Friday, 28 February 2014

North London Railway - the Ladykillers

The North London Line
The North London line continues to travel south westwards from Dalston Junction, it crosses the East Coast Mainlines into King Cross and there are junctions wit lines going south


This post covers only the south west corner of the square
Post to the quarter square to the east Barnsbury
Post to the quarter square to the north east - Caledonian Road

Main Square to the west
South east quarter square Camden Town
South west quarter square Camden Road


Main square to the east
Quarter square to the north east Highbury Corner
Quarter square to the north west Arundel Square



Bemerton Estate
The area was rebuilt from 1947 by the London County Council
Blundell Street
Robert Blair Primary School. This began as a temporary school in 1872 opened by the School Board of London in Blundell Street mission rooms and some girls in a Primitive Methodist Chapel. Blundell Street Board School opened in 1873 for all children. It was renamed the Robert Blair school in 1936. Robert Blair was Chief Education Officer for the London County Council.
107 Carnevale. Italian delicatessen produce. In 1966 brothers, Carmine and Giovanni Carnevale, from Capracotta began manufacturing and selling mozzarella and ricotta in London. Some of their range is made here at their purpose built site.
Acorn Production Centre. Factory converted into trading units in 1985
Parish Hall on the Acorn centre site in 1916
102 The Albion Pub. This is now closed and become flats.
55-83 Russell Hume. Meat and Poultry dealers
53 Lawson’s, builders merchant


Brandon Road
In the 19th and area of soap works, skin dressers, manure works, costers, etc.  They included a firm who moved here from Cow Cross Street received condemned meat from City markets. Its owners were summoned before the magistrates three times in one year. There was also a slaughterhouse for diseased cattle, this was refused a licence and forced to close.
2 Prior Burners Ltd, manufacturers of furnaces and boilers were here in the 1940s
34 Merry & Co. made buses here in the 1920s
North London Soap Works here in 1896

Brewery Road
Called after Gordon’s Brewery which was at the end of the road not in this square
Belle Isle Mission. Baptist Chapel. This was a mission from Camden Road Baptist Church. A Sunday school was held in a loft over a cowshed and a hall built in 1870. The Belle Isle mission chapel dated from1878. This was bombed and destroyed in 1941


Bunning Way
Modern housing on the site of part of the Caledonian Road Goods and Coal Depot on sidings from the Great Northern Line although alongside the North London Line.
Caledonian Road Goods and Coal Depot . The Great Northern railway built a sharply graded branch from lines around the Camden Goods Depot on the down side of the main line going north. It ran under the North London Line and then ran up onto the top of the retaining wall over the Copenhagen Tunnel to a siding from which it could reverse. It then ran down again on the other side of the main line to this goods depot with five sidings parallel to the North London line, although there was no connection to it. It had opened in 1878 and closed in 1967.

Gifford Street
The southwards turn of the road was once called East Street and led down to join Randalls Road. In the 1870s this was the only exit to the street and Gifford Road’s eastward end did not exist.
Railway embankment – land at the back of the northern terrace of Gifford Street was acquired by compulsory purchase for the Channel Tunnel High Speed rail link; the line now runs beneath it.  Much of the site is now one for Nature Conservation.
64 Christ Apostolic Church. Outside is a plaque to The Keskidee which between 1971 and 1992 was Britain's first arts and cultural centre for the Black community. It was opened originally in 1861 as the Gifford Mission Hall. The church was partly burnt down in 2012
St.Andrew's Mission Hall. This is shown on the 1914 map as being in the elbow bend at the east end of Gifford Road and the south bound road then known as East Street. The building is now let as a warehouse to Italian food importer Foodhouse Ltd.
Beaconsfield Buildings. Blocks built by the Victoria Dwellings Association, originally the Metropolitan Artisans and Labourers Dwellings Association which had started work in Battersea.  They were named for Prime Minister Disraeli in 1887 ad designed by Charles Barry, intended to emulate the philanthropic work of Peabody. Built on what was the called Stroud Vale. Known locally as ‘The Crumbles’ It was taken over by the GLC in 1967 and later demolished There is now modern housing on the site.
Board School. This was on the east side of what was at one time East Street.  This had originally opened in 1872 as Gifford Street Board School initially in a local mission hall. The new building opened in 1877 and it was later enlarged in the 1890s following re-use of the mission. It was reorganised in 1947-51 as Gifford Secondary School and Closed in 1960. The Site was used for Bishop Gifford Roman Catholic Secondary School which closed in 1967. It was later used by St. William of York for their Upper School.  The school was demolished very suddenly in 2000 by a developer and there is now housing on the site.
Coach house. Flats but also used as an art gallery and offices.

Pembroke Street
Crumbles Castle. Adventure Playground.
Spark Plug. A project working with young people on bicycles and motor cycles

Railway
East Coast Main Line. The Great Northern Railway line from Maiden Lane to Peterborough was opened in 1850 and designed by engineer Thomas Brassey. The final mile into London was built by Pearce and Smith and John Jay including the Copenhagen Tunnel. 
Copenhagen Tunnel. On 27 March 1849 the first brick for the tunnel was laid by Edward Purser. The current middle bore is the original tunnel and from 1886 took down trains both Fast and Slow.  The western bore was built in 1877 for Up and Down Goods lines. The eastern bore was built in 1886 taking up trains, both Fast and Slow. The area above the tunnel was used for a rail line going to the Caledonian Road Coal and Goods Depot (now Bunning Street). It was this area which was the setting for the final scenes of The Ladykillers.
Copenhagen Junction. This is marked on maps near the mouth of the Copenhagen Tunnel.   This was originally a simple junction between the lines into Kings Cross and those into the Goods Yard.  As lines were added and the bores added to the tunnel so the junction became more complex.  It is now the point at which the Channel Tunnel Rail Link crosses the East Coast Main Line.
Copenhagen Junction Signal Box
Belle Isle Signal Box. This was opened in 1886 when the third tunnel bore was opened and it closed in 1968
Goods and Mineral Junction Signal box which was opened in 1877 and closed in 1975
Lines diverged to the east to a variety of destinations within the Kings Cross Goods Yard and railway infrastructure. These destinations included – from east to west – Potato Warehouse, Midland Shed, Goods Arrival and Departure Sheds, Canal Basin, Eastern, Western and Plimsoll Coal Drops, Sidings and Engine Sheds.
Channel Tunnel Rail Link High Speed Line. This runs between London and the entrance to of the Channel Tunnel. A complex junction has been built north of St Pancras which connects to both the East Coast Main Line and the North London Lone. It runs from St.Pancras across the northern area of the old goods yards following the routes of the vast complex of lines which were once there.  It passes over the East Coast Main Line and turning east to parallel the North London Lone and then goes underground before reaching the Caledonian Road.
North London Line. This crosses the lines out of Kings Cross and the old goods complex on a viaduct south of Copenhagen Tunnel entrance. This collapsed during the construction of the Copenhagen Tunnel


Rufford Street
Part of this was previously James Street.
Necropolis Station. The Kings Cross funeral station was promoted by the Great Northern London Cemetery Company in 1858. This site was the second choice for them and agreed with the Great Northern Railway Company in 1859.   This was to take bodies out of London to be buried in a new cemetery at Colney Hatch.  It is thought the buildings were designed by Edward Alexander Spurr. It was a two storey building build into the side of the cutting with a tower and wedge shaped spire. It included several waiting rooms and a mortuary which had hydraulic lifts to the platforms. Two railway tracks ran into the station through a covered train shed. There were stained glass windows, a ventilation system and gas lighting which was permanently on. It was not a success and the service closed down in 1863. GNR took the buildings over in the 1870s and demolished the train shed to widen their lines. The spire was removed in the 1950s and the building was known by local children as ‘the old bombed church’. It was demolished in 1962 and the site was used for industry
RMC Concrete factory. The factory built in 1963-4 replacing the mortuary complex. The brick retaining wall is apparently the original wall of the mortuary.

