In 1948, during demolitions, 40ft. of ragstone wall was found and it is thought that this was a remnant of a manor house and chapel built by Edward III between 1362 and 1368 with a hall, chapel, and a wharf cost. In 1376 Edward III transferred this manor to the Convent of St. Mary Graces, and they were allowed to use its fabric for their Tower Hill site.

Church Street
St George's Church. This church was built in 1731 on the site of church built about 1480 which had been burnt down in 1727.  It had been made the parish church in 1544 but we know nothing of what it looked like. After the fire the Corporation got a grant from the Commissioners and commissioned Charles Sloane to design the church. The church was closed in 1952 and it became Chapel of Unity and Mayor's Chapel.  In 1962 it was re-opened as a church and in 1968 became the parish church again.
Pocahontas.  In the churchyard is a bronze statue of Princess Pocahontas presented by the people of Virginia and unveiled by the Governor of Virginia in 1958.  She was the daughter of the Red Indian chief, Powhattan, and she saved the life of John Smith. She died on board a ship in 1616 and was buried in the old church. There are various memorials and artifacts in the church,
14 Church House and Hall. These were built in 1970.
14 Invicta Steam Brewery. It is first noted at this address in 1881 but in 1883 it is listed under Isidore Baron Berkowitz and Co.  – He was a Gravesend educator and founder of a Jewish School as well as being a local politician and Mayor at this time. During this period the trademark of an Invicta horse was used but this was changed later and the Gravesend town motto 'Decus et Tutamen' was used instead.  The firm cannot be traced after 1885 – and there is a feeling that this might be something really interesting, especially given that the address of the brewery is the same as the future church hall.
Church Street School, the first 'board school' to be built in the town in 1876. It closed in 1975.
Ragged School. Built in 1862 to replace the original Ragged School which had started in a wooden shed in the Old Main in 1851.  Here a Penny Bank, a Free Day school, Mother's Meeting, shoeblack brigade, and soup kitchen also established. The school has been linked with General Gordon who was very active in his support for it. But the Ragged School movement was a national one and led by evangelical Christians and the Earl of Shaftesbury. It was eventually demolished in 1955.
Invicta Brewery Tap. This was a beer house 1883-1893
16 Watermen’s Arms. This pub dated from around 1727 and was closed before 1914. It has since been demolished

Clifton Marine Parade
Built in early 19th this was a riverside promenade, and except for the western end where the chalk industry intruded. It is now more complex. This square takes in only the eastern end which still goes along the riverside where new blocks of flats have replaced industrial wharves and river views. It is then broken by the large retail park and then re-emerges in the next square. 
William Cleveley shipyard.  Cleveley had a ship building business here from around 1780.  He probably came from a ship wrighting background and at the same time seems to have been exploiting the chalk extraction and lime burning potential of the site. He is also said to have taken on a disused boat building site here. His site is said to have been that of the later Imperial Paper Mills but it may also have been to the western part of the site, beyond this square. He built here at least 13 of warships and merchant vessels, up to nearly 2,000 tons. Later members of the Cleverley family used the site here for lime-burning and providing chalk ballast for ships returning to northern ports. They also sold flints found in the chalk to gun makers and others. They worked together with William Gladdish, who had married a Cleverley daughter, and they burnt and sold lime through the early 19th until acquired by William Fletcher
Fletcher.  Alderman William Fletcher bought the site of the Dockyard in 1869. He was a barge owner, chalk and flint exporter and lime maker. As a lime works the site was named after the Hit and Miss pub -  which is in the square to the west of this one. This works continued into the early 20th by which time there were many kilns and a large pit serviced by narrow gauge lines to wharves by the river and a siding from the main line railway. There were two lime kilns in the quarry at the back.
53  Fletcher’s Wharf. This was originally Ditchburn's Wharf built in 1834 and at once time used for hoy services to London. In the early 1850's, William Gladdish took it over and used it for ballast and chalk export. He rebuilt it wharf and on his death, William Fletcher became the owner importing coke which was sold to surrounding factories.
Rope walk and rope house. Pocock records this in 1811 and it then probably belonged to a John Ditchburn of Chatham. By the 1840s it was in the hands of Henry and William Ditchburn, both with various civic appointments and grand sounding titles. The rope walk is said to have been ‘above the parade’ (Were these Ditchburns connections of the famous T.J.Ditchburn of Thames Ironworks who also came from Chatham in this period). It appears previously to have belonged to the Starbuck family from 1718 and made sisal rope.
Baths. A baths was set up near Ditchburn’s rope walk in 1796. These baths were in gardens called The Grove, with lodging houses and cottage. The proprietor was Henry Ditchburn. There were a selection of different types of bath as well as bathing machines and a reading room.
Clifton Baths. Henry Ditchburn sold the Gravesend Baths to a company which redeveloped the entire area and changed the name to the Clifton Baths.  This was designed by local architect Amon Wilds. The central section of the baths between a hotel and houses was an extraordinary Moorish style building. They had sea water bathing and had swimming facilities, separate for each sex, hot and tepid baths for the languid.  The baths came at a time when Gravesend was becoming less popular as a resort and pollution was increasing in the river. They were eventually sold by the freeholders, The Darnley Estate, in 1903 and demolished
Clifton Pier. This was built near to the Baths, in Clifton Parade, by Mr McIntosh in order to service visitors coming via steamers.
Clifton Hotel. This was owned by Thomas Pallister of the local Old Falcon Hotel. It was also known as Pallister’s Hotel.
New Thames Yacht Club.  This moved into what had been Pallister's hotel and was the centre of considerable yachting activities opening in 1894.  It was a start and finish point for many river races. The club was a breakaway group from the Royal Thames Yacht Club and was defunct by the early 1900s
Imperial Paper Mills. This large paper making factory was set up by Harmsworth’s Amalgamated Press to process the pulp into newsprint, from the early 1900s through to the 1980s. Most of the pulp came from the company’s forest at Grand Falls Newfoundland from 1910.The works occupied the entire site of the ship yard, lime works, rope yard plus land to the west. The works also had an internal rail system and a large wharf.
Imperial Wharf. The wharf handles commercial shipping and has recently acquired a bitumen terminal.  They operate from the former paper mill office block called The White House and a war memorial on site remains form the works.
Imperial Business Estate.  These are on the site of the paper mill. 
Baltic wharf. This wharf handled timber from the Baltic ports. It later became a coal handling wharf for Tuffee and Hayward.  The site is now flats.
Rifle range. This is said to have been used by volunteer regiments and was at the southern end of the pit adjacent to Overcliffe –√°lthough obviously below it.
Whiting works. This was south of the Lime works.

