Saturday, 30 June 2012

Phillibrook Stream - Leytonstone

Phillibrook Stream
The Phillibrook, or Fillebrook, comes through this area and flows south west

Post to the west Leyton
Post to the south Leytonstone

A12
Section through Leytonstone opened in 1999 as the Hackney-M11 link road

Aylmer Road.
London City Mission. Building dates from 1885. It was later a clothing factory

Browning Road
This was Back Lane which went from the High Road to the Forest. Also known as Green Man Lane and in 1893 as Park Road. It became Browning Road in 1900
Cottages built by Lord Wellesley, probably in the 1840’s, to house the workforce which serviced local big houses.
24 North Star. Built as a 'beer house by Lord Wellesley. It was originally two cottages knocked together and first referred to in 1858. There was an off-sales serving hatch. It is either named after a famous steamship or famous train or a ship which an early landlord sailed on.
Henry Reynolds Gardens. This is a small park named after Alderman Harry Reynolds. The site was previously the Green Man Pond, a former gravel pit, later drained. The park was laid out in the 1960s with a sunken garden with central circular bed surrounded by circular paths. Planting includes shrubs and hedges, with Lombardy poplars.
Green Man Pond – adjacent to the pond was Ivy Bank – which was the home of the editor of the Boys' Own Paper as well as Bushwood and Tylney Houses

Bush Road
Mural. This is by the Green Man Roundabout. It shows a green man holding the sun and moon near a stone obelisk.

Bushwood
Vicarage. In 1894 St. John’s church decided to build a new Vicarage on the corner of Hartley Road on a new housing estate then being erected. It had nine bedrooms and no central heating and was sold to a Housing Trust. A new vicarage was built in the garden to the rear.

Church Lane
Leytonstone Station. Opened as a main line station in 1856. Between Leyton to the south and either Wanstead or Snaresbrook to the north and north east. The original station was opened by the Loughton Railway, a scheme fog the Eastern Co unties Railway, but no trace of this station remains. In 1888 the station was rebuilt to a design by Ashbee, the staggered platform removed and a subway included. In 1923 it became part of the London and North Eastern Railway. During the Second Wrold War there was a crush in the subway in a 1944 air raid. In 1947 was transferred to London Transport and became part of the electrified Central Line under the New Works scheme. This involved a complete reconstruction of the station and removal of a level crossing – with provision an underground booking office, subways under the line and an island platform.  It became for a while the junction of the electrified Epping branch. In 2001 murals were unveiled about the life of locally born Alfred Hitchcock to commemorate his centenary.
Goods Yard closed 1955 and now covered by the bus station. A stable block survived until reconfiguration in the 1990s.
St John the Baptist. This church of 1832 by Edward Blore replaced an older chapel of ease. It was partly financed by William Cotton of Wallwood House. The Chapel and burial ground were consecrated in 1833 and a parish assigned to it. With additions by Caroe Passmore in 1909-1, and further work undertaken Kay Pilsbury Architects, 2002-3. Stained glass window of Majesty by Clayton & Bell, 1935. In the tower is a Bellringers' Board and a clock of 1898. The church has had a band of bellringers from the time that the old six were hung in 1833 as is recorded on the peal board.
Churchyard.  This lost many graves in a Second World War bombing raid. There are information boards which describe the damage and casualties of the Second World War in Leytonstone while others are about the wild life. In the churchyard is the family grave of Thomas Fowell Buxton social reformer and anti-slavery campaigner
Library. Library and lecture hall originally above shops.  Built in 1934 by J. Ambrose Dartnall. It is set within a Neo-Georgian commercial frontage which also incorporated the municipal electricity showrooms. The library has a serious classical frontispiece and inside is an Art Deco period piece recently restored to its original austere design standards. There is a date plaque for 1934 and the borough crest on the High Road frontage
Independent Buildings – comer tower with a public clock. This was built for the local independent newspaper in 1934.  It replaced the Gaiety Cinema
Gaiety Cinema. This was a converted post office. It opened in 1913 with 400 seats. It had a stage and facilities and variety acts performed. It closed in 1928 and was demolished
Seascape House --- no sign of the sea here.
Bus station. This is divided into two with a section on either side of the station. Sculpture made of bricks with a circular seat representing a variety of buses, by Lodewyk Pretor. 1999

Colworth Road
St Andrew’s Church. The church covers a small parish on the edges of Epping Forest. The church was built 1887- 1893 to meet growing demand the site was given in 1875, and was intended for a church in memory of local resident and businessman, William Cotton. At first this was an iron church. The present church is by Arthur Bloomfield. The chancel was paid for by William Cotton’s children as a memorial to him. However the congregation were unable to pay for continued work and building stopped. The Church was very fashionable at first. There were day and evening classes, an amateur orchestra, gym, tennis and cricket club. An Arts & Crafts style Church Room was also built in 1904 by Henry Smart. This was burnt down in the 1960s. However, popularity declined and a decision was taken to close the church in 1967 but instead the Church Rooms were sold and replacement work had never been completed.

Connaught Road
Connaught School for Girls. This began as a primary school in 1932 before becoming a secondary school for girls in 1948.

Dyers Hall Road
Plant nursery site in the 18th. The road is built on land given by John Peck to fund four homes for widows of Dyers Company members who had lived in Bethnal Green.
Terraced houses were built along Dyers Hall Road from some time between 1895 and 1901.

Esther Road
Jubilee Works. Until 1981 this was N.Reder making radio equipment. Now housing

Forest View
The Crib –slum housing long since removed

Gainsborough Road
Road with its end cut off because of the Mway. It now loops round as a slip road crossing the Mway and the railway.
Church known as "The Tunnel" in the Second World War. This was the underground tunnel at Gainsborough Bridge Church where people sheltered from air raids.
City Blinds Factory in Gainsborough House
Tesco car park on the site of Gainsborough Lodge.

Grove Green Road

Vertigo & 491 Gallery. Used as arts and community space and named for the Hitchcock film. These buildings were abandoned having been used as storage space during Mway construction. It was previously a printing works bad housing. itchcHHi


Grove Road
Sculpture of a leaf-covered figure, by Stephen Duncan, 'Leaf Memory', 2001.

Hanbury Drive
Green Man Medical Centre

Hartley Road
44 A new smaller vicarage built in the garden of the older vicarage in 1979.

Harvey Road
2 Leytonstone and District Ex-Servicemen’s Club
39 Clara Cottage

John Drinkwater Close
John Drinkwater tower. This was built on the site of Bushwood House and Tylney Houses. It was a 22 storey block built in 1970. Since demolished

Kingswood Road
This is the northern end of what was Fillebrook Road before the Mway was built

Kirkdale Road
Board school.  Kirkdale Road board school opened in 1876 and had doubled in size by 1891.  It was condemned in 1929 and seniors and juniors were moved. It was partly rebuilt for infants in 1932 and the rest became education office. Damaged by a rocket in 1945 it moved elsewhere and eventually closed in 1948. The education offices remained but have since been closed and the site is now a car park.
Police Station opened 2007 on rail side land used as car parking.

