Monday, 28 June 2010

Thames Tributary Effra - Kennington

Thames Tributary Effra
The Effra flowed into this area from the south and then turned westwards towards the Thames


Post to the west Vauxhall
Post to the east Camberwell Road
Post to the south Brixton and Stockwell


Brixton Road
The river flowed down the road and then turned to the area which is now the Oval, on south side. The road originally crossed the river at Hazard’s Bridge, which is marked on a plan of 1636. The Effra here divided the manors of Kennington and Vauxhall.1 –3 London Cab Co General Motor Cab Co. Built by the General Cab Company 1905. The Company was formed in 1907 and 1,500 taxis operated from here. This building was offices and three-storey garages for 2,000 vehicles in a yellow and red brick and terracotta. It included a Museum with a collection of restored taxicabs. A cooperative undertook repair with facilities for cab owner-drivers. “Kennington Park” on the gable was originally ‘General Motor Cab Co.Ltd.’ in art deco lettering. Next to it the archway into the courtyard was similarly lettered. The rest of the building, now the business centre, comprised garaging, washing and repair facilities.
Kennington Park Business Centre. In the Cab Co. buildings.
SOGAT House20 Centro Scalabrini – base for Italian Scalabrini Brothers.
37 National Theatre
131 Empress Cinema rebuilt but was 1898 Wesleyan and then a theatre.
20 entrance for tractor car and horses for Cable Tramway 1890s. Kennington and Streatham Cable Tramways. Brixton end
39 Cranmer House
91-137, terrace of the 1820s.
Christ Church. Built on the site of the earlier Holland chapel, demolished in 1899. This huge monstrosity was completed in 1902, by Beresford Pite for his brother-in-law, the Rev. William Mowll. The style is Byzantine Romanesque. With the layered brickwork of which Pite was so fond. The foundation stone is also by Johnston, cut by Eric Gill in 1902.
Mowll Hall, 1897-8 by Beresford Pite, with an unusual window.

Bowling Green Street
In the late 18th there was a garden and bowling green here which belonged to the landlord of the Horns tavern. It was later built-on. It is now part of the Kennington Park Estate.
Castle Tavern or Elephant and Hippo, closed but once had animal heads outside. Half timbered building. Was previously the Carpenters Arms with a tiled wall panel with a: 'Flying Tankard' and the words; '1757'; 'Charrington'; 'Toby Ale' and 'The House of Toby'

Camberwell New Road
Laid out as a turnpike road authorized by Act of Parliament in 1818 and opened in 1820. It led to Vauxhall Bridge, and developed with urban terraces and villas. It is the longest Georgian Road in England. Part of the route for cable hauled trams to Streatham. It is now part of the A202.
19 64, 84-90, 185-187, 226 Late Georgian terraces 1820s and 1830s.
181 which was originally 8 South Place home of Thomas Hood, poet.
60 The Black Sheep pub, was previously called the Skinners Arms
146 Latin Palace, restaurant and salsa dance centre. Was the Union Tavern
189 Clifton Cottage is dated 1823.
225 Miliki spot was previously called the Clarendon Arms
Gallows. In the 18th the County of Surrey gallows were on the current site of St.Marks. Many of the Scottish rebels were hanged here in 1746. Very gruesome executions of Jacobins with pamphlets handed round during disembowellings. I 1658 a woman was burnt to death for murdering her husband.
Site of Turnpike gate. Removed in 1853
St.Mark 1822-4 by Roper, but said to be designed by A. B. Clayton. Built in the 1820s, this was one of four Commissioners' churches in Lambeth; funded by the Government to commemorate the peace after the Battle of Waterloo. It has a Doric portico and a tower. The interior was renewed by Teulon in 1873-4 but after bombing it was again restored by T. F. Ford in 1960. The carved c 17 pulpit comes from St Michael Wood Street. Field Marshall Montgomery was born here and his father was vicar. Described as the ‘tramwayman’s church’.
School of St.John the Divine. Pile of books over the school entrance. The main building is at the back

Clapham Road
The Effra was crossed by Merton Bridge. This was called after the monks of Merton Abbey who were responsible for itBelgrave Hospital for Children 1900-93 extension, in arts and craft style.by H. Percy Adams. And elevations by his assistant Charles Holden. The building is of brick with stone dressings and the main feature is the entrance wing with a tall gable between two towers This hospital was founded in 1866 in Pimlico but in 1899 it was rebuilt here, The east wing, centre block, out patients’ department and the ground floor were finished in 1903 and the rest completed in the 1920s. In 1948 it was amalgamated with King's College Hospital but remained a children's hospital. In 185 the Variety Club Children's Hospital, opened and this closed. It became a centre for the homeless and very run down. It is now flats.
43-59 Frank O’Neill House. Lambeth Police Command building. It is called after a PC killed on duty in 1980
9-13 Belgrave Hotel

Claylands Place
Once called Upper Dorset Place Mews
11 Kingsdown Water Company. Previously workshop of Garey, a blacksmith.
The Smokehouse old seafood smokehouse, for J Jangard, now done up as commercial units and flats.
Old lamp post

Farmers Road
Farmer vitriol makers – their works is now covered by St.Agnes place.
Synergy Centre. A community arts, environment and general good works centre.
Harleyford Street
Oval Station. 18th December 1890. Between Kennington and Stockwell on the Northern Line. Built by the City and South London railway. Opened by the Prince of Wales. A deep shelter in the Second World War was planned but not built because there was too much water in the ground. At the junction of Kennington Park Road, Camberwell New Road, Clapham Road and Harleyford Street. In the 1920s it was rebuilt. In 2000s it was refurbished at street level with a modern tiling scheme inside and out. In order to reflect its proximity to the cricket ground, the internal decorative tiling features large images of cricketers. Prominent Dome. Station tunnel 3ft deep brick lining and 20ft wide 16ft high and 20 ft long.
Oval Business Centre

Hillingdon Street
16 Sir Robert Peel
226 Royal Standard

John Ruskin Street
Was Beresford Street
House with old Whitbread sign on it

Kennington Park
Kennington Common. There used to be a vast bog here. Kennington has links with the Prince of Wales and the Duchy of Cornwall still owns much of the area including the common. However before 1852 it was just a common, a no man’s land. It included the parish pound and store yard. In 1848 the massive demonstration supporting the Chartist petition, presented by Thomas Attwood, was held there.
Kennington Park. Created from Kennington Common by the Office of Works in 1852-4. It became a park through the work of Oliver Davies, Mr. Aden and Mr. Charlton Lane - and an Act of Parliament. Money was raised through local subscription Railings put up and turned into a park. It was managed by the Metropolitan Board of Works 1887 following a Local Parks and Woods Act. Became London County Council in 1888. There are mature trees, mainly plane but also Norway maple, sycamore, evergreen oak and tree-of-heaven. There are blackbirds and blue and great tits. The Flower Garden is a quiet place to sit. Memorial to an unknown number of bodies which lie beneath the park, killed in 1940 in an air shelter which took a direct hit, and which were never recovered.
Albert Model Dwellings. Originally erected at Knightsbridge Barracks for the Great Exhibition in 1851. These were model dwellings commissioned by Prince Albert in his role as President of the Society for improving the Conditions of the Working Classes. It was designed by Henry Roberts. To be healthy, but there were also innovations - no wood used in the construction; the ceiling & roof arches are brick, and the floors are concrete. It uses larger than normal hollow bricks. It is in effect the predecessor of flats erected by later housing charities. The staircase in a niche in the centre, a motif to become almost standard for mid-Victorian cheap flats. It was used as a lodge - re-erected here by special request of Prince Albert to set an example of what working- class housing should be like.
Felix Slade fountain. Designed for Doulton in terracotta by H.Driver 1869. It showed Hagar and Ishmael at the well – although this part was soon stolen. Only the basin and steps are still there. Slade was a local Victorian art collector who donated a drinking water supply to the area with this fountain. .The rest of it disappeared in the 1950s.
Pilgrimage of Life fountain modelled by George Tinworth for Doulton and designed by John Sparkes head of the Lambeth School of Arts. First shown in connection with Lambeth Art School. In the specification of the City of Guilds of Art. Graceful. Once with a family group in medieval dress. Tall slender terracotta work presented by Doulton. 1869. Damaged by Second World War bombing, it was re-erected but destroyed by vandalism in 1981.