Clifton Road
This is the last remaining portion of the former highway, to Northfleet.  It was the main road to Northfleet, made in 1716 to replace an earlier road nearer the river which had become dangerous because of removal of land for ballast; it was replaced New Road and Overcliffe, in 1802. It was still known as the Old Main (Road) in 1900, although officially it was Clifton Road.
Ragged School. The original Ragged School n Gravesend was held in a cottage on the south-east corner of the road before moving to purpose built accommodation.  The cottage was extant until 1950 and was the last thatched house in the town.
A hole appeared in the lawn near the hospital generator house in 1979. It was a tunnel which went for some distance and had had props in it and some pre-Aspdin cement. It was concluded it had something to do with an adjacent whiting works – maybe illegally.
Gas works. The earliest gas works in Gravesend was set up in 1824. By Gravesend & Milton Gas Light Company and closed in 1843.  The town was first lit by gas on 9 December 1824
Tunnel to Tilbury. This was an undertaking by Ralph Dodd in 1798. The proposed tunnel was to be 900 yards long under the bed of the Thames.   The shaft was sunk at the back of an abandoned chalk pit called Old Main near the house of Mr.Hazard. By the time they had dug 70ft water was coming in and had to be continually pumped.  Soon after the engine house was burnt down and work stopped.

Clive Road
Gravesend Central Station The main part of the station is in the square to the south.
Thamesgate Shopping Centre. Another more recent shopping centre

Crooked Lane
This was a small back road with cottages but is now part of the one way system round the town centre. It now takes in some of what was East Street.
4 Founders Arms. This appears to have been there between 1847 -1907.
The Old Falcon. The Old Falcon was rebuilt in 1882 it is said with a glass studio on the roof for William Wylie, the maritime artist well known for his Thames views. It was established before 1622, closed in 1939 and demolished in 1961.  The address was however in East Street and overlooking the river with stairs down to the foreshore the name displayed on the roof terrace to it could be seen from the river... Latterly it was a Truman’s house and referred to as ‘The Old Falcon and the King of Prussia’.

Darnley Road
Until 1796 this road was a field path closed by gates at each end. In the 19th the northern part of the road was called Somerset Street.
10 The Somerset Arms. It was present before 1843 and called the Exmouth Arms and but renamed the Somerset Arms before 1850.
Railway Bridge
Victoria Centre.  This was built in 1893 with Lieut-Col. C T. Plunkett as architect. It was then the Municipal Day School and had mixed classes of boys and girls who sat on separate sides of the class room and had their own playgrounds, and stairs.  No boy was allowed to speak to any of the girls outside school. Later it was the School of Science and Art and included Gravesend Free Library. It then became the County School for Higher Education under Kent County Council. In 1939 it was taken over by the Technical School. It has been an adult education centre since the 1980s.
Library. In 1894 the Borough Library was established in two rooms in the Technical School, The lending library was in a room on the first floor and the reading room on the ground floor.
Statue of Queen Victoria in terra-cotta, presented by Mayor G. M. Arnold to commemorate her Diamond Jubilee, It is by J Broad in terracotta by Doulton of Lambeth, who originally supplied a statue which was faulty and this is the replacement.

Eden Place
This short street is now. Now the site of car parks since 1972.  In the 19th it was the site of boarding houses but later became a slum

Garden Row
This was a path behind New Road which century led to a nursery garden now under the shopping mall.

High Street
The street runs up the hill from the river and the earliest known mention of it is in 1334.  It is thought that originally a channel ran down the middle of the street. Only pubs which have definite addresses in the High Street are listed here – there were many more than this!
1 Drum Pub also called the Pied Bull or the Castle. This pub was current 1684-1822
2 Castle Pub. This had been the Pyed Bull Pub from 1620 up to 1662 when the name changed.
4 Imperial. This building is now offices; it was a pub 1880 to 1909.  It appears to have been called the Saracen’s Head in 1514, and then the King’s Head the in 1662. It has however clearly been rebuilt, presumably in 1880.
5 Greyhound Pub.  Open 1445-1727
6 Bull. This pub also seems to be called Flushing or The George in the 17th. It is said to have had eleven rooms. This was also the address of Henry Pinnock, who left money for Gravesend’s almshouses and after whom they are named. It is first mentioned in a conveyance of 1464 and it closed in 1939. It has since been demolished.
9 Golden Fleece Pub, This was present 1637 to 1727. It was said to have stabling for 26 horses and a fine view of the river.
13 Seven Stars. Pub which was present 1475-1705
15 Antelope Pub also called the Crown or the Ship. It appears to be open in 1428 as the Crown and become the Ship in 1539 until 1727 re-opening as the Crown in 1728. In 1762 it became The Antelope and remained as such until it closed in 1783. It is said to be where King Christian of Denmark dined in 1614 with Henry, son of James I.
17 Surrey, Kent and Sussex Banking Co. This was the first branch of a joint stock bank in Gravesend which opened in 1837. It later became the London and County Bank and later the National Westminster Bank
20 The Kent.   This appears to have been called the Swan from 1462 until 1829 when it became the Kent. Although a pub called the Swan is noted in 1339. In 1976 it became the Penny Farthing and then closed in 2001 to reopen as the Kent Bar.  As the Swan it is thought to be the earliest known Gravesend Pub
24 London and County Bank. The bank is said to have moved here in 1864.  It had previously been the Freemasons Arms. A pub on that site in 1623 was the White Lion and then 1727- 1753 it was the bell and 1754-1790 it was the Greyhound and 1791- 1854 it was the Rose. It is now a shop.
34 Anchor and Crown. This was there 1651-1958 and was demolished when the Woolworth’s building replaced Bryant and Rackstraw.  It was a Truman’s house.
43 excavations here 1963 when it had been  a shoe shop established its use as that for the previous 150 years and that it had been in use of some sort since the 13th
44 Chase. This has had a number of incarnations. It was the Three Tuns before 1570 and then called the Chase in 1871. It was known as the Market Tavern in the 21st but in 2015 is The Chase again, probably
48/49 Plaque here to Robert Pocock, Gravesend historian 1760-1830. This records Pocock’s first printing press here in 1786. 
52 Black Horse Pub. This dated from 1614 as the Blew Bell, Then 1729 -1760 it was The Globe, and 1760-1864 it was the Black Horse. It was then the Alexandria Shades until 1868, and then called The Royal Yacht, and then in 1887-1897 The Royal Jubilee. It closed as The Jubilee in 1928.
56 Catherine Wheel. This had a stone on the frontage with 1686 for the date it was built. Half of the original building still remains
59 Bar 59. Pub.  This pub was The Cutter before 1686, between 1781 and 1836 but was the Admiral Boscowen being named the Albion in 1736 until 1994 when it was called the Buffaloes Head, It is now Bar 59.
63 Empire Tavern.  This was called Old Parr’s Head in 1797 and renamed Empire in 1892. It was a Reid’s house. It closed in 1914 but the building is still extant and in shop use.
64 Pope's Head Pub. This was present 1693-1922. This had 13 rooms, a summerhouse and stables. 
75 The Orient Pub. This had been the White Hart which was present by 1603 and closed in 1890. It closed in 1910 and had been demolished. As the White Hart it was used as the vestry house.
77 Cock and Pye Pub. This seems to have been open for only three or four years in the 17th
77-83 these houses are the last remaining of those built in the 1730s after the fire of 1727.  This fire began in a farm building and left houses, shops and the parish church burnt out.
80 ½ Hole in the Wall, This pub dated from 1775 and was demolished in 1938.
83 Sun Pub.   William Bourne was the innkeeper here (c.1535 -1581). He was also a, mathematician, and gunner who wrote on ordnance, inventions and navigation.  He was also port reeve
84 Chequers Pub. This was present 1570 to 1739.
Market. The Corporation is required to hold a Common Market once a week by Charter. This was at first an open space built in 1818 which was converted into two covered ways with an uncovered centre area. The architect was Charles Fowler. The present market hall was built in 1897, and designed by architect Edward J. Bennett and the builders Multon and Wallis. It was opened in 1898.
Statue of Victoria. This is the statue destined for outside what is now the Victoria Centre but which was replaced. It is by J Broad and Doulton of Lambeth
Town Hall. This is actually in the parish of Milton. It was built in 1764 with C. Sloane as architect.  In 1836 Amon Wilds replaced the frontage putting on the pediment Minerva, Truth, and Justice, but they were removed in 1939.  It is now used only as Magistrates and Coroners Courts.  In the old Council Chamber are portraits of former members and town clerks.  Until 1940 there was a police station in the basement.