Stroud Vale
Stroud Vale was the name applied, roughly to the area to the south of the North London Railway Line. Hence Beaconsfield Buildings, in Gifford Street, noted above, are described as being in Stroud Vale.

Tileyard Road
The area was generally known as Belle Isle – an area of piggeries and smelly kilns.
Called Tileyard Road from 1897 replacing Lows Lairs.  In the late 18th there were tile kilns here and a track was called Tile Kilns Road, later Tile Yard Road. Adams had kilns here and their site was taken over by Tylors. Adams made chimney pots and garden pots. In 1829 they had a large kiln and a smaller one used as a storehouse, and sheds and cottages.
20 Sands sandwich makers. In the 1920s this was a feather merchant, The British Feather Co.
18 Tileyard House. At one time this was a printworks
Tylors Water testing tower. Tylors were set up in 1797 and made water metering and testing equipment.   A hundred foot high tower containing three water tanks at different heights was built here to calibrate the meters. The tanks were connected to test beds in the factory.  The tower was built in 1870 and demolished in 1983
Ebonite –By 1967 the factory had been taken over by Ebonite Container Co. Tylors tower remained in their works and had their name on it. They used the tower as a boiler flue in making plastic accumulator boxes. Ebonite and Bakelite manufacturers. "Ebcon" Hard Rubber Mallets
Belle Isle Works (Engineering and brass)
St.Pancras Iron Works. This firm is said to have been founded by Henry Bessemer at his Baxter House works in Pancras Road. It later operated as a general iron founding company making street furniture and other items from a works at Belle Isle.

Vale Royal
This appears to be on the line of a road once called Pleasant Grove and known for its horse slaughterers.  In 1804 it was Belfield which become in time Belle Isle. Once the centre of slaughterhouses and obnoxious trades.  In the 13th it had been attached to Vale Royal Abbey in Cheshire. By 1806 it was owned by a Samuel Brandon who had a hartshorn and pottery factory there. There were many others - Tin burning ‘a miserable trade’ as well as varnish and lead works, manure works and others connected the processing of dead cattle and horses. . The area was one of many bad neighbour trades – inspected and described by Dr. Ballard during his time as Medical Officer of Health in Islington in the 1870s.
Jenson and Nicholson had a white lead and paint factory here from Bethnal Green. In 1870 their works was burnt down and the Great Northern Railway wanted their site.
40 Henson Foods. Salt beef specialists

York Way
The road is the old boundary between Islington and St Pancras, known as Maiden Lane. It winds its way between railway land and warehouses. The name of York Way derives from the railway since the first trains left here for York.
Maiden Lane station. This was east of the road and north of the North London Line. It was used 1887-1917, closed as a war time measure it never reopened. The building was demolished in the 1970s but some pieces of wall of the street level buildings survive alongside the road.
The Fitzpatrick Building. The headquarters of  Mark Fitzpatrick for the building firm by Chassay Architects, 1988-91.  It is ‘Extravagantly Postmodern’ with green granite and terracotta, and a glazed comer tower..
17 New Market Ale House. This is a B&B once called The New Market Inn.
200 Egg. Nightclub
202-208 Fayers. Old established plumbing supplies company
230 Just Add Water. Bathroom supply company
244 Rosie Mccanns. This was once called The New Copenhagen
256 Butchers Arms Pub. Now closed and used as flats.
North Western Commercial Centre. Industrial estate
North London Line bridge
CTRL bridge. York Way was lowered in 2004 to run under the new viaduct,

Sources
Archer, Nature Conservation in Islington
Beaconsfield Buildings. Web site
Brtitish History Online. Islington. Web site
Camden History Review
Clunn. The Face of London
Connor. Forgotten Stations of London
Connor. Kings Cross to Potters Bar
Day, London Underground
Disused Stations. Web site
Field.  London Place Names
GLIAS. Newsletter
London Borough of Islington. Web site.
London Railway Record
Mitchell and Smith. North London Line
Pevsner and Cherry. London North
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group. Report
Tindall. The Fields Beneath
Willatts. Streets with a Story
Wilson. London’s Industrial Heritage

Tuesday, 25 February 2014

North London Line Barnsbury

North London Railway
The Railway from Dalston Junction runs south westwards
TQ 30592 84023

An area of Islington where housing which was slum property fifty years ago is now upmarket - some of it designed and laid out by major architects.  The main Caledonian Road runs north:south through the area and the North London line runs north west:south east and there are the remains of what was once an important railway transhipment area. There is open space, churches and an inner city mix of 19th and 20th social action invitiatives


This post covers only the south east corner of the square
Post to the quarter square to the west Ladykillers
Post to the quarter square to the north

Main Square to the west
South east quarter square Camden Town
South west quarter square Camden Road


Main square to the east
Quarter square to the north east Highbury Corner
Quarter square to the north west Arundel Square

Barnsbury Terrace
Historians of the 18th and 19th claimed this was the site of a ‘The pretorium of a Roman camp’, this is now thought to have been a moated medieval farm. The street was built up from the 1820s
The Courtyard. This is a group of five houses built in the 1970s using London stock brick. They were designed by Tim Tomlinson Associates, and developed by the construction firm Dove Brothers
17 2020 Archery.  Indoor archery range.


Barnsbury Wood
This is a space of about 0.86 acre behind the houses of Hemingford Road, Huntingdon Street, Crescent Street and Thornhill Crescent. It was originally a garden belonging to developer George Thornhill and then an area for the Vicarage at 7 Huntington Street but the area gradually reverted to woodland and by the 1960s had mature trees. The Council bought the site for housing but access problems meant it was left in a semi-natural state. In 1981 a co-operative was formed by local residents to buy and manage the site. It had then 74 trees, with ducks, jays, kestrels and wood pigeons. It was then set up as an ecological park.

Belitha Villas
Belitha was the landowners name and the street dates from the 1840s.

Bridgeman Road
Rev. Bridgeman was a vicar of St.Andrews Church
West Branch Library. A replacement for two terraced houses built in 1905-7 designed by Beresford Pite. It was also the fourth library funded in Islington by Andrew Carnegie.  It is in a classical style with acanthus motifs and capitals based on the Temple of Epicurus at Bassae plus Art Nouveau features. The inside was planned through the progressive librarianship of James Duff Brown. 

Bemerton Estate
The rest of the area west of Caledonian Road was rebuilt from 1947 by the London County Council

Caledonian Road
This was a turnpike road built on the line of an old lane – until 1853 it was called The Chalk Road. It was built privately in 1826 by the The Battle Bridge and Holloway Road Co. and was a toll road by to link New Road with the Great North Road.
Caledonian Road Station. The station opened in 1852 to deal with traffic from the cattle market on the North London Line on the west side of Caledonian Road. It was renamed in 1870 as Barnsbury and was soon after relocated to the east side of Roman Road.
Caledonian Road and Barnsbury Station.  A subway connected the platforms to Caledonian Road. In 1968 an entrance was opened here south of the line with a path to the platforms linked by a footbridge. Following upgrading work in 2012 there is a footpath, with Oyster readers, from Caledonian Road to the entrance of the station
Signal Boxes – the original box was replaced by one o the other side of the line. And was closed in 1970
297 Kennedy’s Bar. This was previously called the Edinburgh Castle Pub
325 Variety Picture Palace. For a few years, 1909 until 1915 this building, now a solicitor’s office, operated as a cinema
342 The Prince. This pub was originally the Prince of Wales and had also been called The Islington Bar.
379 Doyle's Tavern. This was called the Prince Arthur from 1869 but has also been called the Pride of the West and the Tirconail Bar.
North London Railway Bridge. Until 2013 this had an advertisement on it for Ferodo brake linings. This has now been replaced
Coal shoots along the south east side of the railway in the 1870s
Kings Court. Posh housing in a gated development at the back of what was Arthur Terrace –linked to the Prince Arthur pub. The site was Arthur Mews.
388 Islington Glass. This shop was the Offord Arms Pub on site in 1851

Carnoustie Drive
1a Coatbridge House. Bemerton Children's Centre. Services include early learning and childcare

Crescent Street
1 and 2 were demolished to facilitate access to Barnsbury Wood

Frederica Street
Before redevelopment in the 1970a it featured in 'The Ladykillers’ with a house specially built for the film. The road has however been realigned.