Kennington Oval
Kennington was, once an area of marshland and market gardens. The Oval was laid out in 1790 but never developed- can be seen on early 19th maps, as an ambitious piece of street planning. Development was stopped by Prince Albert whose son, as Prince of Wales, controlled the land here owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. This area was eventually built over between 1837 and 1857.
Effra. The river flowed down Brixton Road and then turned to the area which is now the Oval. It runs along the eastern side and raised banks of cement were built round it, which hid the pipes containing the river. Here it, or a tributary, was called Vauxhall Creek. Plans to build a deep shelter planned here were defeated by the Effra. It was again apparently responsible for a flood at the Oval in the 1950s.South London Waterworks. By an Act of Parliament in 1805, the Company was incorporated to provide water to residents south of the River Thames who were not customers of either the Lambeth or Southwark Water companies. They took tidal water from the Effra and stored it in two reservoirs on five acres of land situated in the common area next to Kennington Oval. From 1827, this was pumped from a sire closer to the River Thames the River Effra became increasingly polluted, and in 1831, the House of Lords forced them to take water only from the River Thames. In 1834 they were renamed the Vauxhall Water Company. And in 1845 merged with the Southwark Water Company. By 1847, the reservoirs at the Oval were no longer needed, and the property of the original South London Waterworks Company, was sold to the Phoenix Gas Company.
Cricket ground. Headquarters of the Surrey County Club. The area is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall and they are allowed to use the Prince of Wales feathers as a badge... The site was a market garden here, was first used for cricket in 1844 by the Montpellier Cricket Club, which had been thrown out of its grounds at Walworth. Turf was brought here from Tooting Common. Soon after Surrey Cricket Club was founded and this became their home. The first match against Kent was played here then. In 1872 the first FA football match was played here, and also the first Rugby Union matches. The final Test match every season is played there Pavilion by T. Muirhead of Manchester, 1895-7. Jack Hobbs Gate. Memorial, iron built 1934 designed By L. de Soissons. Memorial to Len Hutton brick relief by Walter Ritchie paid for by subscription. In 2002 a number of stands were demolished - Surridge, Fender, Jardine and Peter May - and the OCS Stand built. This is a single four tier grandstand known increasing the capacity of the ground to 23,000. In 1991, during a Test Match, a black stork flew over the ground; the second record of this species in London
52-4 Oval House. Previously used as St. Paul's Vicarage. Plaque to Field Marshal. Bernard Montgomery, Viscount of Alamein 1887-1976 who was the son of the vicar. Plaque erected 1987.
52-54 Oval House Theatre. Oval House began in the 1930s as a settlement for Christ Church (Oxford). Since then it has worked in education and the arts. Oval House Theatre was a centre for fringe theatre from the 1960s, supporting experimental theatre and gay and lesbian and women's theatre in the 1970's and 80's and Black and Asian writing in the 19'90s.
58 Bishop Montgomery Hall. Parish office for St.Marks
17 Cricketers’ pub. Was previously the Clayton Arms. Closed and demolished.
Surrey Tavern. Part of the cricket ground. Cricketing scenes and a moulded timber ceiling. Large, very comfortable one bar pub. Built 1890s now closed and demolished.

Kennington Park Gardens
Kennington Park Children’s Centre. Includes buildings of Aspen House School for delicate children. By Stillman & Eastwick Field, completed 1977. A neat low red-brick building looking inwards to courtyards.

Kennington Park Place
Bishops’ House Early Years Centre., This is the former Bishop's House of 1895 by R Norman Shaw.

Kennington Park Road
Turnpike was by Magee Street
186 Whitfield House Evangelical Alliance
Westminster Bank Ltd building in other use
Job Centre
326 River of Life Evangelical Church in the closed Hanover Arms pub
336 Greyhound pub. Quiet, friendly local with no juke box.
Kennington Train staff Mess Room
Kennington Theatre stood on the Kennington Park Road corner, Opened originally as the Princess of Wales Theatre in with "Cinderella.” Designed by W.G.R. Sprague with interior decorations by De Jong & Co. the foundation stone was laid by Henry Irving. Converted into a cinema in 1921 and taken over by the Gaumont British in 1930. Later taken over by the Odeon circuit, with a view to demolish and build a new Theatre site to the plans of Georg Coles but this never happened. Bomb damage in the Second World War and partially demolished in 1943. In 1949 the remains were subject to a Compulsory Purchase Order and flats built on the site in 1950.
334 Hanover Electric Cinema, Opened 1912 and didn’t last long
214 Horns Tavern. 1887. The pub was there at least by the 1760s and was where the4 manor courts were held. It is here that Surrey Cricket Club was formed in the mid-1840s. Assembly rooms next door. Bombed and demolished.

Lorrimore Road
Lorrimore was the name of a commons in Walworth, largely used for grazing until it was developed. The Royal Surrey Zoological Gardens were opened here in 1831 and this represents the southern extent of them. In 1872 the area was sold for development.
Greig Terrace, a nicely restored terrace dated 1852, and with all kinds of new houses round about with boarded upper floor and gables
St.Wilfrid’s Montessori pre- School
St Wilfrid R.C. Brick – looks a bit patched. Designed by Frederick Arthur Walters, and built in 1914.

Lorrimore Square
One side of the square is mid c 19 with plain stuccoed ground floors, the rest are new
Garden, the animal sculptures represent the animals of the Royal Surrey Zoological Gardens
St.Paul’s, part of the Brandon Estate. 1955-60 by Woodroffe Buchanan & Coulter. It replaces a church by H. Jarvis of 1854-6, destroyed in 1941. It has spiky gables and a zigzagging band of honeycomb windows. The church hall, and vestry are underneath, Sculpture of the Risen Christ, by Freda Skinner.
Parsonage with garden and churchyard in the middle.

Lothian Road.
5 site of Toles Garage which was still there in l977. They ran newspaper vans for W.H.Smith. The site was used by independent private buses in the 1920s. Gone.

Maddock Way
2 Canterbury Arms

Montford Place
Gas Works. The South London Water works site was bought in 1847 by the Phoenix Gas Company. The gasholders are decorated with phoenix devices. In the 1870s it was taken over by the South Metropolitan Gas Company who ran it as a holder station for their Vauxhall Works.
20 Allied Distillers and the Borroughs Beefeater Distillery. Large sandstone office block where gin was made. Victorian elements and 1960s extensions. This was previously Haywards Pickle factory - plaque on the building says founded 1820

Prima Road
5 Severn House. 1801

St.Agnes Place
Site of Farmer’s vitriol works. Richard Farmer's vitriol factory was founded in 1778. His son, Thomas, succeeded him. In 1839 Farmer became the first industrial chemist to use pyrites on a large scale as part of the process for sulphuric acid manufacture. Thomas Farmer held an 1840 patent for the process.
Old Victorian houses swept away and flats and maisonettes have made this a thoroughly modern residential area. Features in films 'The Calcium Kid’
St.Agnes. The church of 1874-7 by G. G. Scott Jun was ruined in 1952 and demolished. Some of the old furnishings have been preserved
Rebuilt St. Agnes' Church. A building of 1956 by R. Covell on the site of Gilbert Scott's bombed building. It is smaller than its predecessor but it does retain a few features from the old. One of these is the Triptych Reredos which was designed by Scott and Temple Moore and is adorned with figures of apostles and saints. The west wall mosaic is by Tess Mansley.
1-7 an early c 19 terrace with bow-windows at the back
Conant House council flats

Sutherland Square
A narrow rectangle with 19th houses.

Vassall Road
Terraces in part of a development called Holland Town, built on Lord Holland's land soon after the opening of Camberwell New Road in 1818.
105-123 blocks which were the first to be restored by the G.L.C. in 1973-4.
80 villa one of a number converted to flats by Lambeth Council 1975-6 and with the addition of annexes where Victorian coach-houses normally stood.
11-27 Shops which have been preserved.
St.John the Divine. By G. E. Street, 1870-4 but not finished until l888. The church was gutted in 1940, but restored by Goodhart-Rendel in 1955-8,
Terraced Flats for the Church Commissioners by Clifford Culpin & Partners completed in 1971.
92-96 H. S. Goodhart-Rendel, 1954, a vicarage and home for the Wantage sisters

Warham Street
Was previously called James Street.
St.John the Divine Church of England Primary School. Opened in, 1872. Later additions have been included the red brick and Portland stone front to

Tuesday, 22 June 2010

Thames Tributary Effra - Brixton/Stockwell

Thames Tributary Effra
The Effra continues to flow north through this area.

TQ 31690 76704

Area north of Brixton Centre and much the same inner city mix but without the big shops. Big houses converted to various projects, lively music venues and pubs, schools, social support organisations together with parks and gardens.


Post to the north Kennington
Post to the east Camberwell
Post to the south Brixton

Akerman Road
56 home of Dan Leno 1860-1904 whose real name was George Galvin. Plaque erected 1962. Cary Grant later lived in the same house.
Camberwell Submarine. Concrete structure in the middle of the road. Boiler rooms for heating local housing.

