Sunday, 29 May 2016

Riverside - south of the river, west of the Tower. Kew

Riverside - south  of the river, west of the Tower. Kew

Post to the south Kew


Cambridge Cottages
When the creek leading to the pond and the old dock were filled in the late 19th the cottages here were built on the site of what were known as Twiggets Meadows.
Cambridge Road
The name relates to the 7th son of George III, Adolphus.
Wesleyan Chapel, previously the Gloucester Road Wesleyan Chapel.  It was built in 1895 by R.Curwen and is now housing.
Stable – this is a house converted from a 19th stable and garages once belonging to a house in Mortlake Road.


Cumberland Road
The name relates to the Duke of Cumberland, a name often given to Royal dukes
24-26 Kew College. Fee paying private school.
The Queen’s Church of England School. In 1810, a "Free School" was opened in St Anne's Church, financed by subscribers plus a contribution by George III. In 1824 it moved to near the pond on Kew Green.  The foundation stone was laid on the birthday of George IV, who gave £300 if the school was called "The King's Free School". Queen Victoria allowed it be called "The Queen's School" and said the name should change according to the monarch. The school moved to Cumberland Road in 1969


Defoe Avenue
Built 1902 on the estates of John Poupart and James Pocock.

Forest Road
This was part of the ‘ware ground’ – land attached or near the weir – and was liable to flood. The road was built on the estate of The Priory.
The Priory. This was originally built in the early 19th by Miss Doughty of Richmond Hill as a sort of gothic summer house, with a chapel and a couple of rooms – plus an aviary and stables. Later, after her death it became a ‘gentleman’s residence’. It was sited roughly on the west side of the bend in the road
Sherwood House. This has a plaque above the door with ‘Cumberland House’.  This large building appears to date from the 1880s and to have been in the grounds of 41 Mortlake Road. It is now housing for ‘Lifelong Homes’.


Gloucester Road
Part of the Engleheart Estate built 1892-4. This is another road name referring to the title of several royal dukes.
Blue plaque to the impressionist Camille Pissarro. This is on the Gloucester Road wall of 10a Kew Green. Pissaro stayed here in 1892

Kew Bridge
Ferry. This was Kew Ferry or Kings Ferry and approximately on the site of Kew Bridge.  In 1605 the Crown had granted it to a Walter Hickman, although he was not the first to operate it.  It was later owned by Robert Tunstall of Brentford who built the first bridge here and also operated another ferry slightly upstream. It was also called Powell’s ferry.
Kew Bridge was opened in 1903 as King Edward VII Bridge by the King with Queen Alexandra. It was designed by John Wolfe Barry and Cuthbert A. Brereton. It is a primary route joining the south and north circular roads and is the third bridge on site. It replaced the second bridge on the recommendations of John Wolfe Barry in order to cope with increased traffic. It was commissioned Middlesex and Surrey County Councils with engineers were Barry and Brereton and the building contractors were Easton Gibbs and Sons. It is in Cornish Granite. All three bridges have been much painted and depicted by various artists.
Kew Bridge. The first Kew Bridge was a toll bridge dedicated to George, Prince of Wales and his mother Augusta, and dated from 1759. The royal family was then leasing Kew House and George's mother Augusta started the botanic gardens here. It was built by Robert Tunstall of Brantford, the predecessor ferry owners. It had two stone arches at each end and seven timber arches between them. This was a problem for barge traffic and barge owners objected to it, it was also damaged by barges. It only lasted 30 years and in 1782 Robert Tunstall, son of the original builder rebuilt it.
Kew Bridge. The second bridge was built by the younger Robert Tunstall from 1783. It was designed by James Paine and the money for it was raised through a tontine. It had tollbooths at the Brentford end of the bridge and it was completely built in stone alongside the first bridge. It was opened in 1789 by George, who was now king. It was sold off by auction in 1819 and in 1873 when it was bought by a consortium of the City Corporation and the Metropolitan Board of Works. They abolished the tolls and built a triumphal arch at the Brentford end. By the 1890s it became unable to cope with the amount of traffic and was rebuilt.  However in 1896 Thorneycroft steam delivery vans passed over the bridge with half a ton of scrap iron and four passengers – and survived!

Kew Green
This is the east side of the Green. The western half of the Green, west of Kew Road, is in the square to the west.
Pond. It is thought that this was once a natural pond fed from a small creek from the Thames and connected to the dock and the barge house. It may have been connected to a fishery in the 14th. During high tides sluice gates are opened to allow river water to fill the pond through an underground channel. It was concreted in the 1930s, rectangular and has a reed bed habitat. It was painted by Gainsborough and used for the watering of horses and soaking wooden cartwheels when the iron rims work loose.
King’s School. - This was on a site between the Green and the Priory at the start of what is now Whatcombe Cottages on the north side. Land was acquired from Miss Doughty between 1810 and 1824 and a school built here in the gothic style. It was paid for by subscriptions from local people including from George IV.  It was thus called The King’s School – and the name has changed with the sex of the monarch since. It opened in 1824. Boys and girls were taught separately and while the school was free for Kew children, those from elsewhere had to pay. It was rebuilt in board school style in the 1880s. It has now moved again and is Queen’s School in Cumberland Road.
2-4 Bank House. It has been said that this is where the Palace Guard lodged in the late 18th. It is also said to be an 18th house. It is marked as a bank on the 1913 OS map and later, in 1935, with a works to the rear. It is understood that the bank was Barclays
8 Coach and Horses. Kew’s oldest inn this is now a hotel and a Young’s’ pub.  It is is said to be a 17th-century coaching inn, opposite the Royal Botanic Gardens.  Before 1771 it was on the other side of the road at no.11 where it had previously been The Rising Sun. There was a stable to the rear which in the early 20th was used to house horses for various local businesses
14 Post Office. In the 18th this was a pub called the Cock and Hoop. And later the Ewe and Lamb
18 18th house with original cast iron railings
22 Eastside House. This has a blue plaque to the Pre-Raphaelite painter Arthur Hughes, who was here 1858 - 1915
24 Haverfield House. It is the biggest house on the east side of the Green and is a 19th house maybe built around an earlier interior.  It was the home by the Superintendent of Kew Gardens 1766-1784, John Haverfield who managed the royal estates in Kew in the 18th. His granddaughter was the subject of the Gainsborough portrait Miss Haverfield now in the Wallace Collection and the family lived here over several generations.
52-56 Cambridge Cottage, 18th brick house
74 site of Eglantine Cottage, which was at 20 Waterloo Place and demolished in 1940
82 The Greyhound. This building dates from 1937 replacing a pub opened in the 1850s
90-96 Waterloo Place. Terrace of 4 houses. With a stone tablet inscribed "Waterloo Place." 1816". Clearly named for patriotic reasons.
110 Caxton House. Caxton Name Plate Company was founded in 1964 and ceased business in 1997
Attfield’s Forge. This was on the site north of Caxton House and was demolished for the building of the present Kew Bridge. Attfield was the last proper blacksmith in Kew.

Kew Railway Bridge
Kew Railway Bridge across the river. This opened in 1869 having been built following an Act of 1864 for the London and South Western Railway Company so they could extend their line from South Acton Junction to Richmond. It was designed by W.R.Galbraith and built by Brassey & Ogilvie having been approved by Thames Conservators. Three spans are supported by four pairs of cast iron cylinders and it has wrought iron lattice girders with decorative iron caps to the piers at the junctions of the girders. During the Second World War a pillbox was built to guard it on the south end, along with an open enclosure to fire an anti-tank gun from.

Leyborne Park
Leyborne Lodge. House which originally was part of the Brick Farm estate and the home of a succession of market gardeners. Probably early 19th

Old Dock Close
Built on the filled-in dock, which served the new Parish Wharf.  .

Priory Road
Built on the site of a neo-gothic house called Kew Priory
Cecil Court – Care Home. It is said this was Priory Lodge. This was the lodge to the Priory Estate, built in Tudor style.