Leyspring Road
Leyspring House.  This was a big house with a spring in the courtyard, standing in 33 acres of ground stretching between Browning Road and Bushwood.  It was burnt down. The house at one time belonged to the Charrington brewers

Leytonstone High Road
Part of the main highway from Epping to London which was used by distance coaches and market carts and wagons.
566 Lincolns. This pub was the Elms dating from 1870 and owned by Watneys. In 1986 it became The Lincoln and in 1996 Big Hand Mo’s. A Lincolns again in 2001 it lost its licence following a drugs raid. It is used an Indian restaurant
578 Methodist church. The church began in the Davis Lane home of Mary Fletcher who moved to Leytonstone from Hoxton in 1763. An iron Chapel was opened here in 1876 replaced in Brick in 1880. This was burnt down and the present Chapel was opened in 1972. At the back of the building is Lister Hall which is part of the old Church.
640 Red Lion. There was a pub here before 1670, called the Robin Hood. It was called the Red Lion by 1754 and owned by Truman’s from 1873.  It was rebuilt in 1891 and designed by W.D. Church with curly strap work decoration, stucco foliage panels above the windows and a lead corner turret. It was taken over by the Cannon Brewery, later Ind Coope.  It became a live music venue in the 1970s and hosted one of Led Zeppelin’s first London gigs.  Other bands which played there include Yes, Genesis and Roxy Music, and Atomic Rooster.  In the 1980s it was renamed Luthers and later Cuba Bella. In 2002 it became Zulu’s but has now reopened as the Red Lion.
674 this was the Two Brewers pub which closed in 1964.
689 Rex Cinema, this was opened by Associated British Cinemas in 1936 and designed by their in-house architect William R. Glen. It had a facade in white faience tiling, broken by six vertical columns. There was a decorative panel on the side wall of the proscenium side wall showing deer in a forest. It closed in 1960 and became an ABC Tenpin Bowling alley. This closed in 1972 and the building was demolished and is now the site of flats.
692 The Sheepwalk – this was the Crown Pub. A predecessor Crown was demolished in the 19th but had been associated with Charles II. Victorian clock in the bar.
694a, 696a, 698a Row of terraced houses hidden by shops which have been built on their gardens. They are probably 18th and can be seen from Aylmer road.
Bearman's Department Store. Closed 1984 and since demolished.
821 Rialto Cinema.  This opened in 1909 as a roller skating rink and in 1911 was converted into “The Rink Picture Palace” by P. Cornish. The High Road entrance was adjacent to Bearman’s Department Store and reached by a long arcade. It was taken over by Bernstein Theatres in 1926 and in 1926, was rebuilt by Cecil Masey and interior design by Theodore Komisarjevsky. It opened as the Rialto Cinema in 1927. It had stage facilities and an orchestra as well as a Compton theatre organ which had 2Manuals, rebuilt in 1931 to a 3Manual/8Ranks instrument. It was taken over by Denman/Gaumont Theatres Ltd. in 1928.  It was bombed in 1945. It was re-named Granada in 1967 and closed in 1974.  It was demolished and used as a car park for Bearmans Department Store. It then became the site of the Co-op site, which became a Matalan store. The organ is housed in St. Mary’s Church, Hornchurch, Essex.
822-837 Co-Op store. Department store which preceded Matalan who took over the building
Leytonstone House.  Built in 1800 for Thomas Fowell Buxton, the brewer, and the only survivor among the big 19th houses is Leytonstone House.  The house is now offices
Bethnal Green Industrial Schools. The Bethnal Green Board of Guardians had a policy of separating children under fifteen from their parents. In 1868, the Board bought Leytonstone House and its nine acres of grounds. Most of the outbuildings were demolished but the main house was kept an administrative centre. The schools opened in 1868, with accommodation in temporary iron buildings. By the 1880s brick buildings had been designed by A. & C. Harston. The original house became the matron's house and committee rooms and a passageway led kitchens and stores, then the dining-hall and then a swimming pool. To each side were the children's blocks, boys in the north and girls in the south, arranged as cottages. There was an infirmary and a two-storey school building. Workshops, a tailor's, shoemaker's, painter's and carpenter', were in a block to the north plus a bandroom.  In 1930, the site passed to the London County Council and continued as Leytonstone Children's Home until 1937.  It then became a hospital.
Leytonstone House Hospital. This opened in 1937 as an annexe to Darenth Park Hospital in Dartford.  Female patients were sent here to be trained for employment.  In 1948 it joined the NHS and became a branch of the South Ockendon Institution for Mental Defectives. It became their headquarters and also the main hall of the Hospital was used for recreation.  In 1950 Gardenia Ward and other wards were altered as 'treatment' moved away from domestic training to physical care and support.  Following problems at the hospital and the inauguration of a care in the community policy in 1983 the Area Health Authority announced the phased closure of Leytonstone House Hospital and The Hospital finally closed in May 1994.
Tesco In 1991 Tesco acquired the site containing Leytonstone House and the school buildings in order to build a major store – the hall of the industrial schools, with good timber roof, is now the chemist's shop. Other buildings have been converted to terrace housing. A cedar tree remains in the car park.
857 The Walnut Tree. Wetherspoon's pub
871 Sycamore House. This stood near the Green Man and belonged to Quaker, Arthur Lister – brother to Lord Lister, the surgeon. It was also home of mycologist Gulielma Lister, his daughter. It was demolished in the 1950s.
879 Welsh Church Hall. Used by the Woodhouse Players and other community groups.
881 Moreia Welsh Church. The building dates from 1958 when a group of Welsh Presbyterians moved here from the Moreia Church in Walthamstow. They were joined by The Reformed Baptists in 1979. Set back from the road, in brick designed by T. & H. Llewelyn DanielI. Inside is stained glass by Howard Martin of Celtic Studios, showing Welsh mission and preachers. It has simple wooden furnishings.  .
The Green Man. Establishments with this name have stood at the edge of the forest that since 1668. The earliest known inn was nearer to the Browning Road junction than either its successors, however. In the late 17th and 18th it was a refuge of highwaymen- and was reputedly only 40 yards from the Inn where Dick Turpin stole the racehorse "White stockings" from Joseph Major in 1737. The present building has Ipswich windows along a front and was built in 1927. The name has been changed to O’Neills.