Freeling Street
Graffiti dog with earphones.

Hemmingford Road
115 Huntingdon Arms. This was later know as The Cuckoo but since 2011 has been a restaurant.
158 Hemingford Arms. Pub with flowers outside

Huntingdon Street
7 this was originally a Vicarage. Behind it was a large garden which is now Barnsbury Wood. This is the biggest house in the row and backs directly on to it. It later became a private school, and then divided into flats.

Offord Road
One of Thornhill’s sons was rector of Offord D'Arcy.  Plain terraces.
38 Bath Sorts. This was a pub called the Prince Alfred
Offord Road Congregational Church. Built by Sanders and Bedells in 1857 and closed in 1918. It has been in industrial use since.

Offord Street
This back road was small houses but is now Roman Way Trading Estate.
Caledonian Road and Barnsbury Station. The original station opened in 1852 on the East and West India Dock and Birmingham Junction Railway. In 1870 the North London Railway moved the station and renamed it ‘Barnsbury’ with an entrance on Roman Road and then on Caledonian Road. It was later renamed ‘Caledonian Road plus Barnsbury’ and Caledonian Road and Barnsbury from 1893. The area around the line was designed for the transport of cattle.  Upgrading work in 2012 has led to more changes and the station entrance on Offord Street leads to the old westbound platform from which a footbridge gives access to the new island platforms, numbered 2 and 3. Probably to distinguish from the old platform 1.
Carriage sidings. There were two carriage siding south of the tracks with coal sidings to the west – some of which must be covered by the buildings of Roman Way Trading Estate

Roman Way
Until 1938 this was Roman Road
114 This was the City of Rome Pub.  Built by Charles Thompson and William Crosswell in 1853
Caledonian Road and Barnsbury Station. Station building designed by Edwin Henry Horne was built on the west side of the road as Barnsbury Station. In 1893 this was renamed ‘Caledonian Road and Barnsbury’.  In 1920 this entrance closed and in 1968 Horne’s building was demolished.

Suttereton Street
Local Authority housing built 1972

Thornhill Crescent
Built by Samuel Pocock, from a family of local dairy farmers in 1852 - 44 years after the first talk of the project. The houses were built with conservatories at the rear, many of which remain.
St. Andrew's Church. Named to go with the Scottish named workmen’s dwellings in the area built after the construction of the prison. The decision to build had been taken at two parish meetings because of the overcrowding and rising, population. It was one of the largest churches in the suburbs built in. 1852-4 with a design chosen by competition, won by Francis Newman and John Johnson, and built by Dove Brother in ‘fashionable’ Kentish rag.  It cost much more than the original stipulated price. Initially the congregation sometimes crowded it out but the population began to fall in the mid-20th and In the 1960s pews and pulpit were removed to allow more community space. The interior was partitioned for a school-room, kitchen and coffee room, quiet room and offices.

Thornhill Estate
The estate was laid out by surveyor Joseph Kaye. The Thornhill family came from Yorkshire with Islington property let as a dairy farm but it was a very poor area.  George Thornhill saw it as appropriate for development in the late 18th and commissioned a surveyor, Henry Richardson to draw up a building lease but the plan failed following quarrels.  In 1812 the Regent's Canal, of which Thornhill was a proprietors, was built increasing the estates’ value. His son was also involved in local development companies and Joseph Kay continued as manager of the development.

Thornhill Square
This is Islington's largest square, and has a Public garden in the centre. Building started in 1847 by G. S. S. Williams. It is not a square, but two crescents bounding a 'square' with two built sides. Yet after the Second World War it was run down, and after the death of Noel Thornhill, in 1955 its future was uncertain. There were rumours of a break-up followed; but in 1970 99 per cent, was still owned by the Trustees of the Thornhill Estate although many of the freeholds were purchased by occupants,
33 this was the Buffalo Club –a workingmen’s club
Gardens.  This was Islington's largest though private recreational space until the 1880s. In 1946 they handed the gardens over to the Council for public use, and opened by the Mayor in 1947. In 1953 they were newly laid out as part of Coronation Year improvements.


Wheelwright Street
This was originally called Market Street and was named after the Commanding Officer of the local militia.  The north side is entirely taken up with the prison wall. There were at one time cottages here for prison staff.

Sources
Archer, Nature Conservation in Islington
Brtitish History Online. Islington. Web site
Camden History Review
Clunn. The Face of London
Cosh. The squares of Islington
Day, London Underground
Disused Stations. Web site
Field.  London Place Names
GLIAS. Newsletter
LAMAS. Journal
London Borough of Islington. Web site.
London Gardens Online. Web site
Lucas, London
Mitchell and Smith. North London Line
O’Connor. Forgotten Stations of London
Pevsner and Cherry. London North
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group. Report
Tindall. The Fields Beneath
Wheatley and Meulenkamp. Follies
Willatts. Streets with a Story

Saturday, 22 February 2014

North London Railway Arundel Square

North London Railway
The railway from Broad Street here runs south westwards

A typically busy inner city area of Islington to the west of Highbury Fields and around a stretch of the A1, Holloway Road. It goes to the edge of, and includes some buildings of,  Highbury Station, in itself a busy interchange serving a number of railway lines. Holloway Road includes buildings used by the Metropolitan University as well as the magistrates court, old mortuarys and coroners courts, the site of a brewery and the site of a major rocket attack in the Second World War.  In the back streets are many industrial sites which include a major rail distribution centre for coal, cattle holding areas and a tram factory and depot. Reuse of industrial buildings include a city farm and a major music venue and club.  There is much else.

Post to the east, Highbury Corner

This posting covers only the north west corner of this square

Main square to the west
Post to the quarter square to the south  Barnsbury
Post to the quarter square to the south west Ladykillers
Post to the quarter square to the north east Caledonian Road


Arundel Square
The last square built in Islington. It has a public garden in the centre which was bought by the council in 1957 and there is a playground funded by Frederick William Vanstone. It was built on Pocock's Fields – Richard Pocock bought land here which was later developed. Building began in 1850; row-by-row and apparently the money ran out before the south side was built.  The north side has been developed with flats in 2013
1-17 these are the uses on the east side of the square, completed by 1852,
18-37 these houses on the north side were completed in 1855. Following a dispute on ownership in the 1950s they were taken over by Circle 33 Housing Trist and modernised
16-17 the original houses here were demolished for the deep railway cutting of the North London Railway which truncated the square
Gardens. These were originally managed by the Pocock's Trustees and from 1863 by a residents' committee. In 1936 playground equipment was provided through the National Air Raid Distress Fund and plaques remain on the gate piers to record those as well as a contribution by the King George's Fields Foundation. By the 1950s the garden was semi derelict and in 1957 Islington Borough Council converted it into a public park with a playground. The gardens had rose beds, but in the 1990s became overgrown ad shaded by large plane trees. It has since had a makeover from developers and has been extended with decking over the railway line and has a children's playground, table tennis, ball court with football goals and basketball hoops, a woodland walk, shrubbery.