Riverside
Riverside walk on the south bank. The river bank has been raised to form the Thames walkway. The Port of London Authority is responsible for the bank and Richmond Council for the walkway.
Priory Estate. The Priory was built in the area of what is now Forest Road. The area had been known as the Ware Ground – ‘ware’ being thought to be a corruption of ‘weir’. This part of the ‘ware’ was granted by Henry III plus the fishery rights, to Merton Abbey. To the west the area was called Stony Close, which had been granted to Shene Charterhouse.  The fishery rights were subject to a great deal of abuse and subsequent regulation. After the dissolution the land and the rights passed into secular and private hands.
Priory Park House – was previously a house called The Casino converted from what had been the stables of The Priory. It is now Priory Park Club which provides tennis and bowls facilities having been founded in the early 20th.
Short Lots. This covers “one acre, one rood and 28 perches”- and the name dates from at least the early 18th. . And was common land until it was “enclosed” in 1824 and given as private property to George IV.  In 1917, Short Lots was divided into just over 50 plots for families to cultivate and feed themselves during the Great War.  In 1938 plot holders raised funds to provide a permanent water supply. In the Second World War it was enthused by the “Dig for Victory” campaign, and now, because of renewed interest in natural food.  There is a Short Lots Users Group (SLUG) and part of Kew Horticultural Society.
Creek leading to Kew Pond. This was constructed in a dog-leg, so as to allow the Lord Mayor's barge to get out of the barge house. A bridge carried the path across this creek. The King’s School stood at the head of the creek and there were complaints about its smell of the creek and it was later covered over
Kew dock. This was the centre of the local fishing industry until it was wiped out by pollution around 1850. It is said that this was used by Henry VIII in 1530 which connected to the Kew Green ponds with a barge house at the river end
City of London barge house. This was between the Toll House and Watcombe Cottages. It is said to have housed the ‘Maria Wood’- the State Barge of the Lord Mayor and Corporation of London. The barge was also housed on the other side of the river at Strand on the Green. It was named after the wife or the daughter of Matthew Wood, Lord Mayor of London 1815 and 1816. Its 140 ft length meant that a special barge house was needed parallel to the river but which could be filled with rifer water from the eastern end. It needed six watermen with sweeps to move it or six horses to tow and was later fitted with a steam engine.
Thames Conservancy toll house. In about 1843 the barge house was extended to the west to become the Toll House, which was later enlarged. It was then used by the Thames Conservancy and later the Port of London Authority. The barge house itself was dismantled in the early 1900’s   Oliver’s Ait was also used as a store and the barge master at one time  lived and worked s as toll collector there. The Kew Toll Keeper was responsible for the maintenance of the City Barge. The Toll House is now a private house and has a flood marker on the wall below the window
Drawdock at Kew Toll House
Toll House Studios. Built in the 1930s by the Port of London Authority as amenity buildings and in other use since the 1950sl
Twiggets Meadows – these became the site of Cambridge Cottages,
Westerley Ware. The area generally was known as the Westerly Ware, after the weir, which the fishermen constructed across the river. There was an Easterly Ware further downstream.
Westerley Ware. This is a small recreation ground between Waterloo Place and the riverbank. This was common land and until the 18th was much larger and probably used by fishermen as a place to beach boats and mend nets. The name refers to the use of netting weirs for fishing. It includes a memorial garden to the fallen in the Great War, three tennis courts and a children's playground. In 2007 the local Westerley Ware Association raised funds for new entrance gates, designed and made by a local smith, Shelley Thomas
Kew Pier. Used for river boat services

Ruskin Avenue
Ministry of Labour Claims and Records Office . These were temporary buildings erected during the Greater War and subsequently used by various other government departments
Crown Building. This was built by J. C. Clavering, superintendent architect under W. S. Bryan of the Whitehall Development Group of the Ministry of Public Building and Works in 1967-9. It was square single-storey block on stilts, overlooking the Thames. As the first purpose-built open plan office in this country it was seen as  an experimental design intended as a possible prototype for future government offices.  It has since been demolished.
Public Records Office. The Public Record Office was established in 1838 in Chancery Lane. The building at Kew was built by the Property Services Agency, H. J. McMaster, J. C. Clavering, and G. O. Miller, planned from 1969 and built in 1973-7. It is designed to house modern records on large scale with space for 500 readers in s five storeys and a basement. It was concrete-clad in the style of the late sixties. Furniture was by the Property Services Agency and seats and desks are now provided with facilities for computer use by readers. The entire system for ordering documents is automated and they which arrive by means of conveyor belts from the central service core. 

Strand Drive
Kew Riverside Park. This housing development was built by St George Plc which is part of the Berkeley Group. It is made up of 6 blocks - these are five private blocks - Birchgrove House, Charlwood House, Dorchester House, Earls House and Farringdon House. The sixth block is Amelia House and is 'social' housing managed by Thames Valley Housing. The private get 10 of grounds acres adjoining the river Thames, 24 hour concierge service and there is a gym and business centre. The social housing doesn’t.  The site was riverside meadows and allotments. In 1929 the then Ministry of Labour Claims and Records Office built offices here in what was then Occupation Road. This was succeeded by Crown Buildings - which had riverside views, now enjoyed by the private housing. The National Archive is now also on the site, but inland.
Post Office stores used as a POW camp for Italians in the Second World War. The prisoners painted on glass and this is preserved in the Public Record Office.

Sources
Aldous. Village London
Blomfield. Kew Past
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Clarke. Cottages and Common Fields of Richmond and Kew
Field. London place names
GLIAS. Newsletter
Greater London Council. Thames Guidelines
Historic England. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site
Palmer.  Ceremonial Barges on the River Thames.
Panorama of the Thames. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Pevsner. Surrey
The Kingston Zodiac

Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames
Walford. Village London,

Wednesday, 25 May 2016

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Kew

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Kew

Post to the east Riverside Mortlake
Post to the north Kew


Atwood Avenue
The Attwood family were local market gardeners
St.Phillip’s and All Saints Church. Built with the timbers of a 16th barn bought from Stonehall Farm, Oxted, in 1929. It was offered to the area by the Hoare and Lambert families because it was felt new churches were needed. It was the first church in England to be built from a barn. The original barn was L-shaped, and used at various times for cattle and to store of hops and other crops. When the timbers were dismantled and moved to Kew in 1929, they were numbered - the numbers remain on the beams. They were then reassembled to create one long nave. The timbers are thought to come from 16th ships and the 16th panelling behind the altar may be even older. The north and south entrances are paved with threshing stones. One of the Hoare family supplied 2-inch bricks of 17th style from the family’s Basingstoke brick works, which matched the timbers. It was dedicated by the Bishop of Southwark in 1929. The Lady Chapel was added in 1933 by Hugh Easton.  There is a later development of the west end for community purposes

Bessant Drive
The Bessants were market gardeners based at West Lodge
Kew Retail Park. This is on the site of the Chrysler factory. The American firm Chrysler Motors opened a factory here in the early 1920s. They could beat UK import restrictions by assembling pre-made parts shipped from the USA. They gave their UK cars the names of Surrey towns to make them more palatable to UK buyers, so there was the Chrysler ‘Kew’. They also owned the Dodge truck company, and also made these vehicles at Kew. After the Second World War, truck manufacturing was their main product and the vehicles were called ‘Kew Dodge’. The factory closed in 1967 and production moved to Dunstable.

Blake Mews
Converted industrial units in what was a ‘little cobbled street off Station Approach”
F.C. Blake. This firm of motor engineers moved here from Hammersmith in 1901.They made engines for motor manufacturers but after 1903 made light railway locomotives and marine engines,.

Brick Farm Close
Housing on the site of what was Brick Farm, once known as Brick Stables. This was a large mansion, home to the owners of the Manor, and the surrounding estate was let to market gardeners. It was the home of Sir William Hooker, the botanist and first Director of Kew Gardens. He was there 1841-1852
Brick Stables here was once a famous for the asparagus grown here

Clifford Avenue
Start of Great Chertsey Road built in 1933 when Lower Mortlake Road and Lower Richmond Road were widened to join the new bridges at Twickenham and Chiswick.
Hammersmith Cemetery. The Cemetery dates from the early 20th and was built for Hammersmith burials when the old cemetery on Margravine Road.  Thus it is sometimes called Hammersmith New Cemetery. It is originally designed to have two chapels, but the funds ran out and only one was built, a small Gothic brick chapel in the centre with paths radiating from it. There is a brick and timbered lodge inside the gates. The original planting was 'lavish and extraordinarily varied'.

Courtlands Avenue
37 Riverside Primary School. This opened in 2003.

High Park Road
Bridge over the railway to Sandycombe Road built by Southern Railway for residents of the Popham Estate – and looks like a railway bridge.

Kew Gardens Road
14 Loreto House. This was opened as a Catholic chapel in 1898 and eventually replaced by the current church in Leybourne Park

Layton Place
This is built on what were an area of sidings from the rail line and latterly the site of a factory.  It is now housing.

Leyborne Park
Built 1905 as part of the Leybourne-Popham Estate.
1 Our Lady of Loreto and St.Winefride. Roman Catholic Church built in 1906 by Scoles & Raymond. The Society of Mary first established a Catholic mission in a temporary chapel which this church replaced. The church was dedicated and consecrated in 1979 by all debts having been cleared.
Parish Hall. Designed by Maguire & Murray, 1978-9 added in 1968.It includes a smaller meeting room and is located next to the church.