Mohmmad Khan Road
This was previously Dacre Road
Leytonstone Mosque.  This is the old Elliott Rooms which belonged to St. Johns church changed with an entrance below. Islamic arch; minaret and gilded dome. The Rooms originated when Mrs Elliott, offered to build a spacious church room and it was opened in 1886, with a dinner given to the poor of the parish. They were sold in 1975 because of the cost of upkeep

Vernon Road
George Tomlinson Primary School

Wadley Road
Ripley Mews
Temple Close. Site of sweet factory for Bonds of London, making barley sugar cubes and Brazil nut toffee. Site is now housing

Wallwood Road
This refers to the 'wall' - Roman remains discovered here in the 18th close to the course of the Roman Road and near the Forest
Corbiucum – Close the name of which refers to a medieval park in the area.

Whipps Cross Road
The North Circular was originally to link the Green Man at Leytonstone with Hangar Lane

Sources
Browning Road Conservation area leaflet
Cinema Treasures web site
Closed Pubs web site
Day. London Underground
Leyton History web site
London Gardens web site
London Railway Record
Lost Hospitals of London web site
Pevsner and Cherry. London East
St Andrew Leytonstone web site
St.John’s Church web site
Vestiges
Victoria County History. Essex
Wikipedia Leytonstone Station web site
Workhouses web site

Tuesday, 26 June 2012

River Lea - Hackney Marshes

River Lea and the Hackney Cut
The Lea, the Hackney Cut, the Flood Relief Channel and the Aqueduct flow south eastwards

Post to the north Lea Bridge Road
Post to the west Lea Bridge
Post to the east Leyton
Post to the south Hackney Marshes
Hackney Marsh
Hackney Marsh is described as ‘Hakenemersshe’ in 1397. The land was owned by the Knights Hospitallers and some of the area was Lands. South Hackney was still mainly farmland in the 1820s. Most common and Lammas lands were passed to the Metropolitan Board of works in the mid 19th but the Hackney marsh was excluded because many Lammas rights were still active and the marsh was used for grazing. There was pressure from landowners – for example the Eton Manor Mission - who wanted to use the marsh for sport. In 1890 the London County Council took it over by purchasing the landowners' interests and commoners rights and opened it to the public in 1893. They also undertook flood prevention - although this is marshland it has been drained since the middle ages and was also used to tip rubble from bomb sites during the Second World War.

Mandeville Road
Mandeville Primary School. This was originally, opened in 1902 as Mandeville Street School, and reorganised in 1927 and 1936. In 1949 it became Clapton Park Secondary School and following a number of changes and use by other schools in 1977 it became Mandeville Primary School.
Tower blocks – 19 storey Norbury and Ambergate courts were demolished in 1993

Orient Way
Built from the late 1990s and opened in 2002 this runs through part of the Temple Mills Railway Marshalling Yard and also covers some Lammas lands.

Seymour Road recreation ground
Laid out in 1952, partly on land bought in 1931 for allotments. There are now aspirations to improve them.

Waterworks
Waterworks Nature Reserve and golf course. Built on land previously owned by the East London Water Company by the Lee Valley Regional Park Authority.
Essex Filter Beds. The filter beds have been adapted as one of London’s largest bird hides. The East London Water Company bought land along Lea Bridge Road and built a series of filter beds.  The Essex Filter beds were built in 1855 and then were joined by another six beds since filled in.  The six radial beds on this site date from 1870 and the rectangular beds, from 1880-82.  They were decommissioned in the late 1970's. Thames Water used the site in the 1980's for fishery experiments, and four of the rectangular beds were filled in. They then passed the land to the then Greater London Council as part of a land swap and in 1986 the Lee Valley Regional Park Authority took over ownership. An earlier set of Essex Filter beds remains within the operational area.
Waterworks Nature Reserve.  Site of Essex Filter beds, opened as a nature reserve in 2003. Known as "The Waterworks" it has a large part open/part closed bird hide at the centre of a circle of former filter beds built in 2002 Nine of the original filter beds remain and each radial bed is managed throughout the year to show different stages of succession, ranging from open water to floodplain grassland through to dense reed and willow woodland.
Lee Valley Pitch and Putt Golf course – 18 hole golf course and floodlit driving range
Aqueduct. This links the filter beds to the Walthamstow Reservoirs was built at the same time as they were
Benches. there are a number of benches made replicate insects - a mosaic grasshopper and some damsel flies
Rails in some of the road ways were used to transport coal to the boilers in the water works

Sources

Walford. Highgate to the Lea
London Encyclopaedia,
Sexby. London Parks
London Gas Museum. Info
Victoria County History. Essex
Friends of the Earth. Gas Works Sites in London
GLIAS. Newsletter

Sunday, 24 June 2012

River Lea - Lea Bridge

River Lea and Aqueduct
The River Lea, and the Aqueduct continue to flow southwards

The Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Chingford
The rail line running north from Clapton Station continues to run north westwards

Post to the north Walthamstow Marshes
Post to the east Hackney Marshes
Post to the west Upper Clapton

Casimir Road
Millfields Park. 'Millfields' as a name can be traced back to the 15th and in the 16th as ‘north’ and ‘south’. The two fields are separated by Lea Bridge Road. The fields were made up of strips held by tenants until at least the mid 18th. They are the remains of what was originally Saxon common land available to local residents for grazing cattle and sheep from 'Lammas day', 1st August, until 'Lady day' ,25th March, when they was closed for growing a hay crop. Sport began to take over - bull baiting in 1791 then football.  There was gradual pressure from mission halls and others providing sports for young men who needed pitches. They were saved from development following a petition to preserve 180 acres of common land in Hackney for public use and work by the Commons Preservation Society in 1872. The Millfields Recreation Grounds were laid out in 1884 by the London County Council.,
North Millfield was a brick field. In the 19th four fossil woolly rhino and elephant bones were found here.
Site of the Battle of Hackney between Octa, King of Kent and Erchewin, Founder of Essex in 527. Erchewin had revolted from the King of Kent and Octa wished to bring this under control. A meeting in Rochester failed and Octa went to Hackney intending to march south onto the rebels in London. But the Londoners came out to meet them and won in the ensuing battle.

Chatsworth Road
South Millfields – Millfields Park (south). There are LCC boundary markers along the backs of buildings in the north areas of the park
Leagrave Works. John Dowell and Sons. In the 1920s made plain and stoppered bottles for chemical, medical, and perfumery use and also babies' feeding bottles and ink wells

Essex Wharf
The Wharf seems to have been developed from the late 19th with warehousing and ancillary structures. One warehouse remained but has since been demolished and the site developed for housing.
A small dock lay parallel and alongside the road

Hillstowe Street
Park Keepers Lodge 

Lea
The Lea split into two here. In the 9th channels were dug under King Alfred for defence – they drained the water which also meant that adjacent meadows could be used for hay.
Hackney Cut was built for flood relief and for navigation - to allow boats to get round mill sites following rows with the owners of Hackney Water works. . It was built by Smeaton in the 1760s.  It turned the Lea Bridge area into an island
Lea Navigation. The enabling Act dates from 1739 and John Smeaton was employed by the Trustees to build it.  It starts at Hertford and ends up at the Thames 26 miles away.  The idea was to provide a route to bring grain into London.
Weir. Immediately below the road bridge is a weir which marks the limit of the tidal section of the river.