Horn Yard
This is now entirely a car park
Ice Well. A hole appeared near the Bank Street junction revealing a deep circular brick structure, with a collapsed domed top - the remains of a 19th Ice Well.  At the bottom a short brick passage led to a flight of steps and it is assumed there were more steps to the building above. A second passage appeared to run to steps to the surface but was filled with debris, including items from the 1930s and 1950's. A small-unlined alcove in the chalk had a hard stone shelf with a hole.

Jury Street
This roadway was cut through in 1846-7 when a fire provided an opportunity. It is named because the amount of the damage and the costs were decided by a jury.

Kempthorne Street
This is now an internal road in the St. George’s Centre shopping mall. It was previously a north south road running from Church Street.  It is named after the wife of John Wakefield, who was buried in St.George’s churchyard.

King Street
The corner with Windmill Street seems to have been known as ‘St. Thomas’s Corner’ – a name which predates the almshouses of that name which stood here. It has been speculated that the name relates to a stop off for pilgrims going to Canterbury – maybe coming via the ferry to continue to the Pilgrim’s Way (or more sensibly the Roman Road on what is now the A2). It was also called ‘Holy Water Street’ from a house known as 'Holy Water’ which was sold to Henry Pinnock in 1624.
1 Big Discounts/ Bryant and Rackstraw/ Woolworths. In 1957 Woolworths replaced Bryant and Rackstraw, haberdashers who are said to have been on site 100 years. In 1839 this was the site for Cadells, printers, library, and agent for the Phoenix Fire Insurance Co.
1 Prince of Orange. This pub, on the corner later occupied by Woolworths and Burtons, is named for The Prince who had visited Gravesend in 1734 for his marriage to the Princess Royal.  It had previously been The George, on site since 1633 replaced by the ‘Tilt boat and Old George’ from 1728. It had been re- built in the early 19th when New Road was cut. Coaches ran from there - . For instance the 'Commodore' from Brompton on its way to the Spread Eagle, Gracechurch Street.  It is said there was a secret passage to The Three Daws. The pub remained there until 1928 although by then part of the site had become shops.
3 Bet Fred. Barclays Bank moved here from the High Street and about 1930 and it was subsequently used by a number of financial institutors. The building has a number of interesting plaques – those from the ground floor, now reproduced as a postcard. On the first floor are designs of ships.  It is on the site of what was King Street School.
King Street School. This was on the site later occupied by Barclays Bank. The school was a wooden building with the upper floor overhanging and with a window the whole length of the building. The school was in being before 1580 and was then situated near the market place and moved here in the early 17th. In 1835 it merged with the National school and a new school was built, with the boys' department on the ground floor, and the girls' above. This was a church school until 1928 and in 1939 a new St. George's school was opened in Wrotham Road and this site was sold for commercial purposes.
4 Santander Bank. This was Williamsons Cafe.  This is the small Tudor style brick building with possibly writing on a plaque under a first floor bow window
5-6 this was the site of The Vine pub, from 1662 to 1783 when it was divided into tenements
7 Carlton Cafe. This appears to be part of the Kings Head. In the 1940s the Carlton was the poshest cafe in Gravesend.
8 Kings Head Sports Bar. This is in part of the King's Head building. It was the King's Head from 1778. Rebuilt 1895. It briefly reopened as Equinox. It closed in 1990.  This building has a number of decorative plaques on it -one of over the main door or a king’s head over the main door and another higher up with the builder and rebuilding date and the initials GMA. Only half the original building appears to be used as a pub.
11 The Majestic Cinema was opened in 1931 with stalls and a circle levels. It had a stage, four dressing rooms and a cafe. It was taken over by Union Cinemas in 1933, who installed a Compton 3Manual/7Ranks organ. Union Cinemas were taken over by Associated British Cinema in 1937. It was re-named ABC in 1963 and the Compton organ was removed in 1968 going eventually to West Hallam social club. It was converted to three screens in 1972 and then taken over by the Cannon Group in 1986 & re-named Cannon. In the 1990’s it became the MGM, in 1995 it was again ABC and then was taken over by Odeon. It then screened Indian films as EMD Cinema. It closed in 2002, and was taken over by the United Church of the Kingdom of God. They had moved out by 2006 and it was partly demolished in 2009. The front of the building remains.
21 Mitre Hotel. This was on the corner with Queen Street. It was the Pelican and Punchbowl 1726 -1795, and then became the Duke of York until 1836 when it became the Mitre. It had a small house adjoining and was a brick building and the last remaining building of its period in the street. It was a Posting House in the 1830s. It was demolished in 1971 and there is now new building on the site.
23-24 Goose Gravesend. This pub was The Pembroke. This is the site of Cooper’s furniture store.
26 County Court offices. Built in 1878, and used for the Crown Court
29 David Grieg. Provision merchants built 1903
30 The National Westminster Bank. Built as the London and County Bank in 1898. It is in red brick with a lot of decoration in an Arts and Crafts style. The architect was Alfred Williams with Creaton and Co. as the builders. It was built on the site of Pinnock’s almshouses.
Pinnock's Almshouses. St. Thomas's almshouses stood here until 1896. They were the successors of those bequeathed in 1624 by Henry Pinnock who was   Port Reeve in the early 17th. . They had been built in 1834 in red brick and with a stretch of grass in front. They had replaced a weather boarded group and were themselves replaced by the almshouses in Old Road. 