Lichfield Road
Named after George Selwyn, Bishop of Lichfield.

Lindley Place
Power  House, converted to housing.

Melliss Avenue
New road built in the area of the sewage works with posh housing.

Mortlake Road
This was once called Sand Lane. At the junction of what is now Townmead Road were houses and the buildings of brick farm.
Gipsy Corner. This little green was apparently once a camping place for gypsies.
179 This is the remains of West Lodge  at one time one of a group of substantial houses here, mainly concerned with market gardening. Early 19th brick house.
159 This is the headquarters and factory of fashion retailer Jigsaw. This is a sizeable factory hidden away down an alleyway between houses.  It appears to have once been workshops for exhibition specialists

North Road
North Sheen recreation ground. This dates from around 1904 and was opened in 1909 and extended in 1923. It was originally part of an orchard on the Popham Estate, owned by the Leyborne Pophams. In the Second World War it was used for allotments. Known locally as "The Rec", it has football pitches, a children's paddling pool, two extensive playgrounds, and a large dog-free grassed area.  There are also buildings in the southern part, in the square to the south.
Footbridge. Built in 1912, this is south of the station and crosses the rail line. It is an example of a structure built using a pioneering technique devised by the French engineer, Hennebique. It has a narrow deck and very high walls, designed to protect its users' clothing from the smoke of steam trains passing underneath. It also has protrusions on either side of the deck to deflect smoke away from the bridge structure. Built by Southern Railway.
Brown plaque on the footbridge – which describes the bridge above.

North Sheen Cemetery.
North Sheen Cemetery. This was laid out by Fulham Council in 1926 – also known as Fulham New Cemetery. The red brick chapel was designed by Arthur Holden, Fulham Borough Engineer, and opened in 1931. Following war damage stained glass by Antoine Acket was put into the chapel. . There aerie bulbous stone piers around the perimeter said to be in the cinema moderne style of the 1920s  Two gaunt mausolea. There is a Roman Catholic section, which has led to the burials of many Poles and Russians. The cemetery includes 110 identified graves of Commonwealth dead from the Great War and the Second World War. There is also a memorial garden to dead in both world wars with conifers and rose beds, seating, and a broken circle of brick piers linked at the top by timber. The main entrance is in Lower Richmond Road in the square to the south.

Riverside walk
Trees – planted to Screen the sewage works from the river
Dock south of the sewage works which brought in dung for the market gardeners,

Sandycombe Road
Once known as Sandy Lane or Blind Lane.
St.Luke’s House Educational Centre. This was a Church of England School. It was Built on site originally intended for St.Luke’s church but built as an iron church while the real church, St. Luke’s, funded by the Poupart family of market gardeners was built elsewhere.  The iron church was moved across the road by the diocese and thus building put up as the new St. Luke’s school. This has now moved on and the building is houses nursery schools and community activities,
192 -194 Kew Gardens Hotel. 1890s hotel and pub
121 J. Hickey and Sons. Boiler makers, steam engine works and heavy haulage contractors.
Victoria and St.Johns. This was the Victoria Working Men’s club, visited by many Royals. And in fact it was the Poupart' Iron church moved across the road. It now houses a billiard hall and a martial arts school


South Avenue
2 South Avenue Studios. Industrial site – marked on 1950s maps as a works, to the north of the road and a warehouse to the south. Backing onto the railway.
Shop. Charles Cross, Edward Bevan and Clayton Beadle had a small shop here where they made the first commercially successful rayon and patented it in 1894. This was a safer product than had previously been developed.
Stoke Pottery Works. Present here in 1929. Histories of the Stoke Pottery do not mention a works here but the company had a design called ‘Kew’.
1 Film Cooling Towers. Present in the 1990s and making anti legionella equipment.
2 John Charles Coachbuilders. In the 1930w they were making auto sports bodies here for Citroen, British Salmson and Alvis.

Station Approach
9 Post Office building, now in other use.

Station Avenue
Viscose Spinning Mill. Occupied by the short-lived Viscose Spinning Syndicate 1900-3; since then used for a variety of light industrial purposes. In 1892 Cross, Bevan and Clayton Beadle discovered viscose, or sodium cellulose xanthate, and patented it – This was to be the foundation of the rayon industry. They carried out research here and eventually found how to process viscose: cellulose, in the form of wood pulp, and manufacture spinnable fibres. At first the thought was to  use it for filaments in incandescent electric light bulbs but they also suggested a possible use in textiles and the term "artificial silk" was later used. The process was soon after sold to Courtaulds. The site was later used for housing and studio workshop development.
Archer Works, Cowey Engineering Co. 1937 Speedometer manufacturers and experimental engineers. "Cowey" Speedometers and Tachometer.
Utile Motor Manufacturing.  This firm made a light car here in 1904.

Station Place
Kew Gardens Station.  This opened in 1869.  Today it lies between Richmond and Gunnersbury Stations on the District Line and on the Overground (North London Line). The station was built for the London and South West Railway in 1877 as part of the Kensington and Richmond Railway. This line began at South Acton and went on to Richmond but a station between Richmond and Kensington was required to be built by the enabling Act.  The Metropolitan District Railway first used it in 1877 for their District Line service between Kensington and Richmond. It is one of the few remaining 19th stations on the North London line. The two storey yellow brick station buildings are protected as part of the Kew Gardens conservation area.  The refreshment pavilion is contemporary with the station house and provided for visitors to the Royal Botanic Gardens Line.
Tap on the Line. Fuller’s Pub, said to be the only pub on a London Underground station platform.  It is also said that it originally a Timber Steaming Hall. Later, it became the Buffet Rooms. It has also been called The Railway and also The Flower and Firkin.

Townmead Road
Refuse and Recycling Centre. This is run by London Borough of Richmond as part of West London Waste Authority
Richmond Gymnastics Association. This is a private club managed by volunteers. It was formed in 1992 as the successor to Staveley Gymnastics Association which dated from 1960.
Mortlake Crematorium. This was built on the site of Pink's Farm, which had belonged to Richard Atwood, whose family were local market gardener. It is adjacent to the cemetery and separated by a tall hedge. It dates from 1936 following the Mortlake Crematorium Act 1936 and the first established in this way. It was designed by Douglas Barton the Hammersmith Borough surveyor and was built in three years. Seen as an Art Deco building, it has been described as “of exceptional quality and character”. In 1982 Colin Gilbert, an designed additional gardens between the crematorium and the River Thames

Victoria Cottages
Cottages for farm workers from the 1830s.
West Hall Road
West Hall. A house of the late 17th – ot may date from 1675. This was the centre of a small hamlet in this area of which it was the ‘big house’.
Sewage works. This works was built by Richmond Main Sewerage Board – which was a a joint board of Richmond, Mortlake and Barnes. It was dominated by the chimney of the power house. When the rural authority ceased to exist in 1892, part of its area was added to the borough of Richmond. The Works opened in 1891, and were reconstructed 1947-1960.  The works is still shown on late 1980s maps although clearly it is now closed– and it is also assumed that the gateway at the end of the road was the entrance to the works. There is now posh housing on the site.

West Park Avenue
Built 1925. This follows the line of the driveway into what was West Hall.

West Park Road
Built 1902 on the estates of John Poupart and James Pocock. The Second V2 fell here on 12th September 1944 destroying eight houses.


Sources
Barn church. Web site
Blomfield. Kew Past
Chrysler of the United Kingdom. Web site
District Dave. Web site
Fullers Pubs. Web site
GLIAS Newsletter
Greater London Council.  Thames Guidelines
Jackson. London’s Local Railways
Knowles. Surrey and the Motor
London County Council. Sewage works leaflet
London Borough of Richmond. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
London Gardens Online. Web site
National Archive. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. South  London
Pevsner.  Surrey
Richmond Gymnastics Association. Web site
Robbins. North London Railway
Williams. London and South West Railway

Thursday, 19 May 2016

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Riverside Mortlake

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Riverside Mortlake


Post to the south Mortlake and east Sheen
Post to the east Barnes Bridge
Post to the west Kew


Aynscombe Path
Now part of Willams Lane

Bulls Alley
The alley marks the boundary of the original brewery site. It leads to a Drawdock now barricaded to prevent flooding.
Brewery Wharf. There are rails remaining from cranes used here.