Lea Bridge Road
47 Clapton Federation Synagogue. Built in 1931 by M Glass.  This was demolished in 2006 and there are now flats on the site.
146 Princess of Wales.  This is said to be on a Roman site.  This was a popular riverside pub in the 19th and was at one time called the Prince of Wales and contained many pictures of the Royal Family. It was rebuilt in 1920 with wood-panelled bars.
Leabridge Dock. This was probably built before 1830 and called Paradise Dock. It is also marked on some 19th maps as Ashpital’s Dock.  It was still in use pre-Second World War. It was filled in before the 1960s but has now been reinstated as a shallow water feature for new housing. There was a boatyard associated with post Second Wold War.
OTV Building. This 1960s concrete framed building was built on stilts over the filled in Lea Bridge Dock and has now been demolished.  OTV sold reconditioned video machines and black and white TVs
Ferry Inn. This stood alongside the bridge on the Clapton site and was described as ‘ancient’ in 1757. It was later called the Horse and Groom and was demolished by the East London Water Co. around 1850
142 Carbonic Acid Gas Co. factory. Behind a three-storey office is an engine house with a pediment roof and terracotta detailing. There is also a red-brick chimney and a yard paved with granite sets with traces of inset iron rails for trolleys. It was used by the Carbonic Acid Gas Company who made mineral waters or equipment associated with it. They attended the 1894 Brewer’s Exhibition with ‘equipment for aerated waters’, but had however been in liquidation in 1893.  The company was run by a Rudolf Stokvis, with input from Dutch interests.
S.Shaven, Furniture factory.  At the back of the carbonic acid gas factory complex is a group of industrial buildings from 1935 used as a furniture works.
Boat builders with associated dressing rooms and club rooms 1902
Lea Bridge Rubber Works. They made balloons, rubber toys and sports goods as well as sheeting and moulded products
144 Ship Aground Public House, late 19th public house. It is stucco fronted with its roof hidden behind a parapet. This pub is now closed.
Lea Bridge.  This is the tidal limit of the Lea and the point at which the Lea Navigation and the river Lea part.  The crossing was known as Lockbridge in 1486 and continued into the 16th,-7, when the river was still tidal at Leyton, as it apparently was until at least the 16th. By 1551 it was broken but appears to have been repaired and was eventually replaced by a ferry known as Hackney or Jeremy’s Ferry which belonged to the lord of the manor of Hackney. The first bridge after appears to have been wooden and built in 1755 when Lea Bridge was laid out with a carriage bridge and toll for the turnpike road built across the marsh to link Clapton to Eagle Pond. The bridge did not have enough clearance for high barges and it was replaced by an iron bridge in 1820. The present bridge was built in the early 20th on the 19th structure.
Lee Valley Ice Centre.  Built in 1982 by the Building Design Partnership. It has a curved, lightweight steel roof. It provides for recreational skating, ice hockey free skating and precision team skating.
Porter's Field Meadow.  Green recreational area
Porters Field Riding School. Built by J.M.V. Bishop and M.G. Quintin of the Lea Valley Regional Park Authority in 1982.  This consists of a walled enclosure with brick-and-flint stables and an indoor riding school,
Pipe Bridge
Bridge over the Aqueduct

Lea Bridge Water Works
Hackney Water Works. In the 1690s Francis Tyssen installed a waterwheel on the site of a fishery weir at Jeremy’s Ferry. The water raised was piped to a reservoir at Clapton and from there to local properties. These works fell into disrepair but in 1760 Tyssen's grandson leased land to men who set up the 'Hackney Water Works Company'. They used the existing watermills to pump water from the Lea.  In 1821 the lease for Hackney Waterworks was due to expire. Although in a dilapidated state and W.G.D. Tyssen granted the lease to John Killick, the miller at Lea Bridge who began to expand the enterprise.  After extensive negotiations the works was sold to the East London Waterworks Company in the late 1820s. They expanded it during the 1830s.
Chevaliers Ferry house. This was slightly down river of the bridge and on the Essex Bank.  Here another lot of ‘adventurers and undertakers’, started a works to supply the town of Hackney with water.  They built a cut from the river with mills were over it and a tower on its west bank to provide pressure to drive the water to the Clapton reservoir. Locks were also built in the main river and a major row with bargemen ensued. In the late 1760s following a report by John Smeaton, the Hackney Cut was built to the west from below the lock and mills.
Mills and Pin factory. The mills were an integral part of the waterworks enterprise. In 1788 they were devastated by floods and in 1796 burnt down along with an adjoining pin and needles factory. By April 1798 the works were rebuilt and back in operation and apparently let to the London Bread and Flour Company.   The Mills were demolished by the East London Waterworks Company who eventually dug a two acre reservoir on the site which later was used for the Middlesex Filter beds.
Lea Bridge Water Works. The East London Waterworks Company had been established in 1807 with a works at Old Ford.  The 1828 Royal Commission into water quality was concerned about their intake there and they were then required to only take water from above Lea Bridge. The Company therefore bought the Hackney Waterworks. They also bought Lammas Land on the Essex side of the river and following a legal battle, paid compensation for the loss of commoners' rights and their new works was built there with Lea Bridge Road to the north and Hackney Cut to the west. The works covered 25 acres with 25 filter beds and it became their main works with the main pumping machines. Following a cholera outbreak in east London in 1849 the Metropolitan Water Act allowed them to build more filter beds at the Lea Bridge site – the Middlesex and Essex filter beds – plus reservoirs and a Cornish steam engine. From 1861 they compulsorily purchased more land along Lea Bridge Road and built more filter beds. For this two steam engines were bought from Harvey and Co., named Prince and Princess. In 1854 the company had previously purchased from Harvey one of the largest Cornish engines ever built for London which was called Victoria plus eight Cornish boilers and this too was at Lea Bridge. In the succeeding years the works expanded greatly and in 1902 was taken over by the Metropolitan Water Board. The East London Waterworks Company was the largest of the companies thus taken over and Lea Bridge the second largest works – it has a total capacity of 103m gallons a day.  It was soon found necessary to expand and a triple expansion engine was bought from Hathorn Davey in 1921 to pump to Woodford –named after Christopher Musgrove, Chair of the Board. It was decided to expand. In 1942 despite the war, they installed electric pumps in place of three triple expansion steam engines, plus Prince Consort, and Victoria - the oldest engine there and in 1943 ‘Connaught’ was replaced. Cornish engines Prince and Princess continued to pump to Finsbury Park and Duke and Duchess to Woodford. Plans then began to be made to build a new works at Coppermills.  There were however problems in 1944 with bombing. in 1947 the works was flooded - the gauge at Feilds Weir was recording 1,263m gallons a day before it broke down... floodwater entered  the aqueduct and all work had to stop. Filter beds were isolated and the aqueduct blocked but the works was out of action for nine days. In 1969 Coppermills Water Treatment Works began work and In 1974 Lea Bridge Works became part of Thames Water. The site is still operational although much of the land is now in other use. Buildings on site included a sluice house of 1885, the Engineers Office of 1890-2 by G.E. Dolman in red brick with tile hanging and timberwork, the Musgrave engine and boiler house, 1922-4. Nothing on the site is listed.
Middlesex Filter Beds.  The filter beds were built under the 1852 East London Co. Act on the site of the Hackney Water Works reservoir. Six filter beds were arranged around a central covered area.  The went out of use in 1969 and taken over by the Lee Valley Regional Park in 1988 who opened it as a nature reserve.  Two local artists were commissioned in 1990 to install sculptures on the site, with the participation of local schools and community groups. Paula Haughney used five granite blocks retrieved from the foundations of the 'Victoria' Engine House to make a gigantic seat surrounded by a circle of other foundation stones from the site. Kate Malone created enormous ceramic fishes, emerging from the open waters of one of the filter beds.
Essex Filter Beds. To the east in the east bank of the River further 19 filter beds were built, known as the Essex Filter Beds.
Aqueduct from Copper Mills, to Lea Bridge Works built in 1852.