Bride Street
Named after the Pocock family’s coal wharf in the City. 

Court Gardens
Housing on the site of the Highbury Coal Depot and sidings. The East and West India Docks and Birmingham Junction Railway to Highbury were originally to transfer coal, which had come by ship from North East England to Poplar Docks, around North London. The railway was not, at first, intended to take passengers, only to distribute coal.  To this end a large coal yard was erected at Highbury and leased to the Northumberland and Durham Coal Company, a consortium of coal owners. It was an extraordinary site, with coal handling equipment more reminiscent of the coal staithes typical of North East ports.

Crane Grove
Built up from the 1850s.
16 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. This began as the ‘British Union’ founded at a public meeting in Bristol in 1898 by Frances Power Cobbe who had come into contact with the suffering of animals during scientific experiments in 1863. She died in 1904 and was by Dr Walter Hadwen. Since 1949, the organisation has been known as the– the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, to avoid confusion

Furlong Road
Laid out in 1839 with stuccoed terraces and paired villas. 
8 Albion Lodge built in 1884, detached and different to surrounding houses and with an openwork parapet.
18-20 Leeson Hall. Used as a Tory Social Club and centre. Although both the Islington South and Islington North Tories claimed ownership. The Club was ‘complete with vivid red velvet banquettes covered in cigarette burns, sixties bar, and permanent smell of stale beer and old men’. It had been built for the Sandemanian Church in 1886 by T. S. Archer
23-37 typical of the early 1970s. Stock-brick infill by L. R. Isaacson

Highbury Corner
The Garage – club and dance venue. This appears to have been built as a temperance billiard hall, which was briefly The Electric Cinema in 1910. It is also said to have been a tram shed.  It was a bingo hall in 1970 and, then an Irish dance hall called the Town and Country Club.

Highbury Station Road
2 Centre for Recent Drawing. Part of the Saatchi Gallery. The buildings appear to be part of the original station structures.
1-3 Circle Housing Group Laycock Centre – this was previously Laycock Junior School but since 1982 this older part of the building has been a teachers' professional development centre.  It was originally Station Road School opened in 1885 by the School Board for London in a new building for boys, girls and infants. The school closed in 1927 and the building was used by Laycock School to the south and became their secondary department. In 1947 with other schools it moved to become part of Highbury Grove School and this building was used as the Isledon Teachers' Centre and media resources building for local schools.
Liverpool Buildings. These were model buildings from 1883 and demolished in 1971,
Albert Square. This was to the south of the road and appears to have become the site of the school.   One writer says it was taken over by the railway in 1867 – and this could account for the lack of a north side on later maps.
Cattle lairs – these were at the Liverpool Road corner and were areas where cattle, on route for Smithfield and death, could be rested overnight.

Holloway Road
The hollow way of the old north road.
2 The Highbury Imperial Picture Theatre. This opened in 1912 Built for gold miner Richard Harris and designed built by H. Courtney Constantine. The facade was brick and stone with five Ionic pillars at the entrance. It included flats on the top floor.   It was taken over by the General Theatres Ltd. in 1928, and soon after they were taken over by the Gaumont British Theatres chain. In 1933, it was re-named Imperial Picture Theatre and in the mid-1950’s re-named The Picture House. It was closed by the Rank Organisation in 1959 and demolished and a Regent Lion Service Station built on the site. This has also been demolished and a Majestic Wine Warehouse built.
6-40 School of Architecture and Interior Design, buildings by Brae & Mallalieu, 1996.
40-44 Spring House. Metropolitan University Department of Architecture and Spatial Design. This has concrete columns on the ground floor to display student models and drawings.
51 Highbury Corner Magistrates Court. Opened in 1975 with six court rooms to relieve the pressure on Old Street Magistrates Court.
52 W. H. Hayden, wholesale stationers, founded in 1829 in Paternoster Row, moved here in 1971. In 1972 they built Digby House and employed c. 70. Demolished
53/4 Highbury Brewery Founded in 1740 by William Willoughby and became Ufford and Oldershaw in 1840. The buildings were accessed via an archway off Holloway Road to allow access to rear stables. An archway is a feature of the development now on site. The brewery was taken over by Taylor Walker in 1912, when it had about 40 pubs and closed in 1914.
Highbury Gardens development on the site of the brewery and surrounding buildings,
54 The Lamb. This was the Highbury Brewery Tap and has also been recently called: Barcosa. The Tank, the Beer House, Hedgehog & Hogshead and, the Flounder & Firkin. As the Brewery Tap it has been rebuilt in the 19th for the Highbury Barn Brewery.  In 1840 this was Uffold and Oldhaw.  The pub had a well, and had to keep boring as water table fell.
Hopkins Engineering works 1950s-1960s
81 The Bailey. Pub previously called The Castle
97-99 The Wig and Gown. Pub which was previously called ‘Li’l Red’ Closed (lost their licence). Before the Second World War the premises had been used by electrical engineers and asbestos manufacturers. In the 1970s this was the ‘Black Centre’ run by black activist Michael X. 
St. Mary Magdalene. This is the parish church of Lower Holloway built in 1814, as a chapel of ease to St Mary, Islington and as an evangelical bias. It is a tall, gaunt bay box with stone porches, and a tower with a vestry below to a design by William Wickings. The bell tower has eight bells, cast by John Warner and Son at Spitalfields in 1875. They are a “maiden” ring and have never been re-tuned. There is an organ of 1814 by George Pike England, with a mahogany case; altered by Willis, 1867, and N.P. Mander, 1947. There is a War Memorial of 1918 from Offord Road Drill Hall with a bronze relief and   a   painting by the churchwarden, William Wickings, who was also the Middlesex County Surveyor.
Gardens. This is the churchyard which is very large and was provided to cater for big increase in population. It was opened to the public at the end of the 19th.
Islington coroner’s court and mortuary. These have been adapted to provide a school for pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and two houses. They have previously been used by the Council’s Parks Department for the storage of vehicles and goods,

Laycock Street
Named for Richard Laycock, 18th dairy farmer and developer who also had cattle lairs here to rest cattle en route to deaths at Smithfield.
28 Central Islington Medical Centre. Part of a larger development by Brady Mallalieu Architects with One Housing Group.
Transenna Works of Tidmarsh and Sons, Window and Sun Blind manufacturer, since 1843.This building is now flats
London General Omnibus Company factory. This lay on both sides of the road by the 1880s and had closed by at least 1915 when the site was in other use.  LGOC had other works in the area including a large coach building establishment in Caledonian Road and it is assumed that this works was complimentary and eventually superseded by it.
Laycock Street Council School opened in 1915 for boys, girls and infants.   In 1927-32 it was used reorganised and by 1939 had juniors in the Laycock Street building. In 2012 a modernisation programme has seen the school greatly extended including accommodation for hearing impaired children. The outside of the school is decorated with mosaic panels.
Laycock Green.   Green space and playground including an area to encourage sparrows.
Laycock Mansions. Inscriptions over the windows state that this was built in 1910, financed by a trust set up in the will of Samuel Lewis. Born in Birmingham, Lewis began by selling steel pens, opened a jeweller’s shop and became a financier and, philanthropist. This was the first building.