Clifford Avenue
The road was originally planned in the 1920s as a relief road from London to the South West. Construction began in 1928 and the road, with Chiswick and Twickenham Bridges, was opened in 1933.
Chiswick Bridge. The bridge replaced a ferry, which closed when it opened. It is a reinforced concrete deck arch bridge faced with Portland Stone. It was designed by architect Herbert Baker and County Engineer Alfred Dryland. It was opened in 1933 to relieve traffic congestion west of London and carries the A316 which was a new arterial road built in the early 1930s. under the same act as Twickenham Bridge as part of the Great Chertsey arterial road scheme agreed between Middlesex and Surrey County Councils, and designed to relieve pressure on Hammersmith Bridge and in Richmond. It was formally opened by the Duke of Windsor as Prince of Wales in 1933. It was built by the Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Company. When it opened the central span was the longest concrete span over the Thames.It remains a major transport route.


Pinks Farm
This farm was still extant in the 1930s. It is now the site of the crematorium


Ship Lane
An old lane now running down to the river between the walls of brewery buildings. The Manor House once stood to the east of here,


Thames Bank 
Cedars. This large house lay to the west of the site of the Bishop’s Palace and dated from at least the 18th.   It was gone by 1920 and the site had been taken into the brewery.
Bishop's Palace. This was the former Manor House. The Manor belonged to the Archbishops' of Canterbury from the 11th until 1536.  The house was use by the Archbishops and nine of them died there. At the dissolution the manor was given to Thomas Cromwell who enlarged it, and it was later given to Catherine Parr and then to Thomas Cecil. The house then beamed disused after a grander house was built in Wimbledon in 1576 and it slowly decayed. Only ruins remained to be demolished early in the 18th. The land on which it stood was leased to a market gardener and subsequently by the brewery
Ferry.  There seems to have been a ferry here although this is very unclear – as it also is slightly up river at Chiswick Bridge.  On the riverbank by the Ship Inn is a drawdock and watermen’s stairs – which might indicate a ferry site - and indeed there appears to have been something “east side of the road leading to the river by the “Ship," in the 17th. The Panorama of the Thames shows a ‘hut’ here. “a refuge for ferrymen”. Further upstream Chiswick Bridge is said to have replaced a ferry – presumably this is in the enabling legislation - But Joan Tucker says in her book on Ferries that there was no ferry here.
Riding school.  The 1893 OS shows a ‘Riding School’ on the riverside downstream of Ship Lane – the current site of the Maltings. This may account for the ornate gazebo shown in photographs on this corner up to the time the malting were built – or is this the ferryman’s hut.
Ship.  The pub dates from the early 19th but there has been a pub here since the 16th then called Hunters Horn.  In the 17th it was called the Blue Anchor.  .
Maltings building. 8 storey building on the riverside built by Watney in 1903 and unused for Malting since 1954
Thames Cottage. This house with a sharply pitched roof was called Church House in 1608 when it and given to the parish by Thomas Whitfield. The rents were to be used to maintain the parish church.  In the 18th it was the Star and Garter Pub.
Wall Post Box
Tudor Cottage. This was built in 1750 and called Tudor Lodge,
Thames Bank House   this was built in the grounds of Leyden House in 1730. The gothic front was added in about 1815
The Old Stables
Leydon House. This dates to the 15th but the facade is 18th
Boat Race End. This stone, set into the setts, marks the spot where the University Boat race ends.
Cromwell House. James Wigan, of the Mortlake Brewery, demolished old Cromwell house and built a new Cromwell House on Thames Bank. This was a brick villa with fine Tudor style chimneys. It had 14 bedrooms, a nursery and school-room, servants’ quarters, vast cellars, a billiard room and several offices and other minor rooms. James Wigan moved there in 1858. After their deaths the house became derelict but a caretaker lived in part of the property for some 20 years. In 1940 the Local Defence Volunteers built a hut in the gardens. It was demolished in 1947 when the land was bought by Watneys. The brewery developed the site apart from the area of the actual house.
Cromwell House. The brewery eventually built a third Cromwell House on this site. Employees of the brewery lived in a modern terrace of houses which was demolished in 1990. This final piece of land near to the river was sold and the present Parliament Mews was built in 1992
Parliament Mews. These are on the site of the second and third Cromwell houses and the original high boundary walls of Cromwell House still exist today as the boundary wall of Parliament Mews 
The path under the bridge now forms part of the Thames Path, the northernmost arch was used by the Tideway Scullers club for storage


Thames Street
Thames Street ran from the junction of today’s Mortlake High Street and Lower Richmond Road at Mortlake Green. It ran from there to the river but became subsumed into the brewery.
Mortlake Brewery. This was visually very prominent on the riverbank. It grew from this area to dominate the riverside and a considerable distance inland (partly covered by the square to the south).  The first brewer here war said to be a John Morgan in 1487 who is Said to have connections with the Archbishops’ Palace and hoping to supply the new royal household at Sheen.  He is not thought to have been a forerunner of two commdercial breweries recorded in 1765 on either side of Thames Street – one owned by James Weatherstone and the other by William Richmond. By 1780 Richmond’s brewery was in the ownership of John Prior while Weatherstone had a partner called Carteret John Halford. Weatherstone and Halford extended their brewery northwards to the river in 1807 and then in 1811 took over Prior’s brewery, merging them into one – which is said to have supplied the British army with India Pale Ale. Following deaths and takeovers by 1841 it was owned by Phillips and Wigan. In 1865 they bought all the properties along the river frontage, and shut the alleys and streets that ran through the brewery premises, including Thames Street and Brewhouse Lane. The brewery was then substantially rebuilt and eventually control of the brewery passed in 1877 solely to the Philips family. In 1889 the Phillips were taken over by Watney’s of the Stag brewery, Pimlico. At Mortlake they made pale ales and bitter beers, and for many years all the bitter for Watney’s London trade was brewed at Mortlake and taken down river by two barges, called Mollie and Ann. In 1898 Witney’s merged with Reid’s of Clerkenwell and Combe’s of Covent Garden, to become the largest brewing concern in London.  Mortlake brewery was then rebuilt including an eight-storey maltings by the riverside in 1903 on the eastern corner of Ship Lane.  In 1930 Watney’s bought a bulk beer pasteuriser from Germany, and began experimenting with pressurised keg beer. Two years later, in 1935, the company launched the Mortlake-brewed Watney’s Special bitter, stronger and more expensive than the “ordinary” bitter. In 1971 Watney’s began again too expand the Mortlake brewery but were taken over by Grand Metropolitan.  By the 1980s, under Grand Met, Mortlake was a massive lager brewery producing Fosters and Holsten Export as well as Watney’s Special and Watney’s Pale Ale. The brewery was renamed 'Stag' to reflect the Pimlico brewery where Watney had started – by then closed. Mortlake was leased to Anheuser-Busch to make Budweiser. An announcement that the site was to close was made in 2009, and by 20135 the site had been sold to a Singapore based developer.


Williams Lane
This part of the lane was previously Aynscombe Lane and before that Cromwell Lane
Cromwell House. Old Cromwell House was a brick mansion with land stretching from the Lower Richmond Road to the riverside path on what is now Thames Bank. It stood on a site now used by the brewery and facing onto what is now Williams Lane.  It got its name from Thomas Cromwell who had local connections, not only through his birth in Putney but through a sister with links to the brewery trade., .In the late 17th it was the home of Edward Colston of the London Mercers' Company with strong links to Bristol. Colston created a fine garden and added the gazebo with views across the Thames. The houses subsequently passed to the Aynscombe family. In 1858 it was bought by James Wigan, of the Mortlake Brewery, who demolished it built a new Cromwell House on Thames Bank. The stone and ironwork gates still exist in Williams Lane although they have been moved from their original site some 40 meters to the west.
Gate Piers of the former Cromwell House. With a niche in the street fronts. The gate is 18th wrought iron and is shown on a painting of 1790 n front of Cromwell House. In 1961 Watney's moved them west as the entrance to the Sports Club Bowling Greens.  They are now the entrance to flats.
Bowling Greens. Behind these gates are recently built flats but they were previously the site of two bowling greens. These were part of Watney's Sports & Social Club, which closed in 2000, leaving the greens derelict.