Brixton Road
Linking Kennington and Brixton on the line of the Effra.
Effra –the stream here was said to be 12 ft wide and 6 ft deep. It ran through the front gardens on the west side of road and each was linked to the road by a bridge. In the Second World War a bomb at the corner of Angell Road uncovered the Effra sewer.
St Martin’s Farm was at the corner of Loughborough Road. A painting of 1784 shows the Effra at this point.
143-145 Youth Centre
147 early 19th house. Listed Grade II
152-160 listed terrace
162 listed villa with coach house
168 listed villa
180-182 Muslim Cultural Centre. Library of the Anti-Slavery Society
195-203 listed 19th terrace
198-220 201/211 213-215 listed terraces and villas
230-234 Christ People’s Missionaries International. The building was previously used by NACRO.
246 Crown and Anchor. Said to be the home of the ‘first rock and roll club’ in the 1950s.
247 small house which was listed, but has now been delisted.
261 Jamm was Ye Olde White Horse dating from the late 18th. It was a coaching inn, and later the horse bus terminus. There was a cab rank in front going back to horse drawn days.
287-291 Brixton Motor Works - now demolished for flats. This was the Phoenix Bus Garage and Watle Coach Co. in the 1920s.
297a Marshall’s. Private bus garage in 1932. Since demolished. In 1824 it was the Shanghai Co. With three buses, then the Summerhill Bus which was also called Oxford Mercury Bus. This was taken over by LPTB and closed down.
308-320 listed terrace.
300 Baytree Centre. Run by the Dawliffe Hall Educational Foundation, for support to women and girls
309-313 listed terrace
336 Community Advice Centre
337-339 listed end terrace villas
340 Lambeth Registry Office in listed 19th villa
357-361 High Victorian urban terrace. Restored by Lambeth c.1979. This was part of a development called Holland Town, built on Lord Holland's land soon after the opening up of Camberwell New Road. Listed
Eagle Printing Works

Cancell Road
Christ Church Primary School. A National Society School of 1860 for Christ Church, Brixton Road. Designed by Henry Currey. The infants’ school was 1876, rebuilt in 1904; and remodelled in 1909. The school was bombed the Second World War of 1939–45. Rebuilt 2010.

Cormont Road
1-48 Calais Gate. Mansion block flats Grade II listed.
St.Gabriel's College. This was St. Gabriel‘s Church Training College for Women Teachers opened in July 1899 designed by Philip A. Robson.. The chapel was the personal gift of Canon C. E. Brooke, vicar of St. John the Divine, dedicated in 1903 and it features a statue of the saint. Used as a First World War military hospital. The college eventually became part of Goldsmiths and they used it as an annexe until 1987. Listed Grade II, Wall and gates also listed. Now flats following a brief use as a commercial college.
Stannard Hall. Remains of one of the residential blocks of St.Gabriel’s College. In commercial use.
Charles Edward Brooke Girls School. This was Kennington School and is now the lower school of a Church of England Girls Secondary School. A three-decker built in 1898 it is by T. J. Bailey for the London School Board. Listed.
Myatts Fields. This is part of the area of the Minet estate of the 1890s. It was part of a 109-acre estate, owned by Sir Edward Knatchbull in 1745 who sold it to Hughes Minet in 1770. He was one of a Huguenot family of French refugees. The estate was then agricultural land and let in the late 19th to Joseph Myatt, a market gardener. The area given covered twelve acres –whereas previously Myatt grew on l4 ½ which were noted for strawberries. It was presented to the public in 1889 by Mr. William Minet and The London County Council was then given the park in 1889 by the Met. Public Gardens Association. It has wrought iron gates, a 19th bandstand and it is laid out with flower gardens, tennis courts, and bowling green. It is a smaller-scale Victorian urban park. The Park retains many of its original features including the layout of the paths, some of the flowerbeds, the 1894 bandstand and round summer house. It was designed by Fanny Wilkinson, one of the first professional women landscape gardeners and a suffragette. It was laid out by the Metropolitan Public Gardens Association for £10,000 with a grant from the Lord Mayor’s Fund for the unemployed. In the First World War it was the site of a military hospital in huts where Vera Brittain worked. It was used for air raid shelters in the Second World War.

Cowley Road
11-27 terrace of villas restored by Lambeth. Two storey houses with high doorways, with blind arches between each house. 1824.
L.C.C. flats 1935.
Durand Primary School. Annexe to a main school in Stockwell.

Flaxman Road.
58 Wickwood Tavern. Built in 1868 and owned by Young's since 1922. The name refers to holdings of the old Manor of Lambeth Wick. Closed

Gosling Way
LCC flats. In a road named after Gosling, Labour MP Whitechapel

Knatchbull Road
St.James. designed by George Low and opened 1870. Given by the estate owner, James Minet. It is in Kentish rag. It is now Black Roof Housing.
Minet Library. Gift of William Minet local landowner and benefactor. The octagonal building of 1890 by George Hubbard was destroyed in Second World War bombing and its replacement is 1956
Longfield Hall, 1889, with corner entrances. Gifted by William Minet, this was the Parochial Hall.

Lilford Road
Hart House. With design of hart on the frontage. Old pub, The White Hart
Biz Space
Vent pipe in the middle of the road

Lothian Road.
81 London City Mission
13 The Onion Shed. At one time a lock up sized theatre.

Loughborough Road
Pleasant terraces at the north end best surviving c19 areas
1 Iveagh House, by Armstrong & MacManus. Built 1954, this is a block of bed sitters plus a café, intended for working women.
Loughborough Road Estate. This is described as an early example of mixed development by the London County Council under C. L. Martin, chief architect in 1953. It was influenced directly by Corbusier's Unite d'Habitation.
Lambeth Wick Estate. This was built in the grounds of the old manor house. The medieval manor was known as ‘Wyk’ meaning 'a specialized farm or trading settlement' – and a word often associated with a riverside area. It was also known in the late medieval period as ‘Water Lambeth’ 1573, - that is 'the Lambeth manor by a pool or stream‘. – This may, of course, refer to the River Effra, flowed to the west of this site.
39 Loughborough Hotel on the site of Lambeth Wick house which was later known as Loughborough House. This was owned by Henry Hastings, Baron Loughborough and was which was at the junction with Evandale Road. It became a boys' school and was eventually demolished in 1854.

Minet Road
Named for landowner Minet, but actually on the Holland Estate and originally called Holland Road.
Loughborough Primary School. Opened 2002.
Marcus Lipton Youth Club

Mostyn Road
9 Liz Atkinson Children’s Centre
Wesleyan Chapel 1868 by J. Tarring. Red brick
Mostyn Gardens named after the British painter Thomas Edwin Mostyn 1864-1930

Normandy Road
20 Cafe Cairo which was the Normandy Pub which closed. Was once called the Cowley Arms

Overton Road
Langport House Angell Town Estate Office. Regenerated in a traditional street pattern with solar roofs, recycled construction materials, etc.

Patmos Road
Dan Leno Gardens. Named after the comedian who lived locally and designed for people with disabilities.

Paulet Road
19 Paulet Arms. Converted to flats

Stockwell Park Estate
Built in 1976 and very big. Designed by the Lambeth Architect's Department in a grid of yellow brick blocks. Some community facilities

SourcesBaytree Centre. Web site
Blue Plaque Guide
Charles Edward Brooks Girls School. Web site
Christ Church Primary School. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web siteClunn. The Face of London
Christ People’s Missionaries International. Web siteDay London Underground
GLIAS Newsletter
Hillman. London Under London
London Borough of Lambeth, Web site

London Encyclopaedia,
Lucas. London,
Nairn. Nairn’s London
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group. Report
Williams. London and South Western  Railway


Saturday, 19 June 2010

Thames Tributary Effra - Brixton

Thames Tributary Effra
The Effra flows northwards through this area

TQ 31072 75387


Central Brixton which is about as inner city as you can get.  Big shops, lively markets, pubs, cinemas, music venues and interesting local authority housing schemes

Post to the north Brixton and Stockwell
Post to the east Denmark Hill
Post to the south Brockwell Park

Astoria Walk
Brixton Academy in the Odeon Astoria Cinema., currently the O2 Academy, is a leading music venue which has hosted a range of leading acts since 1983. The maximum capacity is 4,921. The original cinema was built on the site of a garden and opened by E. A. Stone in 1929. It has a half-domed entrance, Mediterranean interior and a proscenium in the shape of the Rialto Bridge. Designed by Ewan Barr and T.P.Someford, who worked on the Temperance Billiard Halls. The opening publicity called it ‘an acre of seats in a garden of dreams’. A Crompton Organ was installed in a Maclean design. This was a 13-rank organ with two consoles, one on stage and one in the pit.

Atlantic Road
Market – developed as Brixton Road became a shopping centre mid-19th but moved to Station Road in the 1920s.
Brick railway viaduct of 1865; cast iron columns support platform of Brixton station. Built by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway
High level lattice bridge built for the South London Line 1867.
1-55 shop units within the railway viaduct
20 Railway Hotel, 1880, Victorian building, with a listed tower, opened as a hotel in 1880. It is built around the high level railway bridge with one of the brick arches making up part of the third floor roof. Three separate railway lines pass within metres of the pub and thus the clock, by William Sainsbury, is six-sided so that it could be read from trains in all directions. It has a long association with music and in the 1960s; Jimi Hendrix was reputed to have jammed there. It was renamed Brady's in the 1990s but closed down in 1999 for redevelopment
25 Marks & Spencer's first London Penny Bazaar was in these arches
55-58 David Greig store with original green tiling and 'DG' initials. The first David Greig store was no 54 and at one time the firm owned several other premises in the road
58a Sid’s Cars.
Brixton Village – built as Granville Arcade, 1957. The most recent of Brixton’s arcades opening in 1937. A very short section opened as part of the tube station. Built by Granville Grossman and designed by Messrs Burr
77 ornate Victorian shop front

Angell Town
The area was developed in the 1850s with curving roads and tall houses with profuse ornament. It named after the Angell family who owned land here from the late 17th. Many of the original houses were replaced in the 1970s by four-storey yellow brick maisonettes.