Liverpool Road
Old back lane to Upper Street, named in 1822.  An attractive stretch of similar two- or three-storey terraces and pairs of villas of the 1830s and 40s, extending to the large leafy churchyard beyond.  Built up between 1820 and 1840.  Some superior houses part of the development of Barnsbury.  East side was always more miscellaneous and has been much rebuilt.
489 Adam and Eve. In Paradise Terrace and first noted in 1851. It was a Watney Coombe Reid house and later Whitbread. Converted to a restaurant.
St.Mary Magdalene School. This all ages Church of England school opened in 2007 in a flashy new building and has a web site totally devoid of content . This is on the site of St.Mary Magdalene Church of England Primary School which was originally the church school of the parish church St.Mary in Upper Street founded in 1710. They moved here in 1815 as the Chapel of Ease School on the Madras System. This school was destroyed by a bomb in  1940.  A new school was opened in 1953 on the same site by Norman and Dowbarn. 
441 Duchess of Kent. First noted 1843 – and presumably named for Victoria’s mother,
Samuel Lewis Buildings. This is a philanthropic tenanted block with art nouveau lettering and five rows of trees. This is the earliest of eight schemes for this housing trust, all designed by C. S. Joseph & Smithem.  There are five rows of flats with trees between.  They were built on the site of Laycock's cattle lairs

Madras Place
Named for the Madras system of education used at St Mary Magdalene Church of England School. The Madras, or Monitorial system was where a schoolmaster would teach a small group of brighter or older pupils basic lessons, and each of them would then relate the lesson to another group of children. It was developed in Madras by Rev. Andrew Bell
Site of public toilets where in 1963, Joe Meek was arrested for importuning.  The playwright Joe Orton also frequented it.

Orleston Mews
This was once Union Mews

Orleston Street
This was once Union Street

Sheringham Road
Freightliners Farm. The Farm was founded on wasteland behind Kings Cross station in 1973 where the animals were housed in railway goods vans, hence the name. It moved here in 1978 and new farm buildings erected in 1988.  There is an ornamental garden, with flowers and a kitchen garden with herbs, fruit trees and bushes. The Farm has rare breed pigs and goats, lambs and chicks, Dexter cows, and sheep or goats.  There are 5 beehives, producing honey as well as beeswax

Westbourne Road
Metzo. This takeaway was once the Arundel Arms
St.Clements Church. Built in 1864 and designed by Gilbert Scott.  The building is mow flats. War Memorial, this is on the street facing wall and above the lists of names is a cross, a small shield.  Below the names, on a frieze:” Greater love hath no man than this” and below that “Rest eternal, grant them, O Lord. Let light perpetual shine upon them”.

Sources
Arundel Square. Web site
British History Online. Islington
British Listed Buildings. Website
Cinema Treasures. Web site.
Clunn. Face of London
Cosh.  Squares of Islington
Field. London place names
Freightliners. Web site
GLIAS. Newsletter
London Borough of Islington. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
London Gardens Online. Web site
London Remembers. Web site
Nature Conservation in Islington
Pevsner and Cherry.  London North
Robbins. North London Railway
Willatts. Streets with a Story

Monday, 17 February 2014

North London Railway - Highbury Corner

North London Railway
The railway continues south westwards

Post to the east Canonbury
Post to the west Arundel Square

This post covers only the north east corner of the square

Main squae to the east
Post to the quarter square to the south  Barnsbury
Post to the quarter square to the south west Ladykillers
Post to the quarter square to the north east Caledonian Road


Assata Mews
This appears to be on the site of the North Metropolitan Tramway Horse Depot built in
1896 and entered from Corsica Street.  This corner however was destroyed by the V1 in June 1944.

Calabria Road
The building of Calabria Road was approved in 1887, as part of a small estate laid out by a builder, H. Baylis.  It had a Roman name because of the supposed Roman camp at Highbury.  It cut through Highbury Place, thus destroying the symmetry of the original scheme, and allowing for the demolition of two villas. 
1 1890 house is attached to 13 Highbury Place

Canonbury Place
In 1767 Spencer Compton, the 8th Earl, leased Canonbury House, outbuildings, and adjoining grounds plus a the large pond to John Dawes, He demolished the south range of the house and on its site built five houses forming Canonbury Place, which in 1771 he leased from Lord Northampton,
Canonbury Tower.  A brick structure over sixty feet high, said to have been built by Prior Bolton of St Bartholomew's about 1520. It was at the corner of Canonbury House, a manor house belonging to the St. Bartholomew. The tower was originally in its garden, but is now separate.   At the reformation in 1539 Prior Robert Fuller, surrendered the manor and it was given to Thomas Cromwell, but later reverted to the Crown. After 1570 it was leased to John Spencer, later Lord Mayor who rebuilt it. There is some story about his daughter, Elizabeth, lowered in a basket from the tower window disguised as a boy to run off with Lord Crompton. He became the first Earl of Northampton and they inherited this property and it remains in their family. In 1616 it was leased by Sir Francis Bacon and it continued to be let out. From the 18th it has been tenanted by important figures in the world of literature, politics and the press, including dramatist Oliver Goldsmith. In 1907 it became a social centre for the Northampton Estate. In the 1960s Canonbury Tower was leased to the Tower Theatre, part of the Tavistock Repertory Company, but when the lease expired in 2003 the company moved.  The Canonbury Tower Charitable Trust was established in 1985. It is now a centre for Masonic research.
The garden of the Tower has an old mulberry tree, said to be planted in when Francis Bacon's lived there,
Canonbury House was built in the 1790s by John Dawes on the west side of the older manor house. It was later used as St.Stephen’s Vicarage
1-5 villas on the site of the demolished southern range of the original Canonbury House built 1770 – 80.
1 this was the home of architect Basil Spence
5 this was the home of Gilbert and Sullivan star George Grossmith who also wrote Diary of a Nobody.
King Edward Hall community hall was built in the garden of Canonbury House in 1907.  Used by the Tower The4atre for a while.
6-9 this is the gabled east range of Canonbury House and most recently used as a conference centre, the Canonbury Academy. Currently planned to turn it into a private school.
6 was a private girls' school and latterly Highbury and Islington High School for Girl’s. It later became the Head Quarters of the North London District Nursing Association, and then Harcourt House Medical Missionary Association.
8-9 was at one time Canonbury Children’s Centre
10-14 terraced houses which are now shops built in the mid 19th with some art nouveau features.
22-26 terrace built in 1963 by Raymond Erith,
27-30 said to include at the western end a portico from Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill  


Canonbury Road
Built as part of New North Road, in 1812  as an early through-route which by- passed Islington village to link the foot of Holloway Road at Highbury Corner with Shoreditch, Hoxton and the eastern parts of the City.
Canonbury Community Primary School. This originated as the Union Chapel British School; opened for girls in 1807, and extended for boys in 1814.  A new school was built in Compton Mews in 1836 and the school also used a room under the vestry behind the chapel from 1868. This British School building was slightly to the north of the current school. In 1871 the building in Compton Mews was transferred to the School Board for London and in 1875 the school moved to an iron bldg. in Canonbury Road in 1876. The present Board School building was opened 1877 and there have been many additions and eventual transfer to London Borough of Islington,
School keeper’s cottage. Arts and crafts style house. Built in 1910 and demolished 2012.
85 Gymboree. Branch of American child care group.  The site was until the 1950s terraced housing. It has more recently been a car showroom and car wash plus a warehouse, and a furniture showroom, with a college for students of business and accounting above.
124 Inca C-Gil.  This is the Italian Trade Union and Advice Centre.  The house was once called Compton Cottage
Dixon Clark Court, built 1964 as the Goldsmiths Place Project
Canonbury Square
Built on part of old manor of Canons Burh which came from St.Bartholomew's in the City. In 1803 it was leased to Leroux who developed it bit was bankrupt by 1809. This stretch was disposed of in 1811 after New North Road had cut through the site.  Laycock then proceeded with development. It became a poverty stricken area from the 1920s and In the Second World War some of the area was destroyed by bombing. The estate was sold in 1951 and the purchasers. Western Ground Rents, allowed gaps caused by bombing to be rebuilt, the north side of the Square by their architect-surveyor Nash. From then it has became a middle class area,
39 Northampton Lodge. The house was built before 1811 and is a gentleman's villa with a large garden, and wings containing conservatories. Converted for the Estorick Collection of Modem Italian Art, 1988.