Sources
Barnes and Mortlake History Society. Web site
Brown. Barnes and Mortlake Past
History of the Parish of Mortlake. Web site
London Parks and Gardens Trust. Web site
Panorama of the Thames. Web site
SABRE Web site
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames
Wikipedia. Chiswick Bridge. Web site
Zythophile. Web site

Monday, 16 May 2016

Riverside south bank, west of the Tower - Mortlake and east Sheen

Riverside south bank, west of the Tower - Mortlake and east Sheen

Post to the east Barnes Common
Post to the north Riverside Mortlake

Alder Road
Gym. The Second Mortlake Scout Group meets here. They were formed in 1919 and are attached to St. Mary the Virgin Church. The gym is a large corrugated iron building which appears to be post Second World War or to have previously been in use as a library.
Girl Guides Centre. This appears to be on the same site as the scouts but to the rear of the Gym
Sea Scouts Hall. This appears to date from 1963 and was presumably rebuilt after the fire mentioned below.  The Sea Scout group itself dated from before the Second World War. A group from Mortlake were part of the Dunkirk landings in their boat Minotaur and worked on other boats.  In August 1950 - all ten scouts on board were killed when their vessel Wangle III was lost on a return voyage from France. A memorial stone with all the names was unveiled in their building. The hall was later burnt down but the stone, was placed in St Mary’s Church in Mortlake . The hall is now used by a day nursry. The New Stepping Stones


Bull Alley
Narrow pathway leading through brewery buildings and the riverside (on the next square). It was  named for local corn chandler, Richard Bull. 

Church Avenue
This follows the line of what was Church Path, running from St. Mary’s church to the Upper Richmond Road. At both ends it becomes a path again.
Church Path
There are two parts of this path at either end of the now suburbanised Church Avenue
Plaque. This is on a wall near the church, and says, ‘This path forms part of an old track from the village of Sheen to Mortlake church. It was used for walking funerals until the 19th when the railway cut across it.


East Sheen Avenue
All Saints Church. This is built on land left by Major Shepherd-Cross MP who lived at Palewell Lodge from 1896. It was consecrated on All Saints Day 1929 .The foundation for the church having been laid by the late Queen Mother. It is by J.E. Newberry & C.W.Fowler. It was partly burnt down 1965 and rebuilt. The style of worship is modern catholic. The Suzy Lamplugh window commemorates the estate agent who disappeared and was installed in 1996. The terracotta Stations of the Cross are by local sculptor Nathan David are in memory of her parents

Forty Alley
This footpath runs from Kingsway to St. Leonard’s Road, crossing the railway by a bridge. Installed when the railway was built this was originally a crossing with stiles.

Lower Richmond Road
This road – named as Thames Street – once ran on to the riverside from the corner of Mortlake Green. This area was eventually subsumed into the Brewery.
Mortlake Hotel. Closed in 1955 this is now used as offices. It had previously been the Kings Head which offered a horse and chaise hire business.
Church. The original parish church was on the site on which the brewery was built.  Mortlake was once part of a larger Manor and the parish church was in Wimbledon. A church was built here n 1348. This was demolished after land ownerships changed and the church built on the present site in 1543.
Burial ground. The original parish burial ground was a piece of land next to the old chapel given by the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1383.
Manor House. The brewery covers the area of the original manor house. It was demolished n the 18th,
Stag Brewery. This is now closing and is finally owned by Budweiser – AB InBev. Commercial brewing in Mortlake began during the 18th in a site near the river. From the 1830s this began to expand and more inland sites were acquired. In 1865 Philips and Wigan built a e new brewery including  a long, high brick wall fronting Mortlake High Street on which the initials P & W were carved into stone roundels beside the legend 'Mortlake Brewery, 1869'. These remain n the wall. By 1877 Phillips was the sole owner, and was joined by his snobs. He died in 1889 and the sobs sold out to Watneys. In 1898 Watney's became Watney, Combe, Reid and Co. In the 20th the brewery developed westward and increasingly. When Watney’s Stag Brewery in Victoria, was demolished in 1959, the name was transferred to Mortlake Brewery and there is a Stag relief on a block by the gates.  During the 1960s use of modern technology meant a steady decline in the workforce. In 1995 Anheuser Busch, the US brewing giant, leased the site and brewed Budweiser there
Jolly Gardeners. This is a Young's Pub called The Three Tuns in the 18th. The present name dates from 1796 maybe as a reference to market gardens locally. . The current building dates from 1922.
The Tapestry. This was previously called The Jolly Milkman and then the Pickled Newt. It was pub but is now primarily a restaurant.
37 Gale’s Honey.  In 1919 Richard Wesley Gale began bottling honey here in a building which seems previously to have been used as a laundry. There is a two storey brick workshop to the rear.
Memorial plaque. This is a war memorial to Watney Coombe and Reid employees in two world wars. This memorial was originally located at the Stag Place Brewery, Pimlico, and was relocated in 1959 when this closed.
Central School. This opened in 1904 and was built by 1905. This was initially a primary school with over sevens in a two storey building with boys and girls separated. In the 1920s it was known as a Junior Mixed and Infant School and in 1918 the larger building became a Central School. The school closed in 1969. Most of the area appears to be covered by Hanson Close although some buildings remain in community use. This is called the Old Bakery and is run by Mortlake Community Association.
Sports ground. This is a private playing field once owned by Watneys which comprises two football/one cricket pitch and a pavilion. This is currently used by Barnes Eagles Football Club

Milton Road
Juxon Almshouses. In 1626 John Juxon bequeathed housing for four poor widows. Almshouses built n 1746 were in Church Path and demolished in 1911. They were rebuilt to front onto Milton Road.

Model Cottages
Model Cottages. These are behind the Waitrose car park. They were set up by the Labourer’s Friendly Society 1853. There is now a plaque on the entrance to this defect.

Mortlake Green
Green. This is said to be the old village green but this had been disproved and cited as an area where brewery drays were parked. It was once called Kings Arms Field. , and was given to the residents of Mortlake by Earl Spencer in 1860 a recreation ground. It has mature trees and shrubs and a basketball practice area. With three shallow stepped terraces from the railway with low stone walls between them. Near the railway is a paved area with brick planters and seating on Sheen Lane. A seat in the upper terrace commemorates Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee. A mound was created and planted in 1985 by Mortlake Brewery, to commemorate 500 years of brewing in Mortlake.