Lennox Avenue
This is said to be the area of a ground used in 1893 for the newly-formed Gravesend United Football Club - itself an amalgamation of Gravesend Football Club and Gravesend Ormonde. The ground was entered from Overcliffe.

Manor Road
This road is now cobbled with restricted entry.  It is said to be called after an office where manorial quit-rents were paid. 
Gravesend Education Committee and School Clinic 1 Manor Shades. This pub was established before 1879. It has also been called Burton Ale Shades. Now closed.
The Courtyard. This block of buildings used as offices and other units appears to be in the area of what was Abbott’s Dairy established in 1786. In the 1870s this was a timber yard.
7 Abbott Dairies
7 Compass Ale House. Claims to be a ‘micropub’. It appears to be in the building used by Abbotts as their office

Milton Road
1 New Inn. This pub is said to have been in existence since 1791. It was originally the home of Lord Paston, and then later Dr. Holker, who in 1734, entertained the Prince and Princess of Orange there. In 1780 it was then taken over by the licensee of a different New Tavern vacated for the construction of water-side defences. The grounds were extensive and included a bowling green. At the rear was a 19th livery and bait stable hiring horses, carriages and waggonettes. The pub is still open but in 2012 it was called Coyote Ugly and then Bar 1.
Wesleyan Methodist Chapel. This church built in 1906 replaces an earlier chapel of 1812 on the same site.
53 The Grapes. This is a Shepherd Neame house.19th corner building which dates from 1843
St Joseph’s Convent. In 1860 saw four Sisters of Mercy moved into a house close to St. John’s. They staffed the parish school, and, by 1864 some classrooms had been built. In 1950 the Convent of Mercy moved to Hillside Drive
St John’s Roman Catholic Church. This was built in 1834 by Church of England worshippers as a 'proprietary chapel’. The architect was Mr. Jenkins. In 1842 it was put up for auction but no purchaser was found until 1843 when it was bought by a curate of St.Anne's, Westminster. In 1851, following a row about relationships with the Roman Catholic Church it was sold to Cardinal Wiseman with money from the Raphael family of Parrock Manor. It then became a Roman Catholic Church. A new steeple was added in 1873 by Goldie and Child, and it was dedicated in 1892, the dedication being changed from John the Baptist to John the Evangelist. There have been other changes to the structure since.
Mechanics Institute library and lecture-room were built next to the church in the early 19th, but failed for lack of support.

New Road
Built early in 1801 as a cut to provide a direct road to Northfleet. Irregular roofs and upper storeys at the west end who that when the road was built it was made it was made up of cottages which were converted into shops.
1 Costa Coffee. This is in the old Burton’s menswear shop
1a Chieseman's store. This was previously Bon Marche owned by T.Delarue.  This was probably the Mr Delarue who lived in Old Road in the 1950s and who was something to do with the Thomas Delarue School, for people with cerebral palsy in Tonbridge. The store was sold to Chieseman’s in 1957 - Chiesman Brothers was started by brothers Frank and Harry Chiesman in 1884 in Lewisham.
46 Sun. This pub was established in 1810 stood until 1970 at the corner of Bath Street. It was built of brick dated from the opening of New Road.
51-53 Super Cinema.  This was built in 1880 as the Borough of Gravesend British Workman's Halls. It then became the Gravesend Public Halls used for meetings, lectures, concerts and entertainments. A small upper hall was used for social functions. Films were shown here it was and in 1921 it was named the Popular Picture Palace. By 1915 there were live performances and films, and was Called the Palace Theatre, and then, as a full time cinema, the Empire Picture Palace. By 1925 it was London Theatre, in 1930 the Rivoli Music Hall. And By 1932 it was the Regent Cinema. It was taken over by the Union Cinemas chain in 1933 and re-constructed inside by architect A.H. Jones to re-open as the Super Cinema It had a Compton 3Manual/5Ranks organ which later went to a newly built cinema in Scunthorpe. ABC closed it in 1958. It was demolished although the facade was kept and used has since been used as shops and a series of restaurants
61 St James Schools. This was the first building on the north side. It later became a shop. Between 1855 - 1937 it was a school. The site is now the British Heart Foundation
St James Church. This was on the corner with Darnley Road from 1852 to 1968. It was built under the Church Building Act of 1818 after a petition from parishioners. The architect was S. W. Dawkes and it was built of Kentish ragstone. When it was demolished in 1968 the stained glass east window went to the Victoria and Albert Museum, and the oak altar to Cobham.  The tower clock was presented in memory of Captain Marsden, a former harbour-master. Between 1952 and 1968 it was the parish church of Gravesend when the incumbent was Selwyn Gummer father of a future government minister.
Joynes House. This is on the site of St. James’s church and is an office block mainly housing county court and government agencies
62-63 Wheatsheaf. This pub dates from 1824.It has lots of green tiles and mock half timbering
65 Regal Cinema. This was The Gem Picture Theatre which opened in 1914. It was taken over by Union Cinemas in 1933 re-opened as the Regal Cinema. It closed in 1968 and was converted into a bingo club – in 1992 Coral Bingo Club, and later Gala Bingo Club.
67 John Edgely. Fish shop and smoke house
Stable and coach house. On the corner with Garrick Street was a seedsman’s store, used in the 19th as a stable and coach-house’
71 Site of the Salvation Army Citadel on the corner with Garrick Street. This had been the Theatre Royal opened for plays in 1807 by Mr. J. Trotter. It had many changes of fortune but was at iris most popular the 1870s. It was bought by the Salvation Army in 1883. And demolished in 1969. It is now under Tesco
72a Site of a builder’s merchant's yard which had once been called the Royal Mews; a livery stables.
73 Eagle, public house which dated from 1876. This was demolished n 1969 and is now under Tesco’s
74 site of the Co-op store. This was built on the site of two private houses with long front gardens. These were demolished in 1958. They were occupied by Dr. Charles Pinching, the last in a family of Gravesend doctors.
76c Royal Sovereign. Pub. This was here 1861-1910
77a Lloyds Bank. This was demolished in 1973 and had been built in 1906 by Alfred Tolhurst as a branch of the Capital and Counties Bank. The architect was George E. Clay and it was on the site of offices built in 1867 and a pub. It was used also by Tolhurst as a solicitor’s office
84 HSBC – built as Midland Bank. This is on the site of a stonemason's yard. The bank is by T. B. Whinney in 1911
85 Macdonald’s. This was the Nelson Hotel, previously called the Marquis of Granby and before that the Flower de Luce. It was rebuilt in 187