Middlesex Wharf
JollyAnglers.    Formerly the Anglers Tavern. This pub was present by 1800 and was demolished in the 1930s when the whole area was cleared on health grounds because of the frequent flooding experienced here
44 King’s Head pub. This was a one bar 19th pub, with stuffed animals & interesting pictures and Surrounded by timber yards. It had been rebuilt in the 1920s at a time when all the older buildings in the area were removed on health grounds because of frequent flooding, but it closed and was demolished in 2000

Millfields Road
Previously called Pond Lane and renamed in 1887 as terraced housing began to be built.
204 Millfields Court. This is the old Chippendale Arms pub
Pond Farm housing estate built in the 1950s.
Millfields estate low rise and replaced Clapton stadium in1980.
Millfields Road football ground. Leyton Orient Football club played here 1900–1930. They had been asked move to from Whittles Athletic ground by the borough council to an adjacent field. By 1905 the stadium capacity was 20,000. Banking – formed by waste slag from the power station - ran along the south side of the ground known as ‘Spion Kop’ after a hill in South where a Battle had been fought in the Boer War. In 1923 a new stand which was built on the north side of the ground, and flower beds were laid out at the edge of the pitch. The stand was eventually sold to Wimbledon Football Club and was demolished in 2001. The club could not afford to buy the ground and had to leave in 1930.
Clapton Stadium was designed by Owen Williams and was London's fourth greyhound track, with the first meeting in 1928. It was also used for boxing, and baseball. The track was sold by the Greyhound Racing Association in 1969 and closed in 1974.
Whittles Athletic Ground. This had been used for whippet racing, and by Leyton Orient Football Club.
Hackney power station and refuse destructor.  The 'A' station opened in 1901 and was built by the Borough of Hackney.  It was the largest such local authority station when it was built with twelve cells. There was a lay-by for barges on the Lea and a six cart tipping platform. It passed to the London Electricity Board in 1947 on nationalisation.  A 'B' station was built, from 1954 and closed in 1976. A sub-station remains with some of the original buildings.
Millfields Waste Depot. Built on the site of the power station and opened in 2012. This has a waste transfer station; a two-bay vehicle workshop; new fuelling system, vehicle wash; and parking space for waste vehicles.
Disinfecting Station.  This disinfection station was built in 1900 by Hackney Borough Council. It was used to cleanse belongings of people removed from unsanitary housing or recovering from infectious diseases. The steam-cleaning operation was powered by the Borough Electricity Station next door and facilities also included a cyanide chamber. Built by Gunton & Gunton for the Borough's Public Health Committee with Arts and Crafts detail.  Shelter for those whose property was steam cleaned in the adjacent Cleansing Building.
Caretakers Lodge to Disinfecting Stall
Cow Bridge

Mount Pleasant Hill
The hill ran from the railway bridge to the riverside through an industrial area consisting largely of cardboard box factories and timber yards. The area is now entirely new housing with some office space
Latham’s timber yards – with a geometric construction of wooden roof beams. Now gone and housing on the site
Lea Dock was at the bottom of the hill.

Waterworks Lane
Prince of Wales Terrace of houses once stood in the area now the pub car park.
Bridge with stones set in slopes to assist towing horses.
Premises of Testi and Sons Millwrights. 19th Tudor style building of coursed rubble, with freestone dressings, in Tudor style. Probably originally a school. Now unused and semi derelict
Plaque saying “H & M.D. Grissell” on the Bridge over what was the entrance to Lea Bridge dock. This is the makers mark
Water-turbine house of 1885 by WB. Bryan. With ornamental cast-iron bridges.

Wattisfield Road
Almshouses for Disabled Soldiers and Sailors 1922. By Gunton & Gunton, a row of six cottages with a semi-detached house at each end. Recessed sitting areas beside the front doors, and Arts and Crafts details
Housing developed on the Alderson estate from the 1860s by the London Suburban Land and Building Company.

Sources
CAMRA. City and East London Beer Guide
Cinema Theatre Association newsletter
Clarke. Glimpses of Ancient Hackney and Stoke,
East London. Old and New
East London Record (Keith Fairclough’s wonderful Hackney Water Works article)
Fairclough. Lecture to Docklands History Group
Field. London Place Names
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Greater London Industrial Archaeology Society. Newsletter
Greyhound racing web site
Hillman and Trench. London Under London
Leyton Orient web site
London Encyclopaedia
London Gardens web site
Make the Most of the Lea Valley. Leaflet
Metropolitan Water Board. London’s water supply,
Middlesex Filter Beds. Leaflet
Pevsner and Cherry.  London North
Real Beer in London
Road to Jeremy’s Ferry. Web site
Sexby. London parks
Smyth. City Wildspace
Thames Basin Archaeology Group. A Survey of Industrial Monuments of Greater London
Vestiges
Victoria County History. Essex
Walthamstow Marshes. Leaflet,
Walford. Highgate to the Lea,
Walford. Village London.

Friday, 22 June 2012

Dagenham Brook - Lea Bridge Road

Dagenham Brook
The Dagenham Brook goes south east/west through the area

Post to the north Low Hall
Post to the west Walthamstow Marshes
Post to the south Hackney Marshes
Post to the east Leyton

Argall Avenue
Argall refers to Thomas Argall, a local landowner in the 16th.
Trading estate. This dates from 1935.
Cromwell Industrial Estate – Thomas Argall was Secretary to Thomas Cromwell.
Dorma Trading Park.
Metallico – structural steel co with metal work construction outside
Lewden Electrical Industries. They have made and sold electrical equipment to industry since 1946. It was set up as Lewden Metal Products, the founders being Mr. Lewis and Mr. Denfield
Supermet Works 1940s Manufacturers of Metal Fittings for Travel Goods, including Attaché Case Locks, Handles, Handle Shapes, Pin Bolts, Corners, Button Clamps and Miscellaneous Stampings.