Mortlake High Street
This is now a wide road with blocks of flats and some 18th houses and early 20th council buildings. Until the 1960s this was a narrow high street lined with shops – road widening has totally changed its character.
Electric substation
Stag Brewery. Bottling Building. This was constructed in 1869. It is no longer used for bottling but for storage. There is a rendered area on the south elevation which reads “1869 Mortlake Brewery”. The building has cast iron columns at basement, ground and first floor which hold up arched painted brick ceilings.
2-14 Royal Mail Mortlake and Barnes Delivery building. This dates from the 1950s
Sugar refinery. This was sited to the east of Bull’s Alley in 1688. It was owned by William Mucklow and in 1729 was owned by John Bentley. By the early 1740sthe site was in use as a pottery
Sanders Pottery. The Mortlake Pottery was founded by John Sanders in 1743 and it became London’s largest stoneware works.  Sanders came from Lambeth who moved into his new manufactory in about 1743 when he took over the disused sugar boilers factory.  He made blue and white tin-glazed earthenware –utilitarian pieces for daily use.   His son and then his grandson continued to run the business until 1794 but by 1823 the building was empty. 
Kishere Pottery. This was opposite the Sanders works on the south side of the road.  Joseph Kishere had worked for Sanders but a well off wife and a lottery win allowed him to set up on his own. He made salt glazed stone ware which is durable and relics tend to survive. The products were decorative with plaques showing a variety of popular scenes,
Tithe Barn, demolished 1865. This was to the east of the Kings Arms and latterly used as a corn dealer’s store.
Montpelier House. This 18th house is shown on the 1829 Panorama of the Thames and is said to have been on the site of the house and laboratory of John Dee.
John Dee’s house. Dee was the mathematician, alchemist and astrologer to Elizabeth I who lived in Mortlake from 1567 to his death in 1608.  His home here is said to have been his mother’s house, which he returned to following travel around Europe. Later it included laboratories for his experiments, a cast library as well as rooms for his family and servants.  It is said to have been sited net to the church. It is also said that in the 18th a large panelled room with red and white roses carved and coloured still remained. The tapestry works is said to have been built on the site
John Dee House. Council flats – the block is also said to be on the site of John Dee’s house.
Lower Dutch House. This was part of the Tapestry Works and said to be on the site of John Dee’s house. It became flats in 1877 but was bomb damaged in the Second World War and demolished in 1950. A partial structure and the water gate remained and the site is now a riverside garden with a granite memorial.
Tapestry Works.  The Royal Tapestry Manufactory was established under the patronage of James I in 1619.  James I awarded Sir Walter Crane a Charter a monopoly on the production and sale of some tapestries. The works had 18 looms and employed around 50 workers - many of whom were from Flanders. Commissions for tapestries were received from the King but the manufactory had financial difficulties, Charles I commissioned compositions of Italian artists such as the cartoons of Raphael. The English Civil War brought a temporary halt to new tapestries. An Act of Parliament of 1663 effectively deregulated the industry and several master weavers left the Mortlake works then setting up independent works. Under Charles II, prosperity returned under the management of Sir Sackville Crow but the works gradually declined towards the end of the 17th century and it closed in 1704
Tapestry Court. This site includes the Queens Head Pub. This was a Watney’s pub by the river. It was rebuilt in the 1890s closed in 1932 and is now flats. It was next to the Lower Dutch House.
Tapestry Alley or Queen's Head Court is a narrow opening to the river.
St. Mary the Virgin. After ownership of the Manor passed to the Crown the original chapel was demolished and this church built on a new site. The church and churchyard are thus said to have been given to the parish by Henry VIII 1543. A stone in the tower is inscribed "VIVAT RH8 1543" but may not be genuine. The current structure is mostly by Arthur Blomfield, who lived locally.  The chancel dated from 1885 and the nave is by Blomfeld’s firm built in 1905. This work replaces a rebuilding of 1840 by S. Beachcroft. There is a parish room, rector's office, and choir vestry built in 1980 by Maguire & Murray. The tower is 1543 ordered by Henry VIII to be seen from the river. In the church is a 17th tapestry panel woven at Mortlake.  John Dee the astrologer is said to be buried in the chancel and to have lived opposite the church.
Churchyard.  This was enlarged in 1725/6, in 1742 and again in 1799. It was closed to burials in 1854. It was handed to the local authority in the 1920s. It was restored as a garden in the 1980s and is maintained by the Friends of Mortlake Churchyard as a Quiet Garden. The earliest surviving tomb is that of the astrologer John Partridge, who died 1715.  There is a labyrinth erected in 2003.
Path leading into the churchyard. This marks the former boundary of the parish.
40 Charlie Butler pub. This was built in the late 1960s to replace the nearby Old George.  It was named after the recently retired head horseman at Young's brewery. It closed in 2012
The Old George. This Young’s house was built in the 1600s and demolished in 1963 for road widening
44-46 Gaiety Cinema. This was opened in 1913 by the Mortlake Cinema Company. It closed in 1930. The building was burnt down and demolished in 1961, having been used by the Flush Block Co,
Two Brewers pub. Demolished 1963.
115 Acacia House. An 18th house retaining original features. In the 1850s this was the home of the local catholic priest who ran a boys school here.
177 Afon House. An 18th house, once the home and practice of Dr Charles King
119 Suthrey House.  In 17th this was Upper Dutch house and the projecting part is the only surviving buildings of the Tapestry Works.  In the early 19th t was the home of Charles King, Vestry Clerk who preserved ancient parish documents.
Chitton Alley. In the 18th this led to a small building which may be an outbuilding or boat store belonging to Tower House.
Jubilee Gardens. This is on the site of the Barnes Council depot. It was laid out in 1977 and various names were suggested, but local opinion favoured calling it Jubilee Gardens for the Queen's Jubilee in 1977
Castelnau House. This was originally Tower House.  It belonged to the Boileaus, a Huguenot family who came to England as refugees in 1685. In 1804 Sir John Peter Boileau bought it and named it Castelnau House after his ancestral estate in France. From 1895 to 1907 it was Ashleigh College and was later demolished.
121 The Old Power Station. This is the site of the borough Electricity works. Barnes Urban District Council Electricity Undertaking had been authorised by Provisional Order 1898 and electricity was first supplied from a works built in 1901. Coal was delivered by barges and traces of rail lines remain under new riverfront pang.In 1948 the Electricity Works were situated in the High Street. The number of consumers rose from 125 in 1902 to 12,145 in 1947. At nationalisation The London Electricity Board took over the site and it went out of use. The original turbine hall now houses the local youth club and with some reminders of its past.
123 The Limes. Built in 1720, for the Countess of Strafford. This gas now been converted into flats. The facade and porch are later additions. The house's former residents include Franks, Jewish merchant bankers; Lady Byron, Quintin Hogg, and was used as the  Council House for the Municipal Borough of Barnes from 1895 until 1940, when it was bomb damaged. It originally had seven acres of grounds, now built over.
Field. The limes, after which the house opposite is was named, were in a field on the other side of the High Street.  A field here was later used by the first Barnes Football Club
123 Fire Engine Station. Opened in 1904 by Barnes Municipal Borough. It was originally built as a single-storey structure with a steamer, hose cart and wheeled escape next to Council offices. Two further storeys added shortly afterwards.
The Lord Napier. This was a Watney's pub closed in the 1980s . It his pub also had a separate building at the rear with a bar that overlooked the river.  The stables of the dray horses were next door,
Tideway Yard. This was the old council depot – in fact the depot extended up the High Street on either side of the fire station and electricity works which were no doubt built on council owned property. The Municipal Borough was set up in 1894 and this site seems to have been extant from 1895. The depot was constructed in 1901, and building which are now a restaurant and offices were the stables for the Barnes Council refuse depot. The depot was contained a de-lousing station and the borough mortuary. In the Second World War there were barracks for air raid wardens and a building on Mortlake High Street was built to house the council steamroller. In 1981 the council, by then pat of London Borough of Richmond proposed to demolish the whole site and leave it as an open space but there was public pressure to keep some of the buildings. . An iron walkway was designed for the old stable buildings using cast iron from the County Stand at Aintree racecourse. The gatehouse at the entrance to Tideway Yard was also kept.
Mullins Path
Mullins Path Open Space. Small shady area with play equipment.
Workhouse – this was opened in 1732. The building is still extant as Capel Court. The Workhouse was the building next to Mortlake Hall, now called Capel Court.
29 Capel Court. This is flats in the old workhouse. When it was converted into flats in 1984, planners required its outside appearance to remain the same. In 1819 part of its garden was used for the building of school premises. In 1843 the building was handed over for school premises.
Church of England National School. A School House was built adjacent to St Mary’s church in 1670. Lady Dorothy Capel and Edward Colston left money for a school in the 18th. In 1815 a school was built on what was then the workhouse garden. This was used for infants and then later, in 1843, the workhouse was converted into a school for older children. This was called Mortlake Church School and in 1890 a new infants' school was built through a donation from the Duke of Fife further up the road. The school closed in 1982. The infant school remains as a community centre end nursery school.
30 Mortlake Hall. This is the old Church of England Infants School. It includes Mortlake Play Centre and community spaces.
The workhouse/school was sold for housing to the Richmond Churches House Trust. The Trustees of Mortlake Church of England Educational Foundation kept the Infant School building and half an acre of land. That is Mortlake Hall and its playground.
Sleigh’s Almshouses. These had been based near Palewell Common and later used as a pesthouse (isolation hospital) until 1668. In 1712 it became an almshouse and in 1845 it was sold and half the money used to build three almshouses near the infant school in Mullins Walk.  Later the school acquired the site of the new almshouses

North Worple Way
Worple Way was a track across fields. This road on the north side of the railway was however laid out by the railway.
59 The Old Clinic. This was the site of Mortlake Liberal Club which was here at least into the 1970s from the 1890s.  The current building -- which, despite the plants growing all over it looks much younger than 1890s – is offices. It was at one time the Steeper Orthopaedic Clinic
61 St.Mary Magdalene by Gilbert Blount, 1852. There had been no Roman Catholic church in the area and Mass had been held over the stables of Portobello House, which was demolished in 1893. In 1849 Fr John Wenham, had been tasked with founding the parish and an anonymous donor provided most of the money needed to for the work. St Mary Magdalene’s was consecrated in May 1852 Mortlake was not a prosperous area at the time and the fear was that parents wanted to put their children to work as soon as possible to help the family’s income at the expense of their education. A school opened in 1853 next to the church.
Churchyard. The most interesting tomb in the churchyard is the mausoleum in the shape of an Arab tent where the coffins of Sir Richard Burton and his wife Isabel Arundell can be seen through a window at the back. There is also the grave of Sir John Marshall who chief magistrate of the Gold Coast and helped found the first Roman Catholic church in the country. It is a significant site to Ghanaian Catholics,
Wigan Hall. This was at the end of Alder Road. Originally it was the Frederick Wigan institute built in 1890 and used as a parish meeting room. Wigan was a Southwark hop merchant. This also appears to ahve had a library at the rear on the site of what is now the Guide and Scout headquarters. It appears to have been built on the site of the Conservative headquarters and is marked on maps as such in the 1890s. Demolished in 1972. 

Observatory Road
This is named for the Observatory founded at Temple Grove by William Pearson which would have been nearby the site of this road.