Built 1802 as a result of petition to House of Commons by Gravesend Corporation because the old road had become unsafe because of the pits. Houses on the south side were built between 1864 and 1870 and with deep gardens
The Fairfield was adjacent to Bath Street and stretched between here and what is now Overcliffe .This is where the annual Gravesend Fair was held. Gravesend Cattle Fair held on part of the pastureland to the south in the early 1890s.
Maidstone and District Booking Office. Buses of the Maidstone and District Company, with services to Kent and Sussex, used to be parked along the roadway. The company’s booking offices and garages were built in 1923 on part of the old cattle fairground. The first Maidstone and District bus service to Chatham opened in 1911. . The offices are now all in retail use.
ASDA there is an entrance to the ASDA store below on Thames Way
3 Gravesend Training College. This was present before the Second World War. It was run by Ron Crookes and taught shorthand and typing.
6 -8 Gravesend Art School. This closed in the 1960s to merge with a college in Medway.  The most famous alumni was Sir Peter Blake – but there were other distinguished artists.  This is now offices
12 National Autistic Society. This appears to include the Helen Allison School and The Hurst Skeffington Hostel for Autistic Adolescents.  The building was in the past used by a Christian Scientist Church
14 Ancient Order of Foresters
. This was also once Gravesend Trades Hall and Institute.  It seems now to be mainly flats.
24 Gravesend Labour Party
32 Miss Sharman's School for Orphans. Charlotte Sharman rescued hundreds of orphan children from the streets and founded schools here, and in Southwark and Tunbridge Wells. She was not a wealthy woman but worked in practical ways

Parrock Street
The road is built on the line of a footpath from Gravesend to Henhurst Lane
Underground Toilets – these were closed in the 1990s and are believed to date from the early 20th.
1 Whispers. This was the Royal Victoria Shades, and previously the Flower Pot dating from 1849.  This is now a ‘night club’. .
Conservative Club. In the 19th its walled garden ran along the south side of King Street
Cromer House. In the Second World War this was used by the Y.M.C.A. for service men
Glovers Pond. This was on the side of the road near Manor Road until the early 19th.

Princes Street
This road has had a number of names - Princess Street, Bread Street, or Gravesend Backside. It backs onto the High Street and now is a series of high walls and backs of buildings. It once had a number of workshops and warehouses.
Congregational or Independent Chapel.   A meeting- house with a burial ground and minister's house was built in 1717. It was later extended to include a lecture hall, schoolroom and library. It closed in 1953 and its congregation moved to Old Road East. The building was demolished in 1961 and the site is now a car park.

Queen Street
This street was known in the early 18th as Milton Backside.  The name ‘Queen Street’ seems to date from the early 19th
1-2 Ordnance Arms. This was behind a cobbled space and derived its name land ownership by the War Department.  It was opened in 1816 actually in Crooked Lane.  It was a Russell’s house. It closed in 1914 and has since been demolished
4 Five Bells. This probably dated from 1658.   In the late 1890s it was called The Dolphin-was also rebuilt in 1898.  In 1912 it became a sweet factory and since 1920 it has been a fish and chip shop
6-7 Roebuck. This was the Three Horseshoes in 1633, becoming the Roebuck in the 1770s. It Closed in 1914.
21 Pippin Tree. The pub opened as early as 1705. In 1724 it was called with the Cherry Tree and in 1834 it was the Town Arms. In 2000 it became Night Shades.  It is now called Blakes and claims to be an exclusive club.  The building looks terrific
22 Shrimp dealer. In the 1930s this was the premises of H. Plumb, shrimp merchant
30 Papa. The Papa family have been making Italian ice cream here since at least the Great War. The shop is now an Italian restaurant who say they have taken on the brand name of Papa.  It is not clear if ice cream is still made here.
38 George.  This is thought to date from 1545 It was rebuilt in 1778.  It is still open
44a Eel Merchant. In the 1930s this was the premises of Charles Randall, Eel Merchant.
46 Rose of Denmark.  This opened in 1868 it closed in 1906 to become the Comrades Club, which closed in 2007.  In the 1930 as Gravesend Social Club it had also housed the local Unemployed Committee.  The building is still extant and appears to have been converted to housing
53 Hope.  This pub was opened by 1853 to 1895
68 Coal Ship.  This pub appears to date from 1868 to 1898
Fish Market.  That this was built at the back of the town hall in 1829
Etkins House. This was demolished in 1951 and was thought to be the house of George Etkins, Sheriff of Kent in 1681. The upper storey was said to be 300 years old, and built on oak posts nearly a foot square with the bark still on the unworked side. This seems to have been on the west side of the street “about 40 yards down”.
Forges.  These adjoined the stables at the back of the New Inn to shoe the numerous horses.  The last farrier in the town was on the opposite side of the street and closed in 1960. Some of the smiths ornamental ironwork is his father is said that to say what we can see how it in Milton church
William Pittook's Queen Street brewery. This was present in 1839.  The name was changed to Pittock and Chandler in 1846 and it had gone by 1848. Pittock had a brewery in Dartford at around the same time
Bull Yard. This is said to have been the site of an Elizabethan Foundry. Tug owner George Butchard took it over and it was then bought by Robert Priestly undertaking steel plate and structural steel work including work for the Channel Tunnel. In the 1950s it was use by W.J.Beer & Son who were marine, general engineers and millwrights

Railway Place
This road runs over above the railway line. At one time it was the site of stables. It is a popular place for late night punch ups.
1a Railway Tavern. Place. This was a Meux’s Brewery house established by 1881 and closed in 2010. It reopened again in 2012 as the D’Ream Bar and apparently closed because the licensee is in jail.