Colebeck Mews
Terraced housing built by Dry, Halass, Dixon Partnership in 1977.  It is set around a garden and stepped back along footpaths.


Compton Avenue
Mews to Compton Terrace. The Union Chapel’s actual address is here.

Compton Terrace
A long, four-storey at the end, three-storey at the other and set back from Upper Street.  Planned in 18th by Henry Leroux, who wanted a row of linked villas like The Paragon in Blackheath flanking a smaller Union Chapel.  After building two pairs he went bankrupt in 1809 and it was finished in 1819 by Henry Flower, builder, and Samuel Kell, carpenter. The V2 in August 1944 meant that the terrace now ends at 25 – it landed on the house next to the top at the north end.
7 Dr. Ballard lived – Islington Medical Officer of Health who inspected and reported on industrial nuisances in 1871. Cast-iron Victorian porch;
Union Chapel.  The original small chapel of 1806 was replaced in 1876 by this 'Gothic tornado’. An evangelical group of Anglican and Non-conformist worshippers had had a chapel in Highbury Grove, and adopted the Union Chapel to symbolise catholicity of services and preachers for the Congregational movement.  From 1804 successful ministers expanded the congregation and the chapel became so famous that it was enlarged, and by the 1870s a new building was necessary.   The new building was by James Cubitt with the tower completed in 1889. The red brick tower contrasts with the Georgian restraint of the terrace.  The interior is outstanding, red brick and stone decorated with marble and tile and seating for 1,650. There are Art Nouveau lights with 19th gasoliers turned upside down, there is a rose window with musical angels by Frederick Drake of Exeter. There is a large hot-air heating system.  It was built by L. H. & R. Roberts, cost £50,000, and formally opened in 1877, with Gladstone in the congregation. In its first fortnight of existence Rev. C. H. Spurgeon preached to a congregation of 3,365. The then Minister was a music-lover, and built up a performance reputation while organists visited from far away to play here. After the Second World War and bomb damage it was threatened with demolition, but, in 1982 a group of Friends of Union chapel became a registered charity and alternative uses discussed. It is let to recording companies, and music festivals and small theatre companies for its excellent acoustics. Above the vestry door, is a fragment of the 'Plymouth rock' on which the Pilgrim Fathers landed in Massachusetts in December, 1620. The great organ by Father Willis was installed behind the triple ironwork screen. It still has the two hydraulic pumps by which it was originally worked, though since 1926 it has had an electric motor. Apart from one stop replaced in 1909, it is as Henry Willis left it. 
Hall and Sunday School.  The school has wooden partitions within its gallery to divide individual classes.  Library bay with rolling shutter to the bookshelves.
Plaque. This is at the north end of the terrace and says:’In memory of the 26 people who lost their lives, the 150 injured, and the many bereaved when a Vergeltungswaffe Eins V1 Flying Bomb destroyed Highbury Corner at 12.46pm, 27th June, 1944’,
Public gardens.  The Terrace is cut off from the main street by a strip of garden. An engraving of 1819 shows a low wall with railings and planting behind - clothes drying was not permitted nor was storage of 'timber, stone, bricks, lime or any other material whatsoever'. ' By 1928 there were two long narrow enclosures enclosed by a low wall with railings above and lawns, flower beds and trees' but railings were removed in 1939/40 for the war effort. By 1962 a line of young trees had been planted and an island flowerbed cut into the grass. Now a privet hedge lines the path and there are two anchor-shaped flowerbeds planted seasonally with bedding plants. They were possibly the creation of Peter Bonsall, former Head of Islington's Parks and Gardens, who liked floral displays. The gardens are now surrounded by reproduction railings.
Highbury Gardens, This is at the north end of Compton Terrace and was created in 2008/09 and is administered separately.

Corsica Street
1-7 Circle 33 Housing Trust HQ. Designed by Jestico & Whiles with, executive architects Pollard Thomas & Edwards in 1993-4.
2a The Junction. Pub and bar in what claims to be the old tram depot. Called the junction – after Canonbury Junction to the rear of it,
10 St Mary's Islington Relief Station and Dispensary.  This building appears to have been used by a variety of charities and voluntary sector bodies but has now been replaced by flats.
Garden and Site of Nature Conservation Importance leased and maintained by the Highbury Railway Gardens and Allotments Society from Network Rail.
Islington Electricity Department. Built in 1934 this is a brick art deco building with the lettering and decorative features. Islington Borough generated their own electricity from1896 until nationalisation in the late 1940s
Channel Tunnel Ventilation shaft. Large circular structure. One of five ventilation shafts for the London Tunnels of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link. Constructed between 2001 and 2005, the shaft is 17m wide and 35m deep with an access road onto the street

Highbury Corner
The Old Road north, and the Great North Road. Now the A1 here. It reaches Highbury Corner from Upper Street and turns left into Holloway Road. It also meets St.Pauls Road from Hackney and in the 19th the New North Road to the City was added.  There are other major through routes in the area some historic and some modern which can be accessed from this point.  The corner thus acts not just as a roundabout but as a distributor for traffic coming and going northwards and to various parts of east London and the City.  The current roundabout however, is shaped as a result of the V1 attack in 1944 - making space around the corner.
Highbury Island – this is the park space in the centre of the roundabout and almost totally inaccessible.


Highbury Crescent
Designed in the 1840s by James Wagstaffe as a row of villas forming the boundary of the fields.  In 1844 Wagstaffe had secured 99-year building leases from the freeholder, Henry Dawes the shape of the road dictated by the site. Covenants had previously restricted building.
2 Wagstaffe built this for himself but the house was demolished in 1906 for extensions to Highbury Station.
3 London Training and Employment Network. The building includes a Sandemanian/Glassite meeting house which moved here in 1901 and was possibly the last remaining Sandemanian church in England. It closed in 1984. To create the chapel a large meeting room was created by turning the top floor into one room, and raising the ceiling to replace it with one of vaulted timber.  The building also at one time housed the Invalid Children’s Aid Association. It was later owned by Murphy & Sons, builders who allowed it to become in a run-down state.
5 Highbury House. Islington social services were in this building but have now moved. This is a 20th brick office block with ‘insistent verticals’.
4 Council office blocks. The site was taken up previously with the rear extension of the Highbury Imperial Picture Theatre built in Holloway Road


Highbury Fields
Acquired in 1885 by Met Board of Works and Islington Vestry and opened the same year.
Angel of Peace. South African War Memorial unveiled in 1905.  Bronze figure of Glory by Bertrand McKennal and the model for the figure was his wife. The inscription says "HOW SLEEP THE BRAVE WHO SINK TO REST BY ALL THEIR COUNTRY'S WISHES BLESS'D." IN HONOUR OF NINETY-EIGHT ISLINGTONIANS WHO DIED FOR THEIR COUNTRY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR, 1899 – 1903 ERECTED BY THEIR FELLOW-TOWNSMEN JULY 1905.  The memorial is flanked by two cast-iron cannon which may not form part of the original memorial
Highbury Pool. From 1921 there was an open air swimming pool with a paddling pool added after the Great War. This was one of several early 1920s LCC lidos designed by C A Smith. In 1984 a new £1.5m swimming pool was opened here. This is now Highbury Pool & Fitness Centre run by Aquaterra with two swimming pools, a gym and two exercise studios

Highbury Grove
1-3 Canonbury Telephone Exchange. This dates from 1930, and serves Canonbury and Highbury – this was CANonbury and DICkens until the late 1960s, and is now has 0207-226, 288, 354 and 359 codes. Garden in the front planted in memory of “BT colleagues whom are no longer with us”