Palmers Road
St Leonards Court.  A red brick turret on the lawns is the entrance to a Second World War air raid shelter built in the 1940s and now listed. The only part that's visible above ground is a red-brick conical turret to the rear of the lawn, which is the shelter's entrance. Below ground are two sleeping areas: one for males and one for females, and two day rooms, It was built to hold about 48 people - approximately half the number of flats in St Leonard's Court. There is a plaque near the entrance about it.

Palmerston Road
52 site of the Edgar Memorial Hall. This was the old chapel of Temple Grove School eventually destroyed in Second World War bombing and replaced with housing.  It had been built in 1910 in memory of an earlier headmaster of Temple Grove School.

Park Avenue
Richmond Park Academy. This is a revamped version of the school built in 1926 as East Sheen School for Boys. In 1939, boys from Richmond County School were merged with this school which was renamed Richmond and East Sheen County School for Boys. Seniors were based in the original Boys' school building nearer Park Avenue, Following the Education Act 1944 the School became known as Richmond and East Sheen County (Grammar) School for Boys. In 1957 it was renamed Shene County Grammar School for Boys, using the Anglo-Saxon spelling of the name for Richmond previously adopted by the Old Boys' club. During 1957 new buildings were added.  From 1973 it was a comprehensive school as Shene College, predominately for the sixth form and in 1977, merged with the sixth form colleges. It became Shene School. In 2010 Richmond Park Academy opened on the same site. It is part of the Academies Enterprise Trust chain.

Queens Road
This was an area of cottages developed by Charles Smith in the 1860s and then known as Charlestown.
Queens Arms. This is now a private dwelling –but much of the external Charringtons tiling and signage is retained. The pub name appears in a panel on a wall in Queen's Road and Another panel, in Prince's Road

Richmond Park Road
76A Barnes Home Guard Association. After formation in 1944 the association bought the site of the tennis club called the Sheen House Hard Court Ltd.  In 1977 a new clubhouse was built.
There is a Second World War ARP shelter in the Home Geared Association grounds.

Rosemary Gardens
Bootmakers' Almshouses. The Master Boot and Shoemakers' Provident and Benevolent Institution was founded in 1836 by six master bootmakers. This was for the provision of an asylum at Mortlake for aged and infirm persons, who had been engaged in the boot and shoe trades, and their widows and these were set up in the 1850s. In 1930 they were sold by auction.  They still exist, in private use, but have lost their original frontage features.

Sheen Lane
In the middle ages this was the road which connected the Archbishop’s Manor at Mortlake and the Royal Palace at Richmond. It was part of the main route south to Kingston. The line of the road reflects its origins, which would have followed field boundaries
Manor House. The original manor house for Sheen was sited near the junction with Christchurch Road but had been superseded by the 18th.
194-198 Sheen Motors.  This has been a motor engineering works since at least the 1930s.
Temple Grove. This was built in 1611 on the site of the manor house of East Sheen and known as Sheen Grove. Sir John Temple owned it in the late 17th and may or may not have been a residence for Jonathan Swift. The Temples were the family of which the later Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston, was a member. He was to sell the house when he came of age.  In 1811 it became the Temple Grove Boys School and was acquired by the astronomer William Pearson. He established an observatory there, dedicated to the memory of the murdered Prime Minister, Spencer Percival.  He measured the the diameters of the sun and moon during the partial solar eclipse of 1820, with one of John Dolland's divided object-glass micrometers. He went on to found the Royal Astronomical Society and then to move away in 1821. The school moved to Eastbourne in 1908, having had many famous pupils, and the house was demolished.
188 Tower House Preparatory School. The building was previously a music school. This private fee paying school dates from 1931 and is a charity.
Sheen House. This was rebuilt in 1786. In the 1830s the tenant was Earl Grey while Prime Minister and in 1848 a temporary home for the French royal family. It later became a club and was demolished in 1907.
Stable building of Sheen House. In yellow brick and has 7 bays, with a little clock on top. Parts of t date from 1788.
The Cedars.  18th house demolished in 1930.
Cedar Court. These flats are on the site of Cedar House. There is a blue plaque to broadcaster Richard Dimbleby who lived here.
Odeon - Picturedrome. This was built on the site of the Larches in 11901l. It was demolished in 1929 and replaced by the Sheen Kinema.  It was designed for Joseph Theatres Ltd. By architects Leathart and Grainger with a Christie 2 Manual Organ. In 1940 it was renamed the Empire and in 1944 The Odeon. It closed in 1961 and was later demolished.
War Memorial. This is a plain obelisk with an inscription. There s a paved surround with an engraved sword and a roll of honour. It says: “In Memory of the Men of Mortlake and East Sheen who gave their Lives
Milestone Green. This area, at the junction with Upper Richmond Road is probably the original centre of East Sheen, 
Milestone. One face says we are X (10) miles from Cornhill in the City and another face gives the distance to Hyde Park Corner.
Larches. This was a big house on the corner with Upper Richmond Road. B” company of the 27th County of London Battalion Home Guard with company headquarters in The Larches in Sheen Lane, just round the corner from the present Club house
Pig and Whistle. This pub is on the site of part of the Bull but faces Sheen Lane.  It was built in 1987 but the sign on the front says “Est circa 1924”.
Sheen Lane Centre. This was built in 1979 on the site of a pub called the Wheatsheaf and an area known as Hampton Square. There is a mosaic to honour local boy Tim Berners Lee and the World Wide Web
Wheatsheaf. Closed in 1962 and demolished. A lot of Saturday night fighting went on there.
Level crossing. The level crossing gates were removed in October 1975 and the signal box, on the south east side, was dismantled later.
Railway Tavern.  The building dates from around 1800 and was converted into a pub in 1846 when the railway opened. It is no Closed
Mortlake Station.  Opened in 1846. It lies Between North Sheen and Barnes on South Western Trains. The railway deviated to the north in order to reach Mortlake – unlike earlier railways which had deviated because of physical features
Dissenters' Chapel. This was built before 1716. It was replaced by a chapel in Vernon Road in 1901 and this building was converted into shops.  It was demolished in 1992.
27 Court House. Built in the 1890s to serve Mortlake. This is now a branch of the Thomson ‘Free’ School.

South Worple Way
This is on the line of the original Worple Way path
Spur footbridge over the railway. This was once a series of stiles but replaced after an accident in 1891. The other footbridges have much the same design.
Portobello House. This was south of the road on the site of Howgate and Oaklands Roads. It was built in 1740 and demolished in 1893
British School. This opened in 1843 for the children of non-conformists. It closed in 1871.

St Leonards Road
This area at the east end of the road was once known as Littleworth Green.

Tapestry Alley
Passage way to the river from Mortlake High Street
Plaque about the Tapestry Works site

Temple Sheen Road
East Sheen Baptist Church. This opened here in 1933

Tinderbox Alley
Baths – on some maps a ‘Baths’ is marked here.

Upper Richmond Road
Since the 1920s this has been part of the South Circular Road.
Cedar Parade. Shops on the site of Cedar House Grounds
Bull..This pub stood at the crossroads with Sheen Lane and probably dated from the 17th..   It was demolished in 1937 and  rebuilt with input from by Blomfield. This was demolished in 1987.
216 Hare and Hounds. This is a Young’s pub dating from 1776. The current building is early 19th

Vernon Road
“To the Congregational Church” sign with pointing hand in ceramic tile
Thomson House School. This is a ‘free’ school apparently set in memory of a Mr. Thomson. This appears to be in the Congregational Church building.
Congregational Church. Dating from 1902. Designed by F C Howgate and originally known as the Congregational Church, East Sheen, it was noted for its Doulton terracotta work and plaques.[

Waldeck Road
Large brick factory building, presumably attached to 37 Lower Richmond Road. There is a hoist at first floor level and a painted sign abut Mortlake Bullard club

Worple Road
St.Mary Magdalene Catholic Primary school. The school dates from the 1850s and was attached to the church


Sources
Brown. Barnes and Mortlake Past
Closed Pubs, Web site
Clunn. The face of London
Field Place names
Firestations. Web site
Kingston Zodiac
London Borough of Richmond. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
London Gardens Online. Web site
Parker, North Surrey
Penguin Surrey,
Pevsner and Cherry, South London,
Pevsner. Surrey
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group. Report
The Depot. Web site
Wheatley and Meulenkamp. Follies

Wednesday, 4 May 2016

Riverside - south of the river, west of the Tower, Barnes - Lonsdale Road

Riverside - south of the river, west of the Tower, Barnes - Lonsdale Road


Post to the east Castelnau
Post to the south Barnes Bridge


Ferry Lane
Ferry. There had been a ferry from Chiswick in the middle ages but this ceased to function. Unit had begun again by 1820 and was reached via Ferry Lane.