Argall Way
Built as an access road through the site of the former parcels depot/signals training school
Bloxall Road
This is on the Warner Estate. The road name is said to be a corruption of Buxhall – Courtney Warner’s country estate in Suffolk.

Blyth Road
This is on the Warner Estate. It is named for James Blyth one of the Warner shareholders.

Bridge Road
This short road has a bridge with railings which crosses the Dagenham Brook and gives a view of it plus a second brick bridge over another channel.

Burwell Road
Cast Stone Works. On site later used by Young & Co. rail link in from Lea Bridge goods depot
Young and Co. Lea Bridge Steelworks. Art Deco factory now in other use. They made, for instance, structural steel works for housing. There was a rail link into the factory from the line north of Lea Bridge Station.
Lansdowne Works.  Harkwell Labels and Tags. Now in other use.

Clementina Road
On the Warner Estate and named after Courtney Warner’s mother in law. This group of roads is sometimes known as the Clementina Estate
Back entrance to the gas works – bricked up

Dagenham Road
The Dagenham Brook runs at the back of the houses on the west side.

Flempton Road
Trading and industrial units
Lea Bridge Ceramics

Harris Street
On the Warner Estate. One of the directors was Bernard F.Harris

Heybridge Road
Industrial and trading units

Hibbert Road
On the Warner Estate and named after a relative of Courtney Warner’s wife.

Hitcham Road
On the Warner Estate and named after Hitcham in Suffolk
Emmanuel Church. Built for the Warner Estate suburb that sprang up in the area from the 1890s.  Red brick church by Martin Trovers and T.F.W. Grant, 1933. Courtney Warner, by then a sir and Lord Lieutenant of Suffolk, laid the foundation stone with 'masonic ceremonial' and the church is said have been paid for by the masons. 
Church Hall. This was the first church, built in 1906 by B.C. Frere.
Vicarage, in chequered brick,

Kettlebaston Road
On the Warner Estate and named after Kettlebaston in Suffolk

Lammas Road
The road runs alongside arches which lie under the erstwhile railway bridge and station.  A staircase up to the station and the road remains.
This goes to Fairways Business Park, an industrial estate alongside the railway. It also leads to the Waterworks Nature Reserve and golf course.

Lea Bridge Road
91 Greyhound. This pub dates from 1839 built when there were plans to build the station next door. A previous Greyhound Pub was to the west. After the station opened a bridge was over brought the street level up to its pub’s first floor and so another storey was added and the old bar became cellars and wartime bombing meant more rebuilding. The station closed in 1985. It then became a nightclub and closed in 1997. It was a Taylor Walker pub and Edith’s view, for what it is worth, is that since at least the 1960s it has looked closed and very sinister. Still does even though it is now converted to flats.
Railway Bridge
Lea Bridge Station. The station which was on the north side of the road was opened in 1840 by the Northern and Eastern Railway as the first stop out of London for trains which did not stop at Stratford on a line, originally planned to continue to the north of England, but in fact reaching settlements in the Lea Valley from Stratford. The original buildings were designed by Sancton Wood  and had a bell turret on the roof - the bell was rung to tell passengers a train was due.  The station was called ‘Lea Bridge Road’ in 1841, but this was shortened in 1871. In 1880 a branch line was added to Chingford. From the 1920s to the 1950s the station was used by trains running between Liverpool Street and Hertford, and by those running between North Woolwich and Palace Gates. In the early 1960s trains also ran to Chingford.  It lost its staff in the mid 1970s and the original station buildings were demolished while a replacement shelter was provided on the road bridge.  The station finally closed in 1985. Some structures may remain behind and the platforms themselves remain.
Goods Yard.  This included covered structures in the 1950s. This is now covered by new road building – it closed in the 1970s. Siding went off to the east to adjacent works in Burwell Road
British Railways Signalling Training School. Stood alongside the railway line. The Signals and Telegraph Dept. belonged to the Great Eastern Railway and had its own siding with a demonstration signal box. Replaced by a parcels depot in 1939 - which was later bombed.
97 Patent Impervious Stone and Construction Co. Ltd.  This firm was on site here in the 1930s. Part of the buildings are now used by stone and tile companies. 
Lea Bridge Gas Works. This was built in 1853 by the South Essex Gaslight and Coke Co. and later passed to the They only supplied part of Leyton, and were later sold to the County and General Gas Consumers Co. and then closed for a complete rebuild. In 1868 they went into liquidation and were bought by Stephenson Clark as the Lea Bridge District Gaslight and Coke Co. formed which became the Lea Bridge District Gas Co. At that time a boundary agreement was made with the West Ham Gas Company. From then the output doubled every ten years  The company ran a co-partnership scheme from 1912 and were part of the South Eastern Gas Board in the late 1930s, the company chair being Paddon who controlled the Croydon company. In 1949 the assets were transferred to the North Thames gas board and in 1956 the works made Cleanglow. There was a connection to the Great Eastern Railway Line. Three gas holders remain on site.
Leyton Electric Substation. Built by the local authority. Edwardian classical style.
Hemstall Green - this was at what is now the junction with Hibbert Road. It is also where the Dagenham Brook flows under the road. Some of the green could still be seen in 1777 when Lea Bridge Road was built accross it.
282 Hare and Hounds pub. Built 1861
Leyton Wingate Stadium.  Football ground once known as the Hare and Hounds, and home to Leyton Football Club.
Starlight Suite. Function suite
Bridge Business Centre
B and Q on the site of the Sylko Crepe Paper Mills. Fancy items made from the paper.
336 Savoy Cinema.  It was opened in, 1928 by Hyman Cohen as a cinema plus variety theatre. It had a John Compton Kinestra organ, had its own orchestra and was designed by George Coles, based on his Broadway Cinema in Stratford.  In 1930 it was sold to United Picture Theatres for £100,000 and was thenceforth managed by Gaumont British Ltd. It was bombed in 1940 and renamed Gaumont. In 1964 it was re-named Odeon, but was leased to Panton Films in 1969 and re-named Curzon. In 1971 it became and bingo club but later Classic Cinemas reopened a cinema in the circle. The Compton organ was taken to the Town Hall, Louth, Lincolnshire. It closed again in 1979 but remained as a Gala Bingo Club.
Clock tower at the junction with Church Road.  Put uop to celebrate the Millennium in 2000.
Markhouse Road
St.Saviour. This became the parish church of St.James parish as St.James itself declined.  It was built in 1873-4 by Francis T. Dolmani. It is the only Gothic revival church in Walthamstow and the first church in the area funded by the banker Richard Foster - who promoted many new churches in east and south east London and helped to support causes like workers co-partnership in the gas industry.  The church was built on land which Foster inherited from his uncle.  A nunnery was also built, later replaced by housing. The foundation stone was laid by his business partner, John Knowles. The church has a massive spire tucked away at the rear. It original open roof was replaced after a fire in 1945, when fittings were also lost. There is a Willis organ of 1872 which came from Backup.
Clergy House substantial former, plain, with half-hipped roofs, and has been used as offices for the Bishop of Barking.