Royal Pier Road
This is now a riverside walkway bereft of buildings. .Some of it was once known as East Street
Green space. Area covered by the pleasant enclosed greensward, provided with seats for residents and visitors. Site of Beckett Brewery and Edward Bannister’s coal yard. The site, which included a number of old weather-boarded buildings, was cleared in 1954.
4 Old Amsterdam. The pub may have dated from the 16th and had a reputation connected to smuggling and had a causeway into the river.  It was adjacent to the White Hart, the Green Dragon and The Boot. These pubs were owned by a David Varchell but were burnt down in 1727. The new pubs were Roebuck and Pelican and the Amsterdam was rebuilt. It became the place where the Corporation banquets were held, and catered to ‘the better class of sailor’. It closed in 1915 and was used by the National Sailors and Firemen’s Union, by the Scandinavian Sailors Homes and then by a car hire firm. In 1955 the Council bought the freehold from the Church Commissioners and demolished it.
Steam Packet Co. Offices. These were in a small building attached to the Three Daws. Later it became a reading room for the local watermen until brought in to use as steam tug offices
Rose. This was a pub in what was East Street in 1656-1727. The original pub was blown up in August 1727 to prevent the great fire of Gravesend spreading. It was also called the Star and was on the site of Beckett’s Brewery
Stowboat. This was on the north side East Street 1691-1527. It may also have been called The Bell and Green Dragon or called simply the Boat. In 1727 it is said to have had connections with Beckett and Wood's Brewery.  It may also be the pub also called The Golden Last which was extant 1775-1779 which may also have been called The Boot and thus easily confused with Boat.
Gunne. In East Street 1580-1666 also called The Lower Gunne
Maydenhead, In East Street 1584-1662
Nags Head. This was also called the White Hart and Bowle and had its own wharf. It was in East Street 1544 -1727, when it was burnt down
Star. This pub was here 1662-1783 and included a brewhouse
Barge Pub, This was in this area 1580-1783
8 Wood's Brewery. C.A. Becket is said to have founded the firm in 1832 but there was possibly a brewery of that name in 1777 and in 1859 the firm is listed under G. Wood.  It was taken over in 1910 by Russell’s.  The premises were later used by the excise as a bondage store.
4 King of Prussia. This opened in 1768 but the title was changed to the King of the Belgians soon after the outbreak of the 1914-18 war. Closed and demolished.
5 Warner Boat-builder. This was present in the late 19th and lasted in the family until the Second World War. They were said to be the last of the skiff builders. William James Warner was born in Greenwich in 1843 where he was apprenticed to Shipbuilder Corbett. He moved to Gravesend to build skiffs. His son William J Warner jnr carried on the business. One skiff was Nancy built in Gravesend fashion with 7 strakes. Her Licence entitled her to carry 8 passengers and Up to 2 tons of merchandise could also be carried. She was owned and worked by the Sergent family of Chariton and in 1914 assisted in the rescue of many from General Steam Navigation Co's ship Oriel, sunk off Charlton.
St.Andrew's Waterside Mission.  This church was built in 1870 by G.A. Street as a place of worship for seamen and river workers and here emigrants awaiting departure to Australia and New Zealand could be baptised.  It originated through Rev. C. E. R. Robinson, a vicar of Holy Trinity, who visited emigrant ships.  Needing a headquarters they converted the Spread Eagle Pub into a centre for rest and recreation. A subscription list of raised for a permanent church and the church being consecrated on St. Andrew's Day, 1871, 'To the Glory of God and in memory of Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, K.C.B.  Inside the roof of pitch pine is like an upturned boat, with a mosaic above the altar of 'The Stilling of the Tempest'. There is also a window to the Franklin Expedition. . The church was closed in 1970 and was been acquired by the Council and used as an Arts Centre. 
The Mission House. This was part of an old pub pulled down to make space for the church
19 Spread Eagle. This pub dated from 1819 and part of it remains as the Mission House adjacent to St. Andrew's church,
United Steam Tug Co.  This was a syndicate of watermen/pilots, Trinity House pilots and local businessmen, the watermen being concerned with berthing, docking and other river related ship-handling activity. They operated from this area
Game Cock Steam Towing Co. This company operated from this area. They had been founded in 1880, by a consortium of around twelve London River Pilots. Control eventually passed to Watkins and they were wound up in 1968.
Sun Tugs Co. The company operated from this area. William Alexander came from Gravesend born in 1858.  He had a lighterage company based in Wapping in 1883. In 1891 based in Deptford he began to use the prefix 'Sun' on all vessels but was based in Wapping. On his death the company remained in the family who also owned sailing vessels. From 1938 they concentrated on towing and in 1969 became part of London Tugs Ltd.
Bawley Bay.  This is the name of the foreshore around St. Andrew's Waterside Mission church. It was once the moorings of the shrimp boats, called 'bawleys', of which there were large numbers during the 19th.
Thames Terrace. This was a row of fishermen's cottages known as Bawley Row. They were demolished after the Second World War.
Blockhouse Dock The bay on the west side of the church is Blockhouse dock: the whole area came within the blockhouse property before it was disposed of in 1835

St. James’s Road
The big houses in Overcliffe had long gardens opening out into what is now St. James's Road.

Stone Street
Before the construction of New Road in 1801, what is now Stone Street was regarded as part of Gravesend Backside – which is now Princes Street.
1-4 Robert Pocock Pub. Site of the Rainbow Stores and which fronts onto Windmill Street
11 Trocerdero this is the back entrance, it fronts onto Windmill Street
16 Bridge Bar. This was the Brickmakers Arms. Open 1853 to 1910, then changed its name to the Station Hotel and later changed again to Bar 24.
21, 22, and 23 these rather posh stucco- fronted buildings used as offices and shops, were built in 1789 as Gravesend and Milton's workhouse. The two later end buildings were not part of the workhouse but were added in 1847 when the block was converted into houses and shops.
31 P. E. Lines and Co.'s .  Builder’s merchant’s yard.  Previously the site was a stable-and-cart yard
36 Shade’s Bakers. They were a family business from the 1950s. Miss Shade held elocution lessons above the shop.
Methodist Church. This is market on late 19th maps near the north end on the west side. This may be the building of 1800 built for the Oddfellows Friendly Society.  A number of Baptist groups met in 19th Stone Street in the 19th and there was possibly an Enon Chapel, and a school room. The hall was also used by a hay, straw and fodder merchant
Stable for livery and bait from the 1890s period. It was known as the Borough Mews and a horse-bus ran from here to Meopham, and on sometimes to Cobham.
Multi-storey car park, opened in 1976, dominates the west side of the street.

