Sunday, 16 September 2012

Mutton Brook - Hampstead Garden Village

Mutton Brook
The Mutton Brook flows west and north westwards

Post to the east Hampstead Garden Suburb
Post to the north East Finchley
Post to the south Golders Green
Post to the west Temple Fortune

Alyth Gardens
North Western Reform Synagogue. In 1933 the Synagogue was started when local families came together in Temple Fortune to “formally proclaim the foundation of a congregation”.  On 16th June 1933 a first  service was held at 2 Meadway. In 1936, the Synagogue was built in Alyth Gardens, on land taken that was carved out from the West London Synagogue’s cemetery in Hoop Lane. It is plain and designed by Fritz Landauer with a two-storey brick front.  .

Asmuns Hill
In the Artisans Quarter. Mostly designed also by Parker and Unwin. Full of ‘twittens’ and detailed design features.
37-47 linked brick arches demonstrating a high level of craftsmanship
44-56 built for Improved Industrial Dwellings Co. and designed in 1909 by Hubbard and Moore

Big Wood
Big Wood is more than a thousand years old and was once much larger. It was probably given by the Bishop of Hereford to the Bishop of London in 704 and its western boundary marked the edge of the Bishop's estate. When Hampstead Garden Suburb was planned Henrietta Barnett was committed to the provision of green spaces. The original suburb built in 1907 was south of the wood and in 1911another 112 acres were bought for the 'New Suburb'. Big Wood was then leased from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and in 1933 it was transferred to Finchley Urban District Council and in 1964 to the London Borough of Barnet. Big Wood has many wild service trees, and crab apples as well as oak, ash, wild cherry, hornbeam, sessile oak, whitebeam, rowan, holly, elder, and field maple. At the Temple Fortune Hill entrance is a new gate, donated by residents to commemorate the 29 suburb residents who died in the Second World War.

Bigwood Court
Flats for the bereaved families of ex-service men designed by Souter in 1925.  They stand round three sides of a grassed court

Bigwood Road
White-rendered cottage groups behind high privet hedges:
Henrietta Barnett Junior School built in in 1938 and designed by Soutar. It is a two storey building, with single storey wings in brick. An extension of the Henrietta Barnett School it was opened in 1938 as The Henrietta Barnett Preparatory School, taking mixed pupils aged 5-11 and remained here until 1976.

Central Square
The location of the square was chosen by Henrietta Barnett as the highest place on the site. It was laid out initially by Unwin and the design refined by Edwin Lutyens’s whose formal design of 1906-8 however, was never completely realized. The area was left open so that Harrow church could be seen but it has since become blocked with tree growth,
St Jude on the Hill. Built in 1909 as the centrepiece to Hampstead Garden Suburb. St.Jude had been Canon Barnett’s church in Whitechapel.  It has a Gothic silhouette built in deference to Mrs. Barnett's belief that this was the true religious style.  Inside are ceiling paintings by Walter Starmer the result of a meeting at Arras in 1918 between Starmer and the Vicar – it shows lots of strong women.  There is a Willis organ which came from St Jude's Whitechapel demolished in 1923.  The foundation stone is by Eric Gill and dates from 1910. There is a memorial to war horses of the Great War – although the bronze by Lutyens father was stolen. St John's Chapel was a gift of the Harmsworth family in 1923 with a memorial window to Sir John Harmsworth by Robert Anning Bell
Free Church.  In 1908 the first residents of Hampstead Garden Suburb worshipped together in 'the Workmen's hut' and a Sunday School was set up for all the children. The first service of the Free Church was held in 1909 and it was formally inaugurated in 1910. Work on the Church building in 1911 and it was opened in the October. The foundation original because there is no other interdenominational Free Church in the country". It was designed initially in 1909 by Lutyens and is a variation on the design of St Jude with a low concrete dome.
The Institute Hall was officially opened in 1909, and then housed adult education classes and a temporary infant’s school.  By 1912 it had been enlarged with a new brick skin, under C.S. Soutar.  The north and south pavilions are used by the Institute, the rest by Henrietta Barnett School. The Institute was founded as a provider of educational, cultural and social activities for people of all ages, cultures and income levels in north London and beyond and continues in this role
Henrietta Barnett School .There were many boys’ schools in the local area but Henrietta Barnett had to persuade authorities of the necessity of a girls’ school. In 1912, six students enrolled at the ‘Institute Kindergarten and High School’. The school, designed by Lutyens, grew rapidly and was developed between 1909 and 1929. Some interior design was by the Middlesex County Council’s architect Charles Handscombe. In 1918, Queen Mary laid the foundation stone of ‘The Barnett School’ – it was renamed ‘he Henrietta Barnett School’ in 1922. The new Queen Mary Wing was opened in 1924. Crewe Hall named after the 1st Marquess of Crewe, was completed in 1929. In 2011, the new Hopkins Wings for art, music, drama and design technology facilities were opened and there is a junior school from 1938.
Henrietta Barnett Memorial.  This is on the west side of the square and by Lutyens. It has arches on pylons which frame her beloved view of Harrow church. It says “In grateful memory of Dame Henrietta Barnett D.B.E., 1851 - 1936, founder and inspirer of this garden suburb” and was dedicated in 1937.
The Manse designed by Lutyens
War memorial in the Vicarage Garden. To the Fallen of the Great War, designed by Lutyens