Morieux Road
On the Warner Estate and named after Thorpe Morieux in Suffolk

Orient Way
Built in 2001 on part of Temple Mills marshalling yard and also on former Lammas Lands. An area designated as a Grade 1 Site of Ecological Importance was lost here,
Warehouses – built in 2007 to relocate food warehousing from Waterden Road used as part of the Olympic Games site

Perth Road
On the Warner Estate. Courtney Warner’s grandmother-in-law was one of the family of the Earl of Perth.
Sybourn Children’s Centre in what was Lea Bridge School 1950s. Lea Bridge Road Board School was opened in 1892 as a very small mixed school. From 1932 it was an infants' school only and in 1958–9 became part of Sybourn Road School.

Rigg Approach
Lea Bridge Stadium – used for football and speedway. Partial remains of one stand still on site. 1928-1938
Lea Bridge Gardens. This was a self built community of 69 shacks also called Bungalow Town with wells, earth closets, and a wooden mission church. The residents reared ducks and grew vegetables. It was demolished in the 1930s

Seymour Road
On the Warner Estate. Named after Courtney Warner’s wife’s brother in law.

Staffa Road
Factories in Staffa Road were already in production by 1935. Many later additions and this is an area of trading and industrial units
Quadmet House. Large Art Deco factory
Hobbs Hart and Co Ltd . Founded by Alfred Hobbs, an American lock dealer in 1852. In 1936 new works and offices were opened in Staffa Road, Leyton. The company was acquired by Chubb and Son Lock and Safe Company Limited in 1956 and remained here into the early 1960s

Sybourn Street
Sybourn Primary School. Sybourn Street Council School opened as a mixed school in 1903 with permanent buildings completed in 1910. It took children of all ages. New infants premises were built in 1925 and it was reorganised again 1948

Verulam Avenue
34 Rascals Nursery. This was St. Saviours School
St.Saviours School. The school moved to new buildings here in 1971. The school had originated in 1842 when St. James's National school was built. A new school was built in 1874 in Markhouse Lane and in 1889 a school built next to St. Saviour's church, In 1875 St. Saviour's became the parish church and the school was known as St. Saviour's.
Tudor Court
Pumping station – tiny building

Wellington Road
One side is an area of trading and industrial units

Wetherdon Street
On the Warner Estate. Named after Wetherden in Suffolk

Sources
Argall family history web site
CAMRA. City and East London Beer Guide.
Cinema Treasures web site
Closed pubs web site
Derelict London web site
Disused stations web site
East London Old and New
Field. Place Names of London
Grace’s Guide web site
Great Eastern Railway Journal.
Hobbs history web site
Lewden web site
Pevsner.  London North
Plummer. Courtney Warner and the Warner Estate
Simpson, Leyton and Leytonstone Past
St. Saviours web site
Stewart. Gas Works
Vestiges 1967
Victoria County History. Essex
Walthamstow cinemas web site

 

Tuesday, 19 June 2012

River Lea - Walthamstow Marshes

River Lee, Lee Aqueduct and the Flood Relief Channel
The Lee, the Lee Aqueduct and the Flood Relief Channel continue to flow southwards

The Great Eastern Railway from Liverpool Street to Chingford
The rail line running north from Clapton Station continues to run north westwards

Post to the north Coppermills
Post to the west Springfield
Post to the east Lea Bridge Road
Post to the south Lea Bridge

Argall Avenue
Trading and light industrial estate, Set up in the mid 1930s.
Bates of London. Launderers. Martha Bates started taking in washing when her husband was out of work. By the 1950s the business moved to Tottenham as the South House & Elmhurst Laundry. In 1982 it merged with Purity Sweet Clean Laundry in Enfield and traded as Royal Jersey, Enfield, and in 1999 moved to Leyton, re-branded as Bates.

Bakers Hill
Dye works. At the bottom of the hill in the 1880s William Connell’s Dye Works – Lea Valley Works, bleaching and dyeing. Later became a laundry and eventually taken over by Initial.

Black Path
The Black Path is an old way between Walthamstow and Hackney. It is also known as the Market Porter’s Route since a number of markets lie along its route - Walthamstow, Mare Street, Broadway Market, Columbia Road and Smithfield. It is also a boundary to open spaces including Walthamstow Marshes.

Clapton Junction and viaduct
The Clapton Junction viaduct was built by the Great Eastern Railway in the 1880s for their line from Liverpool Street via Clapton station and the over the River Lee Navigation. Clapton Junction itself is where this line joined the existing Lee Valley line.

Copper Mills Junction
This joins the Great Eastern line from Liverpool Street to the Lee Valley line of 1840 from Stratford. Until 1961 it also joined a line from Chingford going to Gospel Oak. At the junction some remains of this can be seen.

Flood Relief Channel
Built in 1950 and crossed by the Great Eastern Chingford Line coming south from St. James Street Station.
Hall Farm Junction
In 1872 the Great Eastern line from Liverpool Street, via Bethnal Green, Hackney Downs and Clapton was linked to the Walthamstow line at Hall Farm junction. In 1885 it was Hall Farm junction was also linked to Coppermill junction on the Broxbourne line
The Great Eastern Company Chingford line coming south from St.James Street Station was on an embankment which was only half finished in 1860. At the junction, at mile post 5,  a curved line took it to Lea Bridge Station. This was electrified but never had electric trains on it and was removed in 1967.  There is a campaign to reinstate it. The embankment and some of the track ballast are still in place.
Another curve went to Coppermill junction used for trains going between Chingford and Gospel Oak and some football specials.  It was demolished in 1961.
Lee Aqueduct
There are some remains of a dismantled railway bridge at Copper Mills Junction - this carried a line between Chingford and Gospel Oak.
The railway line from St.James Street goes south over the aqueduct on a three decker bridge, also crossing the Lea Valley line of 1840

Leyton Marshes
The boundary of Leyton Marsh was the Dagenham Sewer. Now it is the area between the Walthamstow Nature Reserve, Coppermill Fields, the Lee and the Flood Relief Channel – and much of the original area is in other uses. This is Lammas Land - land divided into strips where hay was grown. Parishioners had ancient rights to graze cattle and horses between 1 August and 25 March. From 1604 the marsh was taxed by the Commissioners of Sewers from West Ham to Mucking.  The marsh was administered through a collector and an expeditor and a marsh bailiff.  Here there were no banks and no flooding but they had to keep drainage channels open - particularly the Dagenham Sewer.  In the 19th sewage became a problem as new housing proliferated. At the same time much of the marsh was taken over by railway, water and gas companies. On Lammas Day 1892 a large demonstration fences built by the water company were removed and the Leyton Lammas Lands Defence Committee successfully challenged the water company in court. An Act of 1904 allowed for the marsh to be kept as an open space, in return for relinquishment of Lammas rights. However some fields were exempt. A crater from a Second World War V2 is still visible. In 1971 much of the land was taken over by the Lee Valley Park Authority.