Highbury Place
The building here was initiated by John Dawes, who owned the land in Highbury fields and designed by John Spiller as a ‘rural suburb’ with the close involvement of his sons.  It was built from 1774. Originally the south end had a gated entrance and Dawes guaranteed that the space opposite the terrace would remain open land.
1 a large house with front extension. From 1927-31 it was home of artist Walter Sickert, and adapted as a studio and artists' school including the porch and an extension beyond.  There is a plaque to Sickert on the building.
9/10 Coach House.  The coach-houses originally separated the terraces and remain in varying states.  Some were converted into workshops.
11a a replacement for villas lost to railway building. This is a workshop style building from around 1890.  Other villas adjacent were lost to the railway. The successor to the central pair is simply an open space hidden behind hoardings
12/13, these are replacement buildings for villas destroyed by the building of Calabria Road
14 was the home of John Nichols, 1826, author of a History of Highbury in 1788, and co-editor of The Gentleman's Magazine. An arched conduit head covered a spring in front this house, in Conduit Field, designed to send water to the City at Cripplegate having been built by local people on 1483.  In 1858 the cistern was surrounded with brick and available for cattle going to Smithfield.
16a Highbury Evangelical Fellowship. This was the Evangelical Brotherhood church.

Holloway Road
Since the Middle Ages the main road out of London to the north followed St John Street and Upper Street to veer left at Highbury Corner into Holloway Road. 
Highbury and Islington Station. Built in 1849 by the East and West India Docks and Birmingham Junction Railway. It now lies between Canonbury and Caledonian Road and Barnsbury on the London Overground, which was Silverlink, on the North and the East London Lines. It is also between Drayton Park and Essex Road on the Great Northern Railway, now first Capital Connect, and between Finsbury Park and Kings Cross on the Victoria Line. The current station is an amalgamation of two older stations and was built by the North London Railway.  The second station was on the opposite side of the road and built by the Great Northern and City Railway on the line between Finsbury Park and Moorgate.
North London Line: In 1849 the first wooden station was erected at Highbury Corner and in 1850 the first commuter train to the City ran from this station on a new link into Fenchurch Street.   The line was extended to Kew.   In 1865 a branch from Dalston Junction allowed trains to go a new City terminus at Broad Street.  In 1870 it was renamed Islington.  And in 1872 the old wooden structure was rebuilt as a high Victorian hotel-cum-station with a steep roof with gables, chimneys, etc. It had a drive-in forecourt. The name changed to Highbury and Islington. In 1944 this station was badly damaged by the V1 attack here and was demolished in the 1960s. The original platform buildings on the westbound platform remains and there are some small remnants of the original entrance building to the left of the current station entrance.
Victoria Line. In 1968 the Victoria Line was opened here.  The current single-storey building was for its opening and provides a combined entrance for all of the lines now serving the station.
Great Northern and City Station.  This station was on the opposite side of the road and opened in 1904 by the Great Northern and City Railway on its underground line, between Finsbury Park and Moorgate. The line was operated by the Metropolitan Railway from 1913 until 1975 when the line, called the Northern City Line, was transferred to British Rail. It is now First Capital Connect.  The station’s glazed tile entrance is now whitewashed and abandoned, and it too was damaged by the V1 in 1944. When the deep level platforms for the Victoria Line were opened this building was closed and in   refurbished externally. It houses upgraded signalling equipment for the Victoria Line.
Hopping Lane
This is a small side street of post war housing, but the name is that of St.Paul’s Road.

John Spencer Square
This area was rebuilt after the Second World War, by Western Ground Rents. It is named after John Spencer who was Lord Mayor and had a retreat here in the 17th. The square has linked brick blocks of flat-roofed flats approached by staircase bridges. It is round a communal garden with trees. The architect was Western Ground Rents' surveyor,  Nash.

Keen's Yard
Was once the yard of Henry’s Keen’s building business.

Liberia Road
Roman colonial street-names presumably chosen by the Metropolitan Board of Works to commemorate the supposed Roman camp popularly supposed to have existed at Highbury

Prior Bolton Street
Prior Bolton was the last prior of St.Bartholomew and has a country house in this area.  Like the surrounding streets this is post war housing.

Railway
Canonbury Junction. This is where the goods only line leaves the North London line approaching +. A signal box here was burnt down in the early 1970s, however some of the levers from it remain alongside the line,
Canonbury Curve. This is a line from the North London line which in 1873 tunnelled under Highbury Fields between Drayton Park and Canonbury stations, connecting the Great Northern Railway suburban system with Broad Street. This gave the Great Northern direct access to the City for the first time and relieved pressure on King's Cross. 

St.Paul's Road
Was Hopping Lane, renamed in 1862.
83 Alwyne Castle Pub. At times known solely as The Alwyne, and has a beer garden in the front by the road.
85 Police Station
109 Hen and Chickens. Pub with a theatre and stand up comedy bar,.`

Upper Street
235 The Library – it has previous names of The Cedar Room, Lush Bar, Independence, Angel and Crown
253-254 Clubs and Institute Union Headquarters and offices. Providing a focus for working men's clubs around the country.
251 White Swan. Wetherspoons pub
259 Cock Tavern. Now The Famous  Cock


Sources
Aldous. London Villages,
Brutish History Online. Islington
British Listed Buildings. Website
Blue Plaque Guide
Canonbury Society. Web site
Canonbury School. Web site
Clunn. Face of London
Cosh.  Squares of Islington,
Field. London place names
GLIAS. Newsletter
Lidos in London. Web site
London Borough of Islington. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
London Gardens Online. Web site
Londonist. Blog.
Nature Conservation in Islington
Pevsner and Cherry.  London North
Robbins. North London Railway
Signal box, Web site
Smythe. Citywildspace
Summerson.  Georgian London
Symonds. Behind Blue Plaques,
Webster. Great North Road
Willatts. Streets with a Story

Thursday, 13 February 2014

North London Railway - Canonbury

The North London Railway continues south westwards


Post to the north Aberdeen Park
Post to the west Highbury Corner

This posting covers only the north east corner of the square

Alwyne Place
At one time listed as Frog Lane
Alwyne Road
Posh houses and on one side gardens back on to the New River.
Abbots Close, enclave of housing built 1955
Alwyne Square
The square now consists of 1950s housing. In 1857 building began on a circle of villas named Canonbury Park Square. The area was owned by the Marquess of Northampton and in 1879 it was renamed Alwyne Square - one of the Marquess's family names. The developer was Charles Hill who had agreed with him to lay out three new roads in the space between Canonbury Tavern and the New River within 21 years extending it to this area in 1857. Hil1 sold his development on to Henry Witten, of 5 Alwyne Road who built the square finishing it in 1863 with 21 large villas.  The leases fell in in 1936 and there were proposals for redevelopment, However much of the area was destroyed by Second World War bombing. The square was rebuilt in 1954 and designed by Western Ground Rents' surveyor Nash.  It is now small flats and pastiche houses. The central square has some chestnut trees and modern railings.
Coach House. The only building remaining from the pre-Second World War estate. It is claimed, by estate agents, to have been the coach house to a big house on the site.


Blair Close
Housing built 1984


Canonbury
Means 'manor of the canons'—that is those of St Bartholomew's, Smithfield, to whom the land was granted in 1253
New River. In what was open fields here the river in its original course  took its last loop, the "Horse Shoe", This was  straightened in 1823 to allow streets to be laid out in the development of Canonbury Fields


Canonbury Park North
Here development was begun in 1837 by Charles Hamor Hill and there are paired villas of the 1840s with gardens and green space. There are also many post-war houses and flats.  Street-names in the area House recall the former manor and its owners the Compton family, the Marquesses of Northampton. Beyond Canonbury Grove were fields until the 1850s

Canonbury Place
The Canonbury. The pub, as the Canonbury Tavern, was in place by 1735 and in 1785 included a tea garden and bowling,  and other games, and was thus used for corporate events, It was rebuilt after 1846


Church Road
A new road built as part of 21st housing. Can’t see a church though.