Chatham Close
A short close with houses by T.M. Wilson which backs onto Big Wood

Constable Close
Named for painter John Constable who lived in Hampstead
Large houses designed by T. Laurence Dale;

Denman Drive
Part of the area controlled by Co-partnership Tenants Ltd. in 1909 and were the first houses of the New Suburb. After a hedge and an oak the road divides into two ‘prongs’ Denman Drive North and Denman Drive South set between Big and Little Woods leading to a steep slope. Thus there is a staggered building line and much planting of trees. It was laid out in 1912 with houses by George Lister Sutcliffe.  Gabled and rendered.  The first houses were designed by Bunney and Welch and the terraces by Herbert Welch.

Erskine Hill
1-13 designed by Lutyens in pairs.  Insides are a bit strange and made to fit the pre-conceived outsides.
2-14 the architect was Sutcliffe – these are more conventional and more practical
20-68 pairs of houses designed by Bunney and Makins's. Semi detached houses which indicate a higher social class than the Industrial Dwellings stuff across the road.
Plain cottages for the Improved Industrial Dwellings Co
Erskine House. This was originally Ursula and Henrietta House – funded by George Cadbury whose daughter was Ursula.  It is now flats. It was initially to be housing for the “disadvantaged” and rented to the Poor Law Guardians for destitute children. There were complaints about noise and it was closed.
Adelaide Cottage. Named after Commissioner Adelaide Cox of the Salvation Army. It was initially to be housing for the “disadvantaged” – an eventide home for cheerful ‘old dears’.
Emma Cottage initiated by the future Lady Yarrow for exhausted servants between situations
Rosemary Cottages. It was initially to be housing for the “disadvantaged”.  Another Salvation Army children’s home. Along with Emma Cottage it was sold to the Church of England Waifs and Strays Society and run as children’s home called St. Catherine’s. It became an Abbeyfield House in 1982.
80-114 85-123 the lower slopes are all by Courtney Crickmer in brick with roughcast upper floors, and a liking for symmetry.

Farm Walk
This is the site of Temple Fortune Farm.

Great Wall
This divides the houses from the heath and with viewing platforms.  In inspiration it is like a medieval town wall but punctuated with pavilions designed by Charles Wade rather than with conventional bastions.  The western half was built by 1914 the rest has never been completed – but it did achieve a sunny area for small children and their mothers.

Hampstead Garden Suburb
This is said to be a milestone in the history of the planned estate and was the inspiration of Henrietta Barnett. In 1906 a trust was formed which   bought the land of Wylde’s Farm from Eton College with LCC support. They also got the Hendon building regulations changed so that they could build roads differently. It was laid out by Raymond Unwin after the style of Letchworth Garden Suburb and for 1908 it was low density.
The boundary hedge of the bishop's park survived as a field boundary on 19th maps, and continued northwards and then eastwards across the area now occupied by the Suburb,

Hampstead Way
22 group with houses in Meadway built 1909 – Baillie Scott Corner
27 designed by Welch and  Hollis . 1913 and one of their earliest buildings.
40 designed by T. Laurence Dale in 1909. With an oriel and pargetted by Bankart.
46 built T.M.Wilson for himself
48 designed by Samuel Pointon Taylor., it now has a densely planted garden designed to support a variety of wildlife.
60-80 Lucas Square. Named for its architect, George Lucas and built round a tennis lawn
84-108 Litchfield Square by Parker and Unwin.  1908
135-141 group of cottages by Curtis Green, with entrances between wings.
140-142 Foundation Cottages.  These were the first homes built in 1907 to a unique design and they set the mood for the streets, and standards for the ‘artisan’s quarter’.  Designed by Parker and Unwin
157 the house has a 100ft split-level cottage garden with hardy perennials and succulents
161 Crossway Cottage
166 Area managers office
Queens’s Court. Women only flats built in 1927 for the United Women’s Homes Association.

Heathgate
This is an approach road to the suburb with a fine view of the Heath.  There is a raised viewing terrace, with pavilions framing the vista to St Jude. The houses are by Sutcliffe and begun before the Great War but those on the east side were not finished until the 1920s.