Barrington Road
Blocks built to fill the gap left by the never built inner London ring road.
East Brixton Station Opened 13th August 1866 by the London Brighton and South Coast Railway as Loughborough Park Station with an entrance in Barrington Road. In 1870 it was renamed ‘Loughborough Park and Brixton’ and then became ‘East Brixton station’ on the line from London Bridge in 1867. In 1894 it was renamed ‘East Brixton. In 1977 it was closed. The Barrington Road entrances remain.
Mural by Jason Gibilaro
53 Brixton Orphanage for Fatherless Girls now converted to housing
302 Medusa Club

Brixton Oval
Ritzy. The Electric Pavilion Cinema of 1911 restored as a small multiplex called the Ritzy. It was designed in 1910 by E. C. Homer and Lucas. As one the earliest purpose-built cinemas.For many years it was part of the Israel Davis chain ran it. Alterations were carried out by George Coles in 1954, when the cinema was renamed Pullman and the 1920s organ removed. The proscenium arch has eight bays with pilasters with plaster panels and swags. Writhing cherubs survive on the facade. In 1975 became the ‘Classic which closed in 1976. It was reopened as an arts cinema two years later, called 'Little Bit Ritzy'. Oasis Cinemas bought The Ritzy in 1994 and added four screens, a bar and a cafe. It is one of two cinemas in 1971, which presented the European premiere of the first West Indian movie. The Right and the Wrong, coupled with the second West Indian production, The Caribbean Fox.
Foundation stone of Brixton Theatre laid by Henry Irving. In 1894 the theatre was destroyed in bombing and the Ritzy has been extended onto the site.
Bust of Sir Henry Tate 1899. Bronze by Thomas Brock on a high column. Erected in his memory by his wife
Tate Central Library. 1893, based on the Tate Gallery and Boston Library. Sir Henry Tate lived at Streatham and endowed this library and like many south London libraries it was designed by his protégé S. R.J. Smith as an example of minor late Victorian municipal showmanship. This is his largest and in an important position

Brixton Road
Effra - the river and its tributaries flowed from the area to the south and thence towards the Police Station having passed under Coldharbour Lane. It then follows the road northwards
Our Lady of the Rosary Roman Catholic Church. The building was formerly known as Brixton Independent Church, and was built by the congregation of Claylands Chapel in June 1870. The architect was Arthur J. Phelps. In the Second World War it was heavily damaged, and it was restored in 1952–3 for a Roman Catholic congregation. It is built of red brick with a striped bricks pattern. There is a tower with battlements replacing the original spire. A memorial to First World War dead was erected here but has since disappeared, probably demolished in the 1950s.
Hall and vestry built 1955 and earlier hall in the original church style was demolished in 1955
Statues – First Child by Raymond Watson erected in 1998 and dedicated to children killed in Soweto in 1976.
367 police station
374-410 shopping parade with ‘Palace front’ and Grecian details.
377-31 interwar 4 storey building in American classic style.
393 former Black Horse pub 3 storey mid 19th in stock brick
401 19th decorative but very narrow
403-405 ironwork from 1900
411-413 curved corner with sunflowers and French turret,
414-525 grand front to Quin and Axtens department store, rebuilt in the 1920s includes 10-12 Stockwell Lane and 246 Stockwell roads. Bombed in 1941 and rebuilt in 1950s.
415 lamp standard outside ‘Parish of Lambeth’ 1856
419-450 Brixton Tube Station. Terminus of Victoria Line from Stockwell. Opened on July 23, 1971. The station is laid out as a two-track terminus and the line continues for a short distance south to sidings used for the stabling of a pair of trains for the first two northbound services.
441-447 inter war shop with concrete canopy
442-444 ex Bon Marché by Parsons and Rawlings 1977. Bon Marche was the first department store to be planned and built as such. It was founded by James 'Rosebery' Smith, who financed it from his winnings at Newmarket and modelled on the Parisian store of the same name which had pioneered the idea of the department store as a building for fashionable public assembly. The store cost £70,000 to build and occupied former nursery gardens bounded by the railway line. At the rear was accommodation for live-in staff. Fire precautions included a 6,000 gallon water tank for a sprinkler system. Smith went bankrupt in 1892 and the shop was then acquired by a consortium and eventually became part of the John Lewis Group, which closed it in 1975. In 1984 it was used by the Brixton Enterprise Centre as a base for small businesses.
446 two storey small shop. The Bon Marché arcade using the railway arches. Became part of Marks and Spencer in the 1950s
448-450 Marks and Spencer. Three storey art deco with corner tower.
449 interwar neo Georgian block
451-453 art deco in redbrick. Built for Dolcis 1938
452 19th building as Francis and Sons Exchange Stores 1865. This was the first branch of British Home Stores.
455 Reliance Arcade by Ernest Thomas of Portsmouth 1931 retail
457-46 built by Woolworths 1937 by their architects B.C Donaldson. Faience with fin detail
458-460 under the railway viaduct with decoration about Stands Opticians
463-465 bank by H.Payne 1938 whose office was over the bank
467 Prince of Wales Feathers in faience. Rebuild of hotel by Joseph Hill for the Wenlock Brewery 1938
472-474 part of Morley’s department store, three storey red brick corner in Gothic revival style.
472-488 - Morley's, opened 1927, still trading. 19th frontage with grand shop front, fire in 1910 so this is a rebuild.
518-522 corner department store for Isaac Walton 1900;
Brixton Station. 1862 Between Victoria and Herne Hill on South Eastern Trains Opened 1862 as ‘Brixton and South Stockwell’, 1866 trains from Clapham junction to Ludgate Hill and in 1969 Victoria Line came here. There are statues on the platforms of ordinary people – by Kevin Atherton. .
Railway viaduct built by the London Chatham & Dover Railway 1859/62 in stock brick arches.
Original L.C.C Tram Depot 1891 was in the Railway Arches
Railway flyover for the South London Railway 1867 with wrought-iron girders and cast-iron piers of 1867. .
Montague Burton former shop, with typical billiard saloon above

Brixton Station Road
Much rebuilding of the 1970s, recreation centre, shops, etc., by Lambeth
Offices designed by Edward Hollamby for Tarmac International. Large, stocky red brick buildings; car park. 1970 by Lambeth Architect's Department.
1-13 three storey shops

Canterbury Crescent
1-20 Dover Mansions red brick blocks
14 Dover Mansions. Plaque to Henry Havelock Ellis. ‘pioneer in the scientific study of sex, lived here'. Ellis lived here towards the end of the 19th. Plaque erected 1981.

Coldharbour Lane
A medieval route which was once called Camberwell Lane
Effra – the stream flows from areas to the south of here, passes under the road going towards Brixton Road.
245 Lambeth Harbour.
273 former single story billiard hall, long used by Roe Engineering. Gone.
354 The Angel pub closed
374 Walton Lodge Sanitary Steam Laundry, 1904 office house fronting 1896 laundry. With brick and faience detailing
378 Black Cultural Archives and Museum.
387Brixton Bizness cafe. Building is 1891 Carlton Mansions
388 Connaught Mansions. Mansion block in brick with shop fronts
389 The Dogstar was ‘The Atlantic’.
409-417 20th building with glass and ornamental front.
410 Academy Photos
415 Former Temperance Billiard Halls Ltd. Hall in their distinctive architecture. 418 Prince Albert pub
425 Creary
426 Gyoza
439 Book Mongers early mid 19th
442 ex Coach and Horses pub on corner with Electric Lane. Later called Isobar and then Living. Closed.
418 The Prince of Wales rebuilt old pub sharing new building with KFC
Green Man. Corner of Hinton Road on a very old site. Closed
Loughborough Junction Station. Opened 1864 October between Elephant and Castle and Herne Hill on Thameslink and on South Eastern Trains. Station on curves from the Brixton and Peckham Rye trains. Opened as ‘Loughborough Road’. 1872 name changed to Loughborough Junction.
Southwyke House. Flats in a massive nine-storey barrier block. 191 dwellings. Planned in 1973 to protect the area from the later abandoned Ringway Motorway. The block was completed in 1981. Its concrete structure is exposed in a pattern of zigzagging jetties, with windows punched in the brick walls. Behind, new housing is arranged around courtyards and not along streets.

Effra Road
9-18 grand 19th terrace housing
45-47 all that is left of the early Victorian middle-class housing first built along the main roads.
St.Matthew’s Estate. G.L.C. 1960s.
Memorial to the Budd family erected in 1825 by Henry Budd in memory of his father Richard Budd, ‘a respected parent’, who was born in Brixton in 1748. When other monuments were cleared to make an open space the Budd family insisted on this remaining.