Low Hall Sports Ground
19 hectares of green space containing, 14 full size football pitches, four cricket tables, two floodlit astro training pitches and a pavilion with changing rooms

Railway
The railways cross the marsh in a complicated network of lines and junctions, some of which are current and some of which have been removed.
Walthamstow-Chingford railway running between St.James Street and Clapton
Lee Valley Line between Stratford and Tottenham Hale built by the Northern and Eastern Railway in 1840
Great Eastern Line between Clapton and Tottenham Hale

Rigg Approach
Blue Plaque which marks the end part of the Football Stadium which Leyton Orient shared with the Leyton Speedway Team 1930-1937
20 Union Veneers. Founded in 1950.

High Hill Ferry
High Hill Ferry was also known as Morris’s Ferry.
Robin Hood Public House. This riverside pub was on site by 1794. It as a favourite spot for 19th fishermen and the pub also ran the Robin Hood Ferry and thus was sometimes called The Ferry House. It was a Courage Brewery pub, with a popular riverside garden at the front and associations with the local rowing clubs. It was demolished in 2001. This pub closed and was demolished in 2001.
Robin Hood ferry
111 The Beehive has now been converted to housing. . This pub was on site by 1861 and rebuilt in 1915. It closed during the Second World War. It was a Whitbread house.
Anchor and Hope Pub.  This is close to the site of the High Hill Ferry. The surviving pub which is a Fullers house.
John Lee and Henry Lee, brick works
George Baker and William Burch dyers, calico printers with works and drying grounds in 1826 until at least the mid-1840s. Later Baker & Hudden, calenderers, and James Burch, who had a carmine works.
Robert Lyon, bleacher in 1826-1838,
George Wickenden, a glazier/presser in 1845 and 1855
Battersby & Burgoyne, Dyers and printers, 1817

Theydon Road
Trading estate and riverside industrial units being used as sites for housing developments.
Havilland Building - Hunt & Co, cardboard box factory, designed by Owen Williams 1939

Walthamstow Marshes
Walthamstow Marshes were an area where common rights were   enjoyed by manorial tenants in areas now under reservoirs but also on the remaining areas of marsh. Lammas rights survived on some of the marsh into the 1930s. The 'great meadow' or common marsh, in 1699 lay south of the mill-stream, west by the river Lea and the east of the common sewer. The hay crop belonged to the occupiers of the plots, but Lammas Day to Lady Day the marsh was available to pasture horses and cows but not sheep. In the 19th the marsh bailiff marked the beasts, and manorial by-laws regulated the marsh. The Walthamstow and Leyton marshes had been seen as common to both parishes but by 1873 a fence had apparently been put up on the parish boundary. In 1841 Lammas rights were extinguished on land needed by the Northern and Eastern Railway Co., and in 1854 more had been taken over by the East London Waterworks Co. The remainder was subject to the Walthamstow Corporation Act of 1834 to be preserved as an open space. However their plans were changed by the Second World War. In the early 1970s The Lea Valley Authority wanted to extract gravel for motorised water sports marina and British Rail wanted to tip ballast.  This led to a ‘Save the Marshes Campaign’. A public inquiry was held in 1981 which led to designation as an SSSI. And there is continuing public involvement in the upkeep of the marsh as a natural area for public use and recreation   The Marsh became a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1984. The main marsh is a land form little changed with a network of river channels which emerge in times of flood. It was grazed from time immemorial and the Lee Valley Regional Park has re-introduced a herd of old breed cattle here. There are many water fowl - coots, moorhen, mute swan, Canada geese, greylag geese, grey heron, Cormorant, Little Grebe and Common Tern.  There are water vole and a population of Edible Frog as well as noctule and pippistrelle bats. There are many birds - sedge and reed warbler and reed bunting. On the marsh is one of Britain's rarest plants - Creeping Marshwort - as well as subgracilis sedge which is an infertile ancient clone. There are three native Black Poplars and in the ditches comfrey as well as many other interesting plants. This is the last area of the Lee's freshwater marshes the rest of which have been destroyed by drainage and/or gravel extraction.
Bronze Age and Saxon remains. A Bronze Age canoe and a Saxon barge were found in the marshes of Walthamstow which show that the Lea has been navigated for over 2,000 years. It is said that in 894 the Vikings sailed north up the Lea to sack Hertford.
Crater pond – In the Second World War a V2 exploded near the Leyton boundary and made a large circular crater which filled with water and became known as the "bomb crater pond". 
Trenches – these were dug in 1940, to stop enemy planes landing. Although they were filled in by 1949 it is possible to see variations in vegetation which indicate their sites.
Cast Iron markers. These  mark Lammas plots – the Lands were divided into strips and the owners or tenants had exclusive rights from 'Lady Day' on 25th March, to 'Lammas Day' which was a festival of thanksgiving for the harvest on 1st August.
AVRO- Railway arches. A plaque marks the Site of hangar and workshop used by A.V. Roe and is the site of the the first manned flight by a Briton in a British plane. Alliott Verdon Roe was an engineer who in 1906 became secretary of the Aeroclub and became interested in a design for a "gyrocopter". In 1907 he entered a competition organised by the Daily Mail for the flying machine models and won the second prize. Eventually he built a triplane – and needing a large flat site he moved to Walthamstow Marsh in 1909. Parts for his machine which had been made in Putney were and assembled in the two railway arches. In June 1909 Roe made a successful series of "short flights" up to 50' in length. He used a 9 horsepower JAP motorcycle engine which was under powered by he managed to fly 100 feet. On July 23rd 1909, he flew feet at an average height of around 10 feet. This was a landmark in the history of aviation.

Sources
Bates web site
CAMRA.  City and East London Beer Guide
Clarke. Benjamin Clarke, Glimpses of Ancient Hackney and Stoke Newington
Coppermills Walk leaflet
English Heritage. Blue Plaque Guide
Field. London Place Names,
Lea Valley Walk leaflet
Lewis. Britain’s Best Kept Secret
Smyth. City Wildspace
Symonds. Behind the Blue Plaques of London
Victoria County History of Essex
Walthamstow Marshes leaflet