Hill Close
Built in 1910-12, the roofs of the cottage-style houses stepping up towards the St Jude's spire

Hoop Lane
Jewish Cemetery.  This opened in 1897 when the first burials took place. It is managed by the Joint Burial Committee on behalf of the Spanish & Portuguese Jews’ Synagogue (Sephardi) and the West London Synagogue (Reform). The East Side is a traditional Sephardi Cemetery – the only left in London - and the gravestones are laid horizontally. On the West Side the graves are marked with an upright stone.  There are no flowers.  Graves include those of Hore Belisha, Basil Henriques, Sir John Simon, Jack Rosenthal and Philip Guedella

Linnell Close
Said to be like a cathedral close with designs by Parker amd Unwin, Crickmar and Bunney

Linnell Drive
6 designed by Dawber – and thought to have failed it was not repeated

Meadway
6-10 designed by Baillie Scott as a picturesque group
20 designed by Curtis Green who went on to design the Dorchester
38 architects house designed for himself by M. Dawson
Meadway Court. Designed 1913 by Sutcliffe

Meadway Close
Formal close, in brick with stone dressings, designed by Sutcliffe.
1 house for H.L. Coffin designed by Arnold Mitchell in 1910.
3 The Ship – with a copper relief of a ship on the door.  Built by James Halley for himself – but he was killed in the Great War.

North Square
Friends Meeting House.  Designed in 1913 by Fred Rowntree.  It is modelled on the Meeting House of 1688 at Jordans and reflects Quaker beliefs.
1-8 designed by Lutyens.  The facades are varied and the interiors planned by the Co-partners' architect G.L. Sutcliffe. This is one of the first appearances of Lutyens most famous motifs the 'disappearing pilaster'.

Northway
Tea House. Designed by Soutar in 1919 and once had parasols for tea on the lawn. Used by the Institute for classes

Oakwood Road
Artisan housing laid out by the Co-partners Oakwood Tenants in 1912-13.   Rough, brick houses designed by G.L. Sutcliffe.
94 Has a large garden divided into 2 rooms by box hedging and an arch.

South Square
Mostly flats.  Was designed by C. G. Butler, with greater restraint.
1-2 where Henrietta Barnet lived after 1915 until her death in 1936
25-26 The Vicarage. Designed by Edwin Lutyens. On the Wren plan of recessed centre and side wings.

Southway
Part of original layout designed by Unwin
10 ingenious planned, square studio house designed by Lucas, 1910

Temple Fortune Lane
This was originally a track to Wyldes Farm. In the original scheme only the east side was to be built up and the junction with Hampstead Way was intended to be a gateway to the suburb.  This northern part was planned with artisan and working-class housing and built up by 1912
38-48 Dawber Crescent. Houses around a green designed by Guy Dawber with asymmetrical elements arranged with symmetrical precision
50-54 designed by Parker and Unwin, with an arch affecting the link connecting the house on the left.
56-78 designed by Albert Lakeman and set back to avoid an ancitnt oak.
84 -94 to the end designed by Parker and Unwin for Hampstead Tenants

The Orchard
Old peoples’ flats.  Originally designed by Parker and Unwin's for Hampstead Tenants – masterly architecture and miniscule flats. Demolished in 1970-4 and replaced by M. Darke

Turner Drive
6 Devon House built by Herbert Welch for himself.
7 Fairport. Designed by Soutar for himself in 1922

Willifield Way
Designed in Parker's Letchworth office it starts with low buildings so as not to obscure the view up the path to Central Square. There are houses designed by Crickmer in red brick groups
5 Pantiles House built by Wilson for himself in 1910.
Crickmer Circus. At the junction with Hampstead Way and designed by Courtney Crickmer
86 cottage garden with a pond area, a pergola with roses & clematis, trees & shrubs.
The Club House. This had a tall Germanic tower by Parker and Unwin which was badly damaged in the Second World War and replaced. The Club house had a bowling green, tennis courts and so on. In 1920 it became Hampstead Garden Club and provided a base for local athletic, gardening, etc. clubs.  There were dancing classes, Billiards and union meetings.  In 1915 it became an auxiliary military hospital.  In the 1920s there was a radio society and a suburb parliament.  It was bombed and destroyed in 1940. .  
House - Detached and built in the 1950s replaced Club House
Fellowship House, an unobtrusive old people's centre of 1958 by M. Darke and K. Williams.  This was intend to replace bombed Club House
Willifield Green. A deliberate piece of village revival. 

Sources
British Listed Buildings web site
Clunn. The Face of London
Hampstead Garden Suburb Free Church. Web site
Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute. Web site
Henrietta Barnett School memorial. Web site
Henrietta Barnett School. Web site
Hoop Lane Cemetery. Web site
London Encyclopedia
London Gardens Online. Web site
North Western Reform Synagogue. Web site
Middlesex County Council. History of Middlesex,
Miller. Hampstead Garden Suburb
Pevsner and Cherry, London North
Sexby. London Parks
Stevenson. Middlesex
St.Jude on the Hill. Web site

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