Electric Avenue
High voltage. Said to be the first shopping street to be lit by electricity. It originally had an iron and glass canopy to protect shoppers, now removed. Built in 1885 as a tall terrace curving round a narrow street. . Used as a street market selling vegetables and other items.
2 with a corner tower. Built as Williamsons Bonanza Stores plus an American soda fountain,
17 20th building part of Market Row development
19-47 original 19th development t

Electric Lane
15-23 entrance to Market Row. Interwar 1951
40-42 Chaplin House three storey block with glazed tower.
Reliance Arcade. Entrance in Egyptian tomb style

Gresham Road
1 Brixton Mosque
7 Karibu Education Centre was the Abeng Centre Literary & Scientific Institute. This originally opened in 1862 as the Angell Town Literary & Scientific Institute for Working Men
Fire Station
Gresham Baptist Chapel.1880

Hinton Road
Mural on the side of what was the Bangers and Mash Cafe

Loughborough Junction
Basically a bunch of railway lines and a station in Coldharbour Lane. Named for Henry Hastings, Baron Loughborough Who had a house of ‘Lambeth Wick’ plus 24 acres of farmland covering the area of Coldharbour Lane in 1660.

Loughborough Park
A new neighbourhood created by Lambeth in the 1970s.
2-28, 45-63 Listed grade II
Loughborough Park Estate, by the Guinness Trust. One of the best of its date, by E. Armstrong, 1938. Blocks of flats in regular rows. 315 houses of varying states of grandeur.
Guinness Estate Office. Flat brick with a clock.

Loughborough Road
Laid out by the L.C.C in what seems to be a geometrical exercise. Named for Baron Loughborough.
142 The Hero of Switzerland.
Wyck Gardens. The medieval manor on this site was known as Wyk. Park with horse riding, cricket etc.

Moorland Road
Loughborough Park. With One Clock Club, Adventure Playground and a mulberry tree. Nice gardens opened 1972.

Rushcroft Road
Flats, 1892-7 for Metropolitan Improved Dwellings Co.

Saltoun Road
Raleigh Hall. Adapted from a pair of houses of 1810 and has had many use. In the late 19th it was rthe Brixton Liberal Club, and later a public meeting hall. Grade II listed.

Shakespeare Road
Lambeth Council Depot

Somerlayton Road
Lambeth and Southwark Community Transport

St.John’s Crescent
Villas in facing a newly landscaped informal open space are the best surviving 19th areas
2-20 unbroken line of villas
Max Roach Park, named for the American jazz drummer. Includes nature trail, playgrounds etc.

St. Matthews Road
1-6 Baltic house 19th house in brick

Villa Road
For many years this site of a squat.

Vining Street
Housing. Housing association schemes by the practice of MacCormac Jamieson and Prichard.

Wiltshire Road
Wiltshire Nursery
St.John. Designed by Benjamin Ferrey in 1852-3 and built of Kentish rag. Declared redundant in 1984

Windrush Square
Milestone 18th
The square was created for the 50th anniversary of the arrival of SS Windrush from the Caribbean in 1948 with 492 West Indians on boar many of whom settled in Brixton.
Maidenhair Tree, Gingko biloba,

Sources
Brixton Academy. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Day London Underground
GLIAS Newsletter
Hillman. London Under London
London Borough of Lambeth, Web site

London Encyclopaedia,
Lucas. London,
Nairn. Nairn’s London
Pevsner and Cherry. South London

Ritzy. Web site 
Rosary Church. Web siteThames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group. Report
Williams. London and South Western  Railway

Sunday, 13 June 2010

Thames Tributary Effra - South Brixton

Thames Tributary Effra
Tributaries from the area flow, or are said to have flowed, to meet the main stream of the Effra flowing northwards

Post to the east Brockwell Park


Arodene Road
Built in the same design style of Josephine Avenue.
Raleigh Park

Blenheim Gardens
This was known as Cornwall Gardens until 1936
Windmill. The nearest surviving windmill to the centre of London. It was built in 1816 for Ashby and Sons, Millers, and remained in their ownership throughout its working life. It is a tower mill built of 18 in. thick brickwork coated with tar and probably made with old ship's timbers. It is 39 ft. high topped with a boat-shaped wooden cap 9 ft. high. It was driven entirely by wind until 1862 when the Ashby family moved their business to Mitcham, the Brixton neighbourhood had become built up and the mill was no longer efficient. The sails were removed and it was used for storage. In 1902 a steam and later a gas engine were installed and the mill continued until 1934 when the demand for wholemeal flour died out. When Joshua Ashby grandson of the original owner, died the mill was left to his housekeeper and administered by a Trust. In 1957 it was bought by the London County Council who laid the area out as a public garden. In 1964 it was restored but not put in working order. The sails were new but most of the materials came from a derelict mill at Burgh-Le-Marsh. It was given to Lambeth Council in 1971
Blenheim Gardens Estate. Low-rise redevelopments built by Lambeth Council Architects Department in 1971 and 1974 as an entirely pedestrian scheme.
22 Windmill Pub. Modern pub with lots of live music
Post Office and sorting office, terracotta 1891.
Windmill Terrace, playground for children; Housing

Brixton Hill
A road which slopes downhill northwards towards Brixton centre and central London. It is part of the London to Brighton road, A23, and follows the line of a Roman road which left Stane Street near Kennington. It was once known as Brixton Causeway and passed through a series of open spaces and common land. A gallows stood here in the 1720s, specifically to deal with highwaymen who worked this main road between London and Croydon It is marked as ‘Brixton Hill’ on the Ordnance Survey map of 1816. Rush Common. This is a legacy of the building restrictions in the 1806 Enclosure Act and is the remains of the Brixton Wastes. And the common continues southwards almost as far as the South Circular. It is now woodland of mature plane, lime, ash, yew, evergreen oak, horse-chestnut and some false-acacias. Many trees are in straight rows at right angles to the road and are in fact old field boundaries. There are birds and Squirrels may occasionally be seen.
100-112c with its ceramic tile frieze
101-103 Brixton Cinematograph. Opened 1911 as the Brixton Hill Cinematograph in a shop conversion by 'cinema king,' Montague Pike. It was known as the Scala in 1914, and then the New Royalty in the 1930s before closing in 1957. In 1954 it was called the Clifton Cinema with 998 seats. Front with curved gable and half dome above the entrance, the auditorium was demolished in the 1970's but the foyer has survived with original decorative Edwardian plasterwork.
108 post office54-46 Brixton Centre. Lambeth Community College.
89-111 row of shops infringing the rules about encroaching upon Rush Common. 94 White Horse. Carriage entrance leading to former stables behind. 18th inn serving travellers on the main road. 95 Cottage from 18th which in fringed the commons act so it predates 1806 Grade II listed - In 1880 single storey shop on the forecourt
Blenheim Mansions with original grand entrance and bulls-eye fanlight
Brixton Customer CentreBrixton Hill Court red brick facade with stone dressings similar to apartment buildings of the same era in America.
Capital PrintersChristchurch House. 1938 with entrances in green ceramic tiles, and original front doors and stone surround
Corpus Christi R.C. Begun 1886; by F. Bentley but only the chancel and transepts were built. Striped brick and stone, in the style of c. 1300.
Dumbarton Court, privately built apartment block 1939 in moderne style by Couch and Coupland. It has bands of contrasting brickwork and original wrap around Crittall windows.
Effra Court red brick facade with stone dressings
New Park Court 1938
Raleigh Gardens. Built mid 1890s a line of three storey terraced villas of redbrick and stone dressings, set back behind long front gardens to respect the Rush Common Enclosure Act. Built in the grounds of Raleigh House
Raleigh House. The estate was divided for building in 1887.It was a Georgian house. The Effra ran through the 4 acre grounds. It was considered as the site for a public a park but Brockwell Park was used instead, although Raleigh House site was cheaper. The Commons Act meant some of its area could not be built on.
Renton Close. Originally called Briscoe's Buildings, 1906 by the L.C.C. architects department, with influence of the arts and crafts movement. Ceramic tiles on the ground floor plinth and art nouveau style doorway heads
Royal Mail pillar box with initials of Edward VIII and an enamel Post Office direction
South Side Bar. Pub previously the George IV late Victorian with ironwork, stone balustrades and a copper-clad turret topped with a seagull weathervane.
Tile Giant building in front of remains of Cambrian Landray bus garage.
Tudor Court. Semi-wild front garden of the 20th flats. Swimming pool at the back. Privately rented service flats fashionable in the 1920's and 1930's. It has over 100 flats designed to accommodate a younger generation of single people and couples. Designed by A.W. Reading in 1933 with half-timbered Tudor-style gables, grouped around a central courtyard with a fountain, flower beds and lawns.

Brixton Water Lane
Known as Watery Lane as the area was marshy
36 Montego Inn. Jamaican bar and restaurant.