Stuart Road
When the railway was opened here the road was claimed as a private road and barred under the orders of Lord Darnley, the landowner who opposed it. Eventually the differences between the parties were settled
Pickford's Depository.  Furniture storage building for this national removal firm and carrier. Now in other use. From 1852 it was Hayward’s Mineral Water manufactory,
Fairfield Works. In the 1930s this was Wallis Builders Yard. They were a Maidstone based construction company. This appears to be what is now known as Lindfield House
Gravesham Place. Integrated care centre
Terminus Hotel. This opened in 1899 and closed in 1988. Now demolished. In the late 1950s and early 1960s a famous jazz club was based here. This featured George Chisholm, TV trombonist, Woolwich based Owen Bryce and clarinet player Sandy Brown,
West Street Station.   This opened in 1886 as ‘Gravesend Station’ by the London Chatham and Dover Railway on the same day as Tilbury Docks. There had been some discussion over the eventual siting of the terminus which was changed finally to Stuart Road. It had two platforms in a V shape and another going to a riverside pier. At the base of the triangle were a station house, a goods yard, and a turntable. It was originally intended to have a station nearer to the High Street, but this was never built. It had originally been started by the Gravesend Railway Co. In 1899 it was renamed Gravesend West. In 1916 a boat train service from Victoria began to meet Batavia Line boats here but this stopped in the Second World War. From 1953 it was used by goods trains only and closed in 1968. There was an attempt to re-open it by the North Downs Steam Railway in 1987.
Signal Box. This was an all-timber two-storey-high box at the south western end of the layout, where the double-track line fanned out into numerous sidings. As a terminus there was a fifty-foot turntable on the opposite side of the lines to the box and there was also a water tower.
Goods area. Sidings from the line fanned out to the south terminating at Stuart Road.  Some used by coal merchants. After the Great War there was a decline in freight traffic and the closure of industrial sidings. The Southern Railway concentrated goods traffic here to relieve Gravesend Central and the North Kent Line.  There is now a building and household supplies supermarket on the site

Terrace Street
1 Greyhound. This was a Russell’s, then Truman’s, House. It opened before 1841 and closed in 1971. Demolished.
8 Elias Warner. This shrimp merchant was there in the 1930s
10 Royal Standard. This was a Charrington House opened before 1846 and closed 1960 and later demolished.
18 Horn of Plenty. This was open before 1848 and closed in 1914. It has since been demolished
Thames Way
This new road out of Gravesend to the south and west is largely built on the trackbed of the West Street railway line.

Town Pier
The Town Pier stands at the junction of the two parishes of Gravesend and Milton.  The causeway beneath the old Town Pier may have been Milton's hythe.  The earliest mention of a landing-place after Domesday is in 1286 when it is mentioned in connection with a storm and in complaints on it condition made in 1293. In 1767 the Corporation in built a wharf with a crane &c to land goods, and a substantial stone causeway.
Gravesend Town Pier.  This is said to be the oldest remaining cast iron pier in the world. It was designed by engineer William Tierney Clark, and built by William Wood of Gravesend.  It comprised a terrace granite quayside and an open decked promenade. At the end was a T head with two open sided pavilions and steps down to the river. It was opened in 1834 and served the cross ferry service as demand fluctuated over the next 170 years. In the mid 1840s the promenade and end section were enclosed and the steps replaced by a floating pontoon. Bur in the 20th much of the 19trh panelling was removed as was some of the ironwork. 1980s flood defence work obliterated the granite quayside.  By 2000 it was privately owned and dilapidated and it was then bought by Gravesham Council and a restoration scheme undertaken – hopefully to include a restaurant and the ferry – as well as other visiting boat services of various kinds
Cross ferry. The Gravesend-Tilbury ferry is one of the oldest ferries in the country. It is not as well documented as the Long Ferry and has no charter.  It was owned by the lords of the manors of Tilbury and Parrock. By 1540 the original landing places were replaced by a causeway at the Three Crowns in West Street while on the Essex side's ownership changed to Tilbury Fort.  In 1694 the Gravesend Corporation purchased both the Manor of Parrock and the ferry. The Cross Ferry continued throughout the 18th and early 19th without major changes but the relationship with the Board of Ordnance and Gravesend Corporation in running the ferry was often very stormy. Following complaints in 1850 Gravesend Corporation said the ferry needed to be under one management and the Board agreed to lease it to them. No improvement resulted.  The whole lease passed to Peto, Betts and Brassey of the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway in 1856.  As steam vessels replaced the wherries the causeway at The Three Crowns became obsolete and in 1854 the Town Pier was adapted to deal with the ferry.  The railway company then ran from the Town Pier using paddle steamers and the Corporation charged the railway company to use it.  So the railway company built West Street Pier but in 1884 purchased the Town Pier and the ferry rights in 1884 from the Corporation.  The Town Pier was then used for passengers and West Street Pier was used for freight. In 1914 the Midland Railway Company bought the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway and the ferry.  New boats were introduced. In 1961 new diesel ferries replaced the steamers but in 1964 the Dartford Tunnel meant the closure of the vehicle ferry and a decline in the passenger service.  In 1969 the passenger ferry moved from the Town Pier to West Street Pier.
Long Ferry.  The Long Ferry was always lucrative although safety was often ignored and there were some bad accidents. An Act in 1737 limited boats to 40 passengers.  Until the 16th the Long Ferry used square sail barges and then tilt boats, wherries, and peter boats. By 1815 steam boats which led to an increase in passengers. The Long Ferry, however, declined after the railways linked Gravesend and London in 1845
7 Three Daws. Dating from 1565 this is said to be oldest public house in Gravesend, with many passages and stairs to aid smugglers and those hoping to escape the press gang. Its earlier name was the Cornish Chough, and before that the Three Cornish Choughs. It may have been associated with pilgrims crossing the river en route to Canterbury; the three Cornish Choughs are on the Canterbury arms. It was originally five wood fronted cottages probably dating from 1501or earlier.  Its wooden structure thought to be the work of shipwrights. Once used as a hotel it had eleven bedrooms, connected by five staircases. It remains open
Pier Hotel. This is on the site of The Christopher which is mentioned in a will of 1476. This pub was removed in 1828 when the Town Pier square was laid out. The Pier Hotel dates from 1829.
Haunch of Venison. This pub was here in 1828
Town Wharf. In the 1950s this included T.J.Metcalf & Sons. Wharfingers, Barge owners and ballast merchants

Wakefield Street
This is now under the St.George’s Centre
39-40 Reindeer. This pub as open in 1849 and closed in 1964. It was a Truman’s House
49 Queens Head. This pub was open in 1842 and closed in 1960