Lonsdale Road
Swedish School. This is an independent boarding school consisting of a nursery and primarily school for for pupils aged up to 16.  It was founded in 1907 in central London and moved to Barnes in 1976.
Harrodean School. This is a private fee paying school dating from 1993 when it took over the old Harrod’s Sports Club buildings – which was called the Harrodian Club.
Reservoir.  The 'Leg of Mutton', like its larger neighbour the Barn Elms Reservoirs, has only a thin strip of land dividing it from the Thames. The reservoir was built in 1838   by the West Middlesex Water Co and decommissioned in 1960. Developers wanted to build housing and a shopping centre on the site, but this was opposed by local residents. The Council bought it from the owners in 1970 and in 1990 it became a Local Nature Reserve.  Tthe dropping water level since its use as a reservoir and various stages of natural succession around the margins of the reservoir are a major feature of its wildlife interests. The sloping sides help diving species such as pochard and tufted duck to feed easily. To encourage waterfowl a number of floating rafts have been added. There is a mile-long perimeter path around the reservoir.


Sources
Harrodean School. Web site
London Borough of Richmond. Web site
Swedish School. Web site
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames

Tuesday, 3 May 2016

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Castelnau


Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Castelnau

Post to the east Harrod's Village
Post to the north St.Paul's School
Post to the south Barnes
Post to the west Lonsdale Road



Arundel Terrace
Housing built for employees of Cowan’s Soap Factory in 1858.
42-44 Vulcan Foundry. Between the wars this was an engineering works run by a Mr. Randall. It has since been used for a number of commercial applications.  Now a garage and flats


Barn Elms
West Middlesex Waterworks Co. The works was established in 1838, initially with two settlement reservoirs. Eventually much of this area became reservoirs which lay at the north end of the Castlenau peninsula and on both sides, with a stretch of farmland between them. In this square the reservoirs were those on the east side, now the wild life site, and on the western riverside stretch between St. Pauls School and Barn Elms. The reservoirs eventually took water from Hampton which it filtered here.  There was an engine house of 1891. At Barn Elms was a pilot plant for clarifying stored Thames water and for the first experiments on super chlorination. 
Wetlands Centre. Much of the reservoir area of the West Middlesex Water works was converted into a housing development and Barn Elms Nature Reserve. This was created by the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust. The Artist and naturalist Sir Peter Scott is said to have always dreamed of a sanctuary for wildfowl within London, and he founded this in 1946. It was opened in 2000 and covers 100 acres, including a main lake, a reed bed, a grazing marsh, a wader scrape and a sheltered lagoon. It is designed to attract a wide range of birds, and there are two- and three-storey hides and an observatory. There is also a visitor centre, a restaurant, cafe and shop.  It is designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest.


Barnes Avenue
Housing built as part of the Castelnau Estate in 1927 by the London County Council


Castelnau
This was a new road built in 1827 as an approach to Hammersmith Bridge. It was thus called Upper Bridge Road until 1846.  Then 20 semi detached villas were built by William Lawton for the Boileau family.  It is named from Castelnau de la Garde near Nimes in France where the Boileau family of Mortlake had their ancestral home. They were a Huguenot family who came to Mortlake to escape persecution.
204 The Bridge. Renovated from what was The Bridge Tavern
201a The Boileau Arms. Pub with a Tuscan porch and built in the same style as the houses surrounding it. It was named for the local family who developed the area. It is now closed. It has had many names - most recently The Castelnau.  In the 1980s it was The Old Rangoon. In the early 1990s it was ‘The Garden House’ and later The Porterhouse Inn, then Browns, and then back to the Boileau Arms. It closed in 2008 and is now the Bright Horizons Day Nursery
162 Holy Trinity. Built in 1868 By Thomas Allom who lived locally. It became a Parish church in 1888.
162 Vicarage in stock brick
79 St. Osmond. Roman Catholic Church built in 1958 by Ronald Hardy.
75 Castelnau Library. Built on the site of Castelnau House in the 1960s
Castlenau House. Built by Major Charles Lestock Boileau and named after his family’s former estate of Castelnau de la Garde, near NĂ®mes in France. Demolished in the 1960s.


Lonsdale Road
St.Paul's School. The school buildings lie in the square to the north. This square covers the extensive western playing fields. These were built on filter beds and a reservoir of the West Middlesex Water Works.


Stillingfleet Road
Lowther Primary School. The school dates from 1929. The Lowther family were previous landowners


Washington Road
Recreation Park. This small Recreation Ground predates the amalgamation of Barnes into Richmond Council and has some of hedging which could be older hedgerow. It is hedged to the boundaries and laid to grass, with undulating paths, shrubs and ornamental grasses, but no mature trees. There is a paddling pool and utilitarian metal gates.


Sources
Clunn. The Face of London
Field. London place names,
GLC. Home sweet home
GLC. Thames Guidelines,
London Encyclopaedia
London Gardens OnLine., Web site
Metropolitan Water Board. London’s water supply
Meulenkamp. Follies.
Pevsner and Cherry. South London,
Pevsner, Surrey
Riverview Gardens. Web site
Smythe. Citywildspace
St. Paul’s School. Web site
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group. Report

Friday, 29 April 2016

Riverside, south bank, west of the Tower. Barnes St Paul's School

Riverside, south bank, west of the Tower. Barnes St Paul's School

This posting covers the south side of the river in this square only – basically a small area at the northern end of Castlenau which covers only Hammersmith Bridge and the playing fields of St.Paul’s school

Post to the south Castelnau

Hammersmith Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge. This is a suspension bridge built in 1887 to the designs of Joseph Bazalgette. It replaced an earlier suspension bridge erected in 1827, and which was the first to be constructed in London on that principle. That bridge was designed by Tierney Clarke with a roadway which was sixteen feet above high-water mark suspended by eight wrought iron chains arranged in four double lines. It was a toll bridge and there were octagonal toll-houses. However it was only twenty feet wide and not strong enough to take the traffic which was using it.
The current bridge is also very narrow with elaborate designs on the ironwork.  It is built on foundations of Tierney Clark's bridge. It was built by Dixon, Appleby & Thorne to Bazalgette’s designs and opened by the Prince of Wales in 1887. At both ends there is elaborate ironwork including a motif up of seven coats of arms of the adjacent local authorities, the Riyal Arms and so on. The bridge has however long suffered structural problems and been closed for long periods. In 1973 it was given new steel trusses, new deck timbers and a number of other strengthening measures. There have however been subsequent failings. There is a plaque on the handrail of the bridge to Charles Campbell Wood who saved a drowning woman here.

Riverside Walk
The walk continues around the tip of the Peninsula past the school playing fields

St.Paul’s School
This square covers only part of the school premises – the northern area which includes the main block and some of the playing fields.
St Paul's School is an independent boys’ school, located here. Since 1881 it has its own preparatory school, Colet Court, which has also been here since 1968. St Paul's is thought to be one of the leading schools in the country. The school was founded by John Colet, Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral in 1509. He used his whole fortune to endow the school, making it the largest school in England and left it to be managed by the Worshipful Company of Mercers. He was advised in his planning by Erasmus, who wrote textbooks for the school’s use and assisted in the recruiting of staff. There were to be 153 scholars “of all countres and nacions indifferently”.  The first building was alongside St Paul’s Cathedral and was burnt down in 1666. The school has since moved four times before settling at the present riverside site in 1968.  It had previously been in Hammersmith in buildings by Waterhouse used as army headquarters during the Second World War. At Barnes the land had previously been the used for reservoirs which were filled in, apparently with earth excavated for the Victoria line. The new school buildings were constructed on the CLASP system for lightness on this made up ground.  The sports pitches took a long time to settle and competitive matches were not played regularly here until 1979. The school us   primarily a day school although there are some boarders and it was purely a boarding school during the Second World War.  The 1968 buildings include a swimming pool and sports facilities which include a fencing salle, six rugby fives courts, three squash courts and a racquets court as well as a boathouse and the more usual sports facilities. There is no school hall. The music department building for Colet Court is an old water hoard building. There are plans for rebuilding the entire school.
John Colet Memorial. Bronze group of Dean Colet and two kneeling scholars by Hamo Thomycroft, beneath an open bronze canopy, 1902.  Brought from the school's former home in West Kensington.

West Middlesex Water Works. The company's installations covered most of this site before the school was built here.  The School buildings appear to rest on the site of six filter beds plus a reservoir on the east side, west of Castlenau

Sources
GLC. Thames Guidelines,
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Port of London Magazine
St.Paul’s School. Web site