Elm Park.
Brixton Hill Methodist Church, with old school and church at the back of a new church, the chapel was rebuilt in a, restrained mid-20th Scandinavian style in 1957 after the 1860's church was destroyed in the Blitz. The first chapel was built in 1824; and rebuilt in 1856–7 by William Wesley Jenkins and destroyed by bombing in the Second World War. Sunday School 1874. In London stock brick and stained glass window

Endymion Road
The name commemorates the shepherd of Mount Latmus of whom the moon goddess became enamoured

Hayter Road
Sudbourne Primary School

Helix Gardens
Laid out in the 1890's with terraces with gothic arches above the first floor windows

Horsford Road
51 Horsford Road Jesuit Community

Jebb Avenue
Brixton Prison. It is on the site of an area used Christopher Hall a Southwark merchant, as a source of brick earth in 1802, Sold for a prison in 1819 and designed by Thomas Chawner, Surrey County Surveyor, with central polygonal block and radiating wings as the Surrey House of Correction.. Planned in the form of a crescent, with the octagonal governor's house in the centre and included a treadmill. At first it was used for female convicts sentenced to transportation and penal servitude, but in 1853 it was bought by the Government for male prisoners including those on remand. The footings for the treadmill remain and are visible and the former execution suite is now a cell with six beds.
Brixton Water Works. Built on Hall’s brickworks site by the Lambeth Waterworks Company which had been established in 1785 and became part of the Metropolitan Water Board in 1903. In 1834 obtained an act of Parlisment to extend its area of supply and also bought 16 acres here to build a reservoir and works. The earliest surviving buildings are c1850 in a simple stock brick design. Pump house in a beaux arts style of c1930. In 1850 this was their -second lift pumping station with a Pumping engine 930 hp. Initially to send Filtered water from Surbiton and Waltham to Streatham. In 1870 three new engines were installed. To pump water to Crystal Palace and two more engines in 1880. By 1930 there were three engine houses with 9 engines and another engine house to pump to Norwood, Forest Hill, Selhurst, Streatham Hill, Rock Hill and Crystal Palace tank. The steam plant was scrapped in 1935.
Ring Main Shaft. The London water ring main passes under here at about 45 metres underground and this was a construction site with an access shaft.

Josephine Avenue
Planned in the late 1860's in accordance with Rush Common Act. There are some old and very big oaks which may predate the of 1806.
Urban Art Festival –annual event with art works hung on street railings.

Kings Avenue
Kings Avenue Primary School. New buildings
Territorial Army Centre.
84 Victoria House, survivor of Cubitt estate of 1849
87 Avenue House BBC Research Department, former residence of the governor of Brixton Prison. A small workshop and stores had been built in the forecourt of the house and a garage held the transport fleet of about eight vehicles. An asbestos bungalow was built in the garden Designs Section occupied a long room across the end of the bungalow. Outside the front door there stood two “lion-like creatures about 4ft high, which had been made by one of the prisoners. When the department moved to Chiswick in 1958 they moved too.
Kings Avenue
89, survivor of Cubitt estate of 1849
96-104 1950-5 close, around a green

Leander Road
The name is a reference to a man of Abydos who swam the Hellespont every night to join his beloved, Hero.

Lambert Road
Corpus Christi RC Primary SchoolNew Testament Church of God Brixton Community Church. This was St.Saviour’s church. Built 1874 by Robins in ragstone.

Lyham Road
Ancient path once known as Back Lane.
2 Royal Oak closed. Charrington pub demolished 2006
59 Kings Acre Methodist Church. Wesleyan Mission Chapel of 1886, now includes St.Saviour which was on Brixton Hill
61 Clapham Youth Centre
89 Duke of Cornwall. Closed pub now flats
115 Windmill Lodge Care Centre. Excel looks new
131 The Cabin. Pavilion like structure for nursery
169-171 Prince of Wales pub
191 Red Lion. Closed pub Rebuilt as housing infill
199-213 Williamsons Ltd's bakery. The three floor facade of c1905 unifies several buildings. Disused.
206 Waggon and Horses pub
250 All Saints Church 1889 by Talbot Bury & Hening. Kentish rag; Decorated. Listed.
Mural. The Windmill by Mick Harrison and Caroline Thorp 1983. It tells the history of Brixton's Windmill.

Mandrell Road
Livity Special School. Built as Windmill Junior Training School with two octagonal blocks, one with a therapeutic pool, the other a hall.
Tuborg House. Sign about lager on the wall.

Mauleverer Road
Depot of Carter, Patterson, carriers, rebuilt and extended 1904. One and two storey buildings around a cobbled yard, with later infill.
Mural with horses right along the wall. By Jane Gifford & Ruth Bench and assisted by Jonathan Leckie and Ann Herdman 1983.
Tuborg factory, in the Carter Patterson Depot. Original features included horse' stables and vast tanks underneath full of beer.

Prague Place
Ashby Mill School primary school called after the Ashby family with its swimming pool. Closed and converted to housing

Raleigh Gardens
Landscaped shrubberies and trees surround a lawn which is officially only open to residents
1a Marie Stopes South London Centre

St.Matthews Road
40 Pub Mango Landin Formerly an old fashioned boozer, Mango Landing was fashioned into the vodka 'Babushka Bar' in the late 1990s, closed, squatted and turned into a jumping venue before its current owners gave the place a hose-down and reopened the place as a smart pub

Strathleven Road
Strathleven & Mauleverer Road housing. 1991, housing association scheme by MacCormac Jamieson and Prichard.

Waterworks Road
5 Covenant House. New Covenant Church
Waterworks administration building of c1925 with a stone porch.
Bus garage buildings of the Landry and Co. Haulage Co – which became the Cambrian-Landray Group garage. Later used by LT for Green Line and private hire buses. The Lambray garage remained there. In the 1920s Landry had a small garage and three charabancs, a lorry and a coach. Private buses were kept there in the 1920s. And the firm made the money from renting space to bus operators. The entrance was in Water Works Road. It was used by London General Country Services Ltd. until the mid 1930s.

Wednesday, 9 June 2010

Thames Tributary Effra - Brockwell Park

Thames Tributary Effra
Various tributaries to the Effra meet in this area and flow northwards. The precise channel of the river is unclear but tributaries rejoin north of Brockwell Park,

TQ 30971 74626

Brockwell Park provides an interesting and varied open space, plus its lido, as the roads climb up out of busy Brixton. There are residential roads all around, churches, and schools.


Post to the west Brixton
Post to the east Herne Hill
Post to the south Tulse Hill
Post to the north Brixton

Arlingford Road
1 Artist's walled garden at rear of house.
2 Old Stables behind in Arlingford Mews

Brixton Water Lane
One of the lanes of medieval Brixton. The Effra was joined here by a tributary from the pond in Brockwell Park and they run in a sewer 40 feet below the road,
46-48 Listed, as are the forecourt walls
55-56 Houses built by John Blades in 1815 along Brixton Water Lane for estate staff Listed.
60-64 Listed, as are the forecourt walls

Brockwell Park (Northern section only)
Brockwell Park is part of what was a once larger Brockwell Estate. If Brockwell is an old name, it may mean ‘badger stream', from Old English, and this thus might be an old name for Effra.
Old English Garden with a Shakespeare garden which had every specimen of plant referred to by the bard. It was laid out by Col. Sexby. This it is on the site of the former walled kitchen garden and was the first to be featured in a London park. It had a well and a sundial which was 8 feet up a wall. In the centre was a pond with a fountain, stocked with goldfish. Listed walls.
Pond with coots, moorhens and mallards as well as red-eared terrapins. It is protected with a concrete surround and with a depth of perhaps three feet at the edges, deepening toward the middle. Before the Second World War it was used for swimming and changing rooms were available as well as a springboard. This ended through eye an infection. It was also used by serious model boaters. During the War, the pond was fenced off and a stick of three German bombs fell in it. After the war it was used for tethered hydroplane racing. A pylon was erected in the middle of the lake, and the boats were raced against the clock, at the end of a wire and powered by diesel engines. The Big Pond overflows via a pipe and a waterfall into an ornamental pond
Ornamental lake. Ducks with duck nesting boxes. The surrounding vegetation consists mostly of exotic species such as swamp cypress and blue Atlas cedar. Fed by a pipe from the big pond
Second ornamental lake, fed by a stream from the first pond. Ducks and wildfowl and an island refuge. Overflowed into a stream,
Third pond - artificial concrete used by children and has a maximum depth of about 18 inches. It is paved round its entire area, making it ideal for paddling and toy boats. Drains via an overflow pipe, into the adjacent Big Pond,
Stream which is a tributary of the River Effra. This is the only place where the river can be seen above ground. Trees mark the underground passage of this tributary of the River Effra. It continues inside the park railings as far as Herne Hill where it joins the main branch flowing down from Upper Norwood. It disappears into a bushy area at the lower end of the park and flows into a hole covered with a grating
Brockwell Lido grade II listed. Built 1937. Designed by H A Rowbotham and T L Smithson, architects for the LCC Parks Department. It is identical to the one in Victoria Park. It replaced use of the pond for bathing. Popularly known locally as "Brixton Beach.” It was closed in 1990 but through local pressure it was re-opened in 1995. An extension has been built to the original design.
The Beach café
Aviary which used to be near the Old English Garden. Replaced by two pergolas against the walls.
Remains of a model village next door to the aviary by the garden entrance. The gift of a private individual who had made the little houses, shops, cottages and church out of concrete and stone.