Clephane Road
Clephane is the name of a member of the Marquess of Northampton’s family

Douglas Road
The area was field until the road was built in the 1850s. Most of the original villas survive but there is post-war infilling as part of the Marquess Road estate, but now incorporated into Darborne & Darke's Marquess Road estate. Originally Douglas Road and Douglas Road North were all one road going to St.Paul’s Road.
New River. The New River here remained an open water-channel and it is now the only section in the Borough of Islington with a continuous stretch of water. The channel was re-dug in the 1970s as part of the park.
40 A modern house slotted into a 20-ft gap between the Marquess pub and the terrace. It is glass fronted by Future Systems, Jan Kaplicky and Amanda Levete who built it in 1993. At the back is a slope of plate glass, forming a triangular envelope with the front wall, which is mostly glass bricks.  Inside, there are metal staircases to three decks and a 'the freestanding service core.

Grange Grove
Part of Frog Lane – the old road from London to Highbury.  It was designed by L. de Soissons Partnership in 1946.  It was part of a rebuilding programme by the Northampton Estate but which did not continue although it did attract the middle classes back to what was by then a run-down neighbourhood

Harecourt Road
This was once called Alma Road

Heaven Tree Close
On the site of works alongside the railway. Advance Stationary Works in the 1950s

Hope Close
This partly lies on the site of the New River’s course as it had looped west, passed under the railway and then looped east to meet up with its course, now the New River Walk on the other side of
St.Paul’s Road.

Marquess Estate
This local authority estates Takes up a corner of Canonbury.  It was mainly drsigned by Darbourne and Darke 1966 - 1976 for Islington Borough Council. It marked Islington’s departure from the high-rise constructed under the London County Council.  Most of it is terrace houses with small gardens but they are piled up in irregular ziggurats over the garages and which still have the disadvantages found in some of the deck-access high rises. It is built in brick with slate hanging. 

New River Walk.
This was opened by Herbert Morrison in 1954. The stretch around Canonbury Grove was restored in 1996-8 by local residents, and has specimen trees and planting

Northampton Park
Terraces built as part of the Marquess Estate. The street-names reflects the former manor owners the  Marquesses of Northampton

St.Paul’s Road
The New River Pathway starts on the opposite side of the road to Wallace Road.
140 Builders Arms.  The pub is now flats
Harcourt United Reformed Church. New building opened 1992
Harecourt Road Congregational Chapel. The church came from Hare Court in the City of London where it has been since the mid 17th. Opened 1857 and designed by E.Habershohn.  Burnt down 1982 – on the east corner of Harecourt Road
The New Crown. Closed

Wallace Road
In the 1870s the railway was widened and the New River was put into pipes and covered over.  A pipeline was put through the railway bridges.  The pre-1870 alignment of the New River can be seen in the line of narrow gardens behind Wallace Walk.  The New River rise again towards the end of the road
1 Hope Villa. This was previously Frankfort Villa.  The New River's pre-1870 alignment is seen in the long narrow garden behind this house which had been built in 1881. Now partly covered by Hope Close

Willow Bridge Road
This lies on part of Frog Lane – the old road from London to Highbury and Laid out like this in the 19th.


Sources
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Clunn. Face of London,
Cosh.  New River
Cosh. Squares of Islington
Essex-Lopresti. New River
London Borough of Islington. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
Pevsner and Cherry. London North
Sugden. Highbury,
Thames Basin Industrial Archaeology Group. Report
Willatts. Streets of Islington

Monday, 10 February 2014

North London Railway - Aberdeen Park

North London Line
The line progresses in a south westerly direction


An area largely developed with housing in the mid-19th century. It was crossed by the cut-back section of the 17th century New River and later by the original section of the North London Railway. Most notably the Cossor valve factory was here, as was the, now renamed, Highbury Grove School - plus religious and other infrastructure buildings.

Post to the east Newington Green
Post to the south Canonbury


This post covers only the south west corner of the square

Aberdeen Lane
Originally called Aberdeen Mews
Mulberry Mews. New gated posh housing on site of Cossor and other works now demolished
Aberdeen Centre - The Cossor factory was behind 20A - 24 Highbury Grove and built in 1918 for the mass production of radio sets. In the Second World War work here concentrated on the development of radar.
Aberdeen Lodge, a single storey building used for storage and distribution
Aberdeen House, a four storey 1930s office building
A.C. Cossor Ltd, specialists in radio and electronic instruments.  Cossor had been based in Clerkenwell from 1903. They expanded to Aberdeen Lane in 2928 building Aberdeen Works and a few blocks to the north Cossor House (now Ladbroke) House with a factory behind. They were allegedly the first company to manufacture X-ray tubes in Britain and it is claimed that the world's first radar receiver was made in Highbury Grove. At Highbury early valves went into production in 1922, with a design avoiding the Marconi patents.  In 1924 they introduced their Wuncell range and others followed. Cossor became a public company in 1938, and reorganised in 1945. In 1927, Cossor launched their Melody Maker radio soon to become a centrepiece of British homes. In another milestone was achieved when they became the first company in the U.K. to sell a television set.   In the late 1930s they were was selected by the Air Ministry to build the critical receiving units and operator displays for the Chain Home air defence radar network. This was the first operational radar system in the world. EMI acquired a controlling interest in 1949. Cossor continued to manufacture domestic radio and TV sets after they had ended production of consumer valves – buying in valves and badging them as their own. In the 1930s they designed oscilloscopes and supplied the Navy.  In the 1940s Cossor introduced the first commercial aircraft radar systems but in 1961, they were acquired by American Raytheon with whom they had been associated since the Second World War. In 1962 they moved to Harlow where they remain, as Raytheon.
Hilger and Watts in Aberdeen Works from 1962 when Cossor moved out. They were scientific instrument makers originally based in Clerkenwell. Became part of Rank Precision Instruments. 
Rose Cottage. This is a 19th, brick house surrounded on either side by Aberdeen Works.
3 House by Azman Owens architects. This is a concrete, timber, glass and limestone house, which is modernist, cubist with the planes of structure and textures overlapped and interlocked.
22 House made up of two angular blocks on a thin site. This is the architect, Les Koski of KSR own house.


Aberdeen Park
The area is probably named after George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen.  Aberdeen Park was laid out in 1853 and building continued until 1864, with additions in the 1930s – including infill for the original central tennis court. Only two entrances were provided into it. In 1938, the Park Estate was acquired by the London Investment and Mortgage Company who sold off the plots and properties until they owned only the roadway. At the Highbury New Park Entrance metal gates are erected in an ornamental flower bed with roads on either side.
Church of the Most Holy Saviour, Described as an “eccentric masterpiece” by William White.  It was built in 1865-66 with funds from Canon Morrice of Salisbury, alongside protests from the Vicar of Christ Church. It was Anglo-Catholic in a very Protestant area.  Henry Layard who discovered Nineveh designed a mosaic here, Betjeman’s family worshipped here when he was a boy. Closed in 1980 but since 1990 it has been the Florence Trust artists' studios instigated by Patrick Hamilton. This offers studio residences and exhibition opportunities to selected artists
6-10 built were built by Islington Council as sheltered housing in the mid-1970s. Some are now privately owned
15 Norman House, one of a row of variegated 19th houses, on the northern edge of the entrance road. This is a half-way house for released prisoners founded in 1959 by Merfyn Turner
16-28 have been combined into one building, the Highbury Centre