West Street
West Street was subject to wholesale demolitions in the 1950s and 1960s to widen the road as a by pass to the town centre and for slum clearance. It was once a shopping street – including shops selling locally caught brown shrimps and others selling herring, kippers and haddock smoked on the premises – and many many pubs. A slum clearance scheme of the 1920s cleared the area between West Street and Church Street and other clearances followed.
1 Warner, shrimp merchants here in the 1930s
1 Royal Oak. This pub was here 1694-1741
2 Unicorn This pub was here 1612-1727. It was also called The Rose and Unicorn
9a William Sutherland. Shrimp merchant here in the 1930s
13 Blew Bell. This was at other times called the Cross Keyes or the Eagle and Child. It was present 1595-1732
27 Royal Exchange. This was also called the Three Mariners or the Shipwright’s Arms. This was present in 1872
36 Cock. This pub was present before 1666. The Mayor’s banquet was held here in 1834.  It later became the Trafalgar Tavern and closed in 1908.
47 Cod Smack or Fishing Smack. This pub was there 1795- 1824
48 Brewery.   William S. Plane had a brewery here before 1841 but it is possible that it was previously owned by a Mr Hazards. By 1858 Russell & Tillyer were the owners the brewery and wharf.  From 1894 it was known as Russell's Gravesend Brewery Ltd.  They expanded taking over the Writtle Brewery, Webb Brewery of Margate and Fleet Brewery of Ramsgate eventually having 175 tied houses.  In 1911 they absorbed the business of George Wood and Son Brewers in East Street.  In 1932 they were taken over, by Truman and their shrimp trademark replaced by the Truman eagle and the preemies used as a bottling plant. Eventually the site was closed and the maltings and proprietors house are now housing. The shrimp trademark from the brewery wall had been replaced on the flats.
50 Fisherman’s Arms. This dated from 1791 and is said to have a secret passage to The Three Daws. It closed in 1992 and is now an Indian restaurant.
53 Harwich Scoot.  This had been the Adam and Eve from 1633 until 1730 and was later the India Arms. This was present 1773-1783 1662-1794
Pelican. This pub was present 1633-1675
57 73-75 Starbucks Ships Chandlers Starbucks Chandlers, there for 350 years. William Starbuck came to Gravesend from Leicester in 1634. The family had a rope walk and a boat building business. They also had a very large sail loft, and also sold clothing.  The business continues
64 Flying Horse. It was there in 1632 until 1738. Later it was the Privateer which closed in 1914.
67 Bear and Ragged Staff. This pub was present 1711-1833 and was then known as The Beehive until it burnt down in 1846.  It was also at one time called the Prince Alfred.
68 Hen and Chickens. This was there 1649-1775
82/83, Three Crowns. This dated from 1632, was rebuilt in 1887 and closed in 1930. It was used as a headquarters by Gravesend Theatre Guild in the 1950s and 1960s.
87 New Falcon Family Hotel. The building could be seen from the river with a glass-fronted dining-room noted for its whitebait suppers and as the venue for mayoral banquets during the 19th.It had been called the Talbot before 1850 and had also been called Rum Puncheon’. It later became the New Falcon laundry, which survived until the early 1960s.
Red Lyon Brewhouse. This was present and destroyed in the 1727 fire
92 Melbourne Tavern. Opened 1853 and closed in 1913. Flats called Melbourne Quay are now on the site
93 Gravesend and District Ice and Cold Storage, Eversfield Wharf.  The plant here was installed by J.E.Hall in 1922 and described as ‘huge’ and owned by Beresford and Co,
94 Yacht Tavern. Present in 1857
96 Crown Shades. This was there from 1880 until 1934.
Golden Lyon. This stood next to the Christopher in 1496
Peter Boat or Galley. This pub was present in 1735
Ward and Green. Boat Builders and repairers of small craft. Present in the 1950s. They were next to the car ferry,
Milton Engineering Works.  They were set up during the Second World War and made roof trusses etc., and steel frame work of all sorts. Their services included the provision of mobile welding workshops.
West Street Welding and General Engineering Co. Another firm handling all sorts of steel work and welded fabrication
West Street Railway Pier.  Built for boat services to West Street Station before the Second World War this serviced boats from Holland via the Batavia Line.It later handled pleasure steamers for General Steam Navigation.  It is still there and apparently unused.
West Street Pier. This was built for the Cross ferry by London, Southend and Tilbury railway as a supplement to the Town Pier. Until 1965 this was the landing-place for the car ferries. The last two boats were the Minnie, built in 1927, and the Tessa, in 1924 but the opening of the Dartford tunnel meant they were obsolete. They had earlier been known for the transport of cattle boats and large large flocks of sheep. It has more recently been used by the Princess Pocahontas running river trips.
Clifton Slipways. In the 1950s this was a ship repair facility dealing with all sorts of vessels including tugs. They also made machinery of all sorts. The railway line used to run over the top of the site and the workshops are housed in the arches of the viaduct. It then became part of the Lay Group who as White Horse Fast Ferries had a contract to operate passenger ferries on the River Thames. The site here was established to build the ferries and was fully equipped including 3 laminating shops, a plating shop, an engine shop, an electrical shop and a boatshed. It was probably the largest boatbuilding operation on the tidal river.  Here they built high-speed ferries for a Gravesend to London service but went into receivership in 2000.  The boatyard closed and there is consent for housing.
Water gate – This is where Bath Street joins West Street.  In 1567 it was Spalding's Wharf. 
Metcalfe's wharf. Site of Nettleingham's Steam Flour mills.  They were corn and fodder factors. Later it was taken over by Pattullo, Higgs and Co., who imported nitrates here to use in fertilizer

Windmill Street
In the 18th this was known as Upper High Street.
Public Library. There has been a library in Gravesend since the early 1800's, with some early subscription ones.  In 1904 Gravesend was offered money for a library by Andrew Carnegie, The design was that of Edmund J. Bennett, A.R.I.B.A. from in Parrock Street, Gravesend and it was built by A. E. Tong of Darnley Road. The Ancaster stone building was opened in 1905. The first librarian was Alex J. Philip, F.L.A. who remained until 1946.
Plaza Cinema. This opened in 1911 with all seating on one oak panelled level.  In 1929, sound equipment, was installed. It was taken over by Union Cinemas in 1934. And then by Associated British Cinemas by 1937. It closed by in 1955 and became a shop
3a Borough Shades. This was open 1888 to 1988 and had a delicatessen in the front. It is now the HQ bar. It was then Ryan's Bar until 2008, and then R Bar until 2011
8-9 Munns. There has been a member of the Munns family trading in Gravesend since 1842 with the present shop opening in 1910 – and it is a classy art supplies shop – something you would never expect to find in Gravesend!!
168 Trocadero. Opened 1898 and in 2000 called the ‘New Troc’ but has reverted to its old name and opened and closed again since then.
181-183 Robert Pocock. Wetherspoons pub. It is in the old Rainbow Stores

British Listed Buildings. Web site
Bygone Kent
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Dover/Kent. Web site
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Gravesend Band Co. Web site
Gravesham Borough Council. Web site
Gravesend Historical Association. Transactions
Gravesend Guide Books
Greater London Authority, Web site
Green. Pubs of the Gravesend Area
Greenwich Industrial History. Web site
Hiscock. A History of Gravesend
Kent Rail. Web site
Lost Pubs Project. Web site
Pallant. The Gravesend West Branch
Pevsner and Cherry. West Kent
PLA Monthley
Port of London Magazine
Richmond and Turton. The Brewing Industry
Romance of the Amalgamated Press
Stoyel and Kidner. Cement Railways of Kent
Thames Tugs. Web site
Tolhurst and Hudson. Alfred Tolhurst

Edith had better admit to a Gravesend childhood – hence some otherwise unsourced are memories included