Chaucer Road
Chaucer has a special connection with London - his father was a London vintner, and he spent much of his working life here - but this is the nearest street-named after him to the City. This road is one of a group of poets – and the area has been called ‘Poets Corner’.

Dalberg Road
122 Celestial Church of Christ. Noah’s Ark Parish

Dulwich Road
A renamed part of Brixton Water Lane. The Effra flowed down the road from the area which is now Herne Hill Station, to join another stream coming from Tulse Hill.
St.Jude.built 1867-8 and designed by E. C. Robins in Kentish rag. It had seating for over 1000 people. It was damaged by fire in 1923, and bombed in 1940. Since 1979 it has been a furniture warehouse and more lately used by Mark Allen Group of publishers.
69 Prince Regent pub. Now a gastropub
133 Brockwell Park Tavern now called The Florence. It was also once called Ganleys
Passage to car park, and the back of what was the Grand Cinema
Fanon House. Care house
Houses on the south side were part of the development of an estate by the owners of Brockwell Park

Effra
Effra. The stream was first recorded as ‘Effra’ as late as 1840. The name Effra may be a 19th antiquarian revival of Old English meaning ‘bank, ridge'. On some earlier maps it is noted as ‘The Shore’


Effra Parade
A suburban road running between Herne Hill and Coldharbour Lane, at Loughborough Junction.
Effra Parade School. Used as a civil defence station in the war. Now demolished.

Effra Road
Effra Road Chapel. Founded in 1839 by Rational Dissenters, professionals, committed to religious and civil liberty. Early members included Sir Henry Tate and the Mappins. The original church building was destroyed by bombing in 1941 and the congregation met in the Effra Road Synagogue until the current building was erected in 1962
125 – 133 Eurolink Business Centre in what was the Effra Road Synagogue. Opened 1913 and closed 1962.
95 Hootenanny Pub was previously called The George Canning, and for a while the Hobgoblin.

Herne Place
St.Jude’s Arts centre
Herne Place Park

Leander Road
Banks of streams could be seen in gardens here.

Milkwood Road
Named from ‘Mylkewell woodde’ in 1540, which was the name of the old manor of ‘MiIkeweile’ which means 'spring or stream with milk-coloured (probably chalky) water', from Old English.
Housing built in late 19th century by the Suburban Village and General Dwellings Co. In terraces.
Neville’s Bakery
Industrial estate on site of old railway sidings

Milton Road
One of a group of roads with poet’s names in this area

Norwood Road
2/4 billiard hall.
41 Yard at the back
The Fisher Bookbinding Co. St.Ann’s Works. Now converted to flats.
Brockhall manor house was built on Norwood Lane in the mid-15th. Demolished when John Blades built Brockwell Hall.

Railton Road
The Effra flows to this area from Half Moon Lane and us where it is joined by another tributary from Leigham Vale via Tulse Hill and Brockwell Park
Roads in between Railton and Dulwich Roads called Poets Corner because of the street names. Laid out on the site of Effra Farm by the Westminster Freehold Co.
Island Green – the name on old maps for the road junction at Herne Hill Station. It reflects the nature of the area where a number of streams meet.
Herne Hill Station. Opened 5th August 1862. It lies between Loughborough Junction and Tulse Hill on Thameslink. It is also between Loughborough Junction and also Brixton and West Dulwich on South Eastern Trains. Built by the London Chatham and Dover Railway. It has a booking office, two storeys, in Gothic polychrome brick. A taller tower was for the water tank. It is near the junction of five main roads, between Railton Road and Milkwood Road. The line from Stewart’s Lane opened in 1862 and went on to Beckenham. In 1863 the line to Elephant and Castle opened. Refurbished in 1977 in yellow brick with red & black trim
Herne Hill sorting sidings. This was one of the first yards in the country, and was an extension of Blackfriars Yard where there was not enough space. Now closed.
222 Tantaliser Restaurant site of the Grand Cinema. A cinema here opened 1914 as the Herne Hill Cinema. The Grand opened in 1932 and changed its name to the Pullman in 1953 and closed in 1959. Later used for bingo.
213 Temple of Truth. International Fellowship of Christ. On the site of the original buildings of St. Jude's C.E. Primary School. Opened for the Christian Education of the Infant Poor 1884 and designed by Alfred Bartholomew. It was originally known as St. Paul's Infant School, but in 1869 changed to St. Jude's. The original building is a single-storey stock brick structure with a slate roof. The school has since moved to Regent Road
165 Brixton Advice Centre. This was once Kitchen Utensil Corner. Home at one time of C.L.R. James, plaque to him
Methodist Church and community centre on the site of Railton Methodist Church. Built 1874, by R. Cable, architect. In 1887 schools were built at the rear
St.Jude’s Parochial Rooms. Built 1887
128 Hamilton Pub now a supermarket
210 Commercial Hotel
143-149 Railton Road health centre on church and school site
82 Harmony Bar, on the site of the George Pub burnt down in 1982 riots. Has also been known as Mingles
70-80 St.George’s residences. Purpose built flats 1878 with water tower

Regent Road
St.Jude’s Primary SchoolShakespeare Road
One of a group of roads with poet’s names in this area
SITA Waste Transfer Station. On old railway sidings
109 Mount Hermon Church of God. In old pub building

Spenser Road
One of a group of roads with poet’s names in this area

Tulse Hill
Named after the Tulse family, on record locally from the middle of the 17th. Built up in Victorian times as a very exclusive middle class area. It was earlier called Lower Tulse Hill.
The Thomas Jackson Memorial Hostel at Tulse Hill is part of the Whitechapel Mission and provides after-care for youths from Borstal, or Community homes Whitechapel House. Memorial Hostel part of Whitechapel Methodist Mission
2 Carpet Right warehouse on the site of the Purpose- built Brixton Roller Rink Ltd. skating hall. Opened 1910 and closed 1965.
32 lady said she could remember stream at the bottom of her garden
Housing on the site of Dick Sheppard School. The school was built 1950- for 960 girls, one of the first big post-war London schools. The model was an e American university campus, but the layout was less generous. Called Dick Sheppard because he was vicar at St. Martin’s in the Fields.
6/10 site of Cambrian Coach and Goods Transport Ltd. garage for 26 private buses. There was a building and workshops, which was used for 40 buses. 1972 it was an egg distribution depot.
Nature garden. This was a showpiece nature garden when it was set up in 1982. Probably the most memorable feature is the murals, which cover almost all the walls. The extensive vegetation encourages a range of invertebrates, including bees and butterflies, and common birds like blackbirds make their home here

Sources
SourcesBritish History on Line. Lambeth. Web site
Brixton Methodists. Web site
Celestial Church of Christ. Web site
Cinema Treasures. Web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Day London Underground

Effra Road Chapel. Web site
GLIAS Newsletter
Hootnanny. Web site
London Borough of Lambeth, Web site
London Encyclopaedia,
London Lidos. Web site
Londononline Parks. Web site
Lucas. London,
Nairn. Nairn’s London
Pevsner and Cherry. South London

Temple of Truth. Web site

Monday, 7 June 2010

Thames Tributary Effra - Tulse Hill

Thames Tributary Effra
Some of the streams which make up the Effra flow northwards


Post to the north Brockwell Park
Post to the east West Dulwich
Post to the south Knight's Hill

Abbots Park
Fenstanton Primary School. Name after a large house which stood on the site. It was built in 1873 for a City solicitor
St.Martin’s Community Centre

Brockwell Park (southern half only)
Up to 1537, the area was owned by St. Thomas' Hospital, and then passed through several owners. In 1807 the area of the park was bought by John Blades, a glass merchant. It was developed by Blackburn in the1880s and to create a new public park 78 acres of the estate was bought by London County Council and laid by Lt. Col. J. J. Sexby. The park was opened in 1892. In 1898 a further 43 acres were bought and by 1923 all houses had been demolished.
Brockwell Hall built 1811 for John Blades to replace an original 16th building near Norwood Road. Restored in 1994. Grade II* listed designed by D.R Roper. It has a residential block, a service wing and a stable yard and block. A country villa with three-bay entrance front since used as a park restaurant. Porch with paired Ionic columns and a Domed vestibule inside with simple plasterwork. One room is It is situated along the ridge of the hill in the centre of park. Since 1892 it has had a café and a 'Picture Room' painted with rustic scenes by Henry Strachey, 1897. It was leased to Burroughs, Wellcome and Co. Physiological Research Institute for research into equine fever and diphtheria. Badly damaged in an arson attack in 1990 but since restored.
Barometer and flagpole. The pole near the Mansion flew the London County Council flag. Originally it was part of a weather station, with thermometer, barometer and barograph in a slatted hutch, and a rainfall measure on the ground inside a fence. It was all removed in the Second World War. Brass plate saying ‘Gift from Charles Tritton Coronation Year, July 26, 1902'. Destroyed in a gale 1980s.
Oak tree on what was the lawn of the house. May be 500 years old and one of a line of oaks planted by a monastry to mark a boundary line. It has a girth of 20 feet.
Clock tower. This stands on a high points and was presented, in 1897 by the MP for Norwood, Mr. Charles Tritton, and is a smaller replica of the clock opposite the Victoria Palace Theatre in London. Its tick can be clearly heard by putting your ear to the base.
BandstandBMX track site of Clarence Lodge built 1825.
Water fountain near Herne Hill gate. Now gone but it was a column with a bust of local MP Bristowe on the top and water flowing from the jaws of a lion a young woman in Grecian draperies climbed up to the bust with a laurel wreath plus a Latin Text about donor Bristowe. He died during the opening ceremony for the park
Searchlight in the Second World War. This had a pit for the projector surrounded by a circular footway for the operators to move the traversing arm, plus a blast wall. There was another concrete lined pit with a central post with a metal pipe in the top as the fixing post for a sound locator It had four 'ears' to pick up the sound of enemy aircraft engines,
RAF barrage balloon sites.
Air raid shelters by the Rosendale Road entrance
Underground public shelter built near the Norwood Gate, equipped with bunks and toilet facilities. Had a direct hit and several killed.

Deronda Road
Named for George Eliot's book

Mackie Road
Tulse Hill School. Large comprehensive, opened 1956, closed and demolished 1990 following issues with subsidence. The School was equipped with workshops and labs oriented to vocational education. The Great Hall has an entirely professional stage lighting system and ex-Rose Hill Cinema organ.

Norwood Road
Westmoreland Society School. Opened 1954 for the children of people from Westmoreland who lived within 25 miles of London.
119 -121 Westmoreland Lodge. This site formed part of Brockwell Green Farm, bought by Lord Thurlow in 1785. It was a detached portion of the Manor of Leigham Court and the parish of Streatham. These houses were probably built before 1836
150 Tulse Hill Tavern. Built 1840 it has a walled garden with a fountain.
323 South London Botanical Institute. The institute was founded in 1910 by ex Indian administrator Alan Octavian Hume. It is London's smallest botanic garden densely planted with more than five hundred labelled species from around the world. British plants are a specialty, as are medicinal and carnivorous plants and ferns. Herbarium and botanical library. Brick Victorian house

Romola Road
Named for George Eliot's work

Trinity Rise
Road built as part of a development of 1845 by the Cressingham/Edwards estate.
Holy Trinity. 1855 – 56 BY Thomas Denville Barry. Listed grade 2. It was built on land from the estate of Jonah Cresingham. It is brick faced with Kentish ragstone with bath stone dressings. Decorated door with naturalistic vine foliage. The parish is now Holy Trinity with St.Matthais.

Tulse Hill
Named for Thomas Tulse who was Lord Mayor of London in 1680. The area was laid out before 1821 on part of Brockwell Park estate by Daniel Gould for the Cressingham/Edwards estate, originally as a posh private road.
St Martin's Estate, 1954, London County Council housing
Silwood Hall, originally Berry House. Now makes up the front part of St Martin-in-the-Fields High School for Girls. This is one of the oldest schools for girls in Britain. Established in 1699 by the parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields in Westminster. .It was relocated here in 1928 it is now a comprehensive voluntary-aided high school with technology college status.

Upper Tulse Hill
132 Lambeth Jubilee Barracks TA Centre. 253 Provost Company which is a sub unit of 4 RMP, and, provides support to 101 Logistic Brigade
St Martin’s Library Centre. The derelict library was taken over as a community resource and is now run by High Trees Community Development Trust.

Saturday, 5 June 2010

Thames Tributary Effra - Knight's Hill

Thames Tributary Effra
Tributaries to the Effra flow northwards through the area.

Post to the west Leigham Court
Post to the north Tulse Hill
Post to the south Knights Hill
Post to the east West Dulwich

Canterbury Grove
Development area laid out from 1810

Chestnut Road
5 The Clock House. Detached Victorian house and home. Copper roof over a large glassed area including a clock museum. seems not to be there now

Chatsworth Way
Named this because Paxton worked at Chatsworth before building the Crystal Palace
V2 on the evening of 26 September 1944 scoring a direct hit on the church and causing two deaths and 51 injuries.

Christchurch Road
138 Methodist Church. Modern church which replaces Roupell Park Methodist Church which was a Gothic church built .1879-80 by Charles Bell in Kentish rag.

Knights Hill
Mrs Fawcett’s Fountain. She was a local temperance campaigner
Tunnel for the London, Brighton and South Coast railway. Built in 1866 and part of scheme for Dulwich College
West Norwood Station. Between Gypsy Hill and Tulse Hill and also with a line to Streatham Hill on Southern Rail. Opened as part of West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway and LBSCR in 1856 for the opening of the Crystal Palace. The line comes from Crystal Palace Low Level Station. The station was originally called Lower Norwood.
3 The Norwood was The Norwood Hotel.
13 Knowles pub. This is the old John Knowles premises. The name was on the frontage - ironmonger and maker of manhole covers, Also Bielomatic factory was here.
14-16 West Norwood Free Public Library opened in 1881 and later a youth centre. Listed Grade II. The site was given by Frederick Nettlefold, 1887 and Lambeth benefited from the patronage of Sir Henry Tate, who lived at Streatham. The architect was Tate’s protégé Sidney R. J. Smith, and it cost £4,050. Three-storey building built of red brick with terracotta and Ham Hill stone dressings. An example of minor late Victorian municipal showmanship it has an entrance loggia with a balcony is crammed into its tiny facade.
Nettlefold Hall. Hall and theatre and a smaller hall
40 Horns Tavern. This is shown on the Roque map, and is where it is said that wagoners rested before going up the hill. One landlord was father of actress, Ann Cateley. Sign with folk dancers holding horns has gone.
Lodge. This remains from the Jewish Orphanage. And is in an alleyway opposite Cotswold Road. The Jew's Hospital in Mile End Road, Stepney, was founded in 1795 and was later given 9acres of land here. This was for the maintenance of aged poor and the education and employment of children. The foundation stone of the new hospital was laid in 1861 by Sir Anthony de Rothschild. Demolished except for the lodge of 1861 by Tillott and Chamberlain. Housing on most of the site – Hainthorpe Estate.
Norwood Hall. Was originally the synagogue for the orphanage? Surrounding parkland. Built 1962-it is now a secular ex-community centre which still displays its Star of David,
Cabman’s shelter on the corner of Cotswold Street gone.

Lanercost Road
27 home of Arthur Mee 1875-1943 Plaque which says “author and topographer lived here.” He lived here for many years until just after the start of the Second World War. Plaque erected 1991.

Lansdowne Hill
8-20 - at the rear were the depot and stables for London Southern Tramways 1894

Leigham Vale
Development area laid out from 1810
Tributary going down here to join the Effra

Norwood 
Norwood’s hills were open country until the early 19th and development began with the sale of Lord Thurlow's estate in 1810. Norwood Common was also enclosed around the same time.

Norwood High Street
Development followed the enclosure of Norwood Common in 1810.
Effra - In 1935 the sewer was enlarged to help avoid floodings, and deep shafts were sunk here. The landscape in this area suggests a rough course for the river.
St.Luke. A ‘Waterloo’ church built 1820s. The site is on rising ground at the junction of Knights Hill and Norwood High Street giving the six-column portico an uplift. In 1872-3 G. E. Street made some internal alterations. And the altar decoration is from 1936 by Sir Charles Nicholson. There are Paintings in a blind window by W. Christian Symons after designs by F. Bentley, 1885. A 19th screen came from St Sepulchre Holborn.
West Norwood Library. Buikl 1969 by Lambeth Architect's Department. Sloping roof and dark purple-red brick walls arranged around an internal courtyard with all-glass walls. Sculpture by David McFall, 1972: Oedipus and Jocasta.
2 South London Theatre. In the old fire station with a prominent watchtower. Owen Luder 1881.
20 Gypsy Queen Pub
South Metropolitan Cemetery frontage

Norwood Road,
Formerly Norwood Lane
304 B and Q on the site of the Regal Cinema designed by F Edward Jones and opened in 1930. It seated 2,010 and had a Christie Manual organ. It closed 1964 and became a Top Rank Bingo Club until 1978. It was demolished.
367 White Hart Tavern
445 Fire Station. Opened 1916
551 Tesco in what was the Thurlow Arms.
Salvation Army
Serbia House, demolished was the home of Hiram Maxim, Built a captive flying machine there, like a merry go round one sent to Earl's Court, one to Crystal Palace and one to Blackpool
St Matthew R.C 1905, probably by Tasker end 1937 rebuilt 1949-50 with two-storey brick front by Plaskett and Marshall.
Railway Spur lines between Chatham Railway and LCD built 1869

Station Rise
7 Railway Pub
Tulse Hill Station. 1st January 1869. Between Herne Hill and Streatham on Thameslink. Between North Dulwich and Streatham and also Streatham on Southern Trains. Built by the London Brighton and South Coast Railway and opened as ‘Knights Hill’. The station originally had a bowstring-arched iron and glass roof covering all four platforms. The brick retaining walls of this structure survive. However, it appears that this was demolished as a precautionary measure following the collapse of the similar roof in 1905, and individual platform canopies were then introduced. In 1869 London Chatham and Dover Railway was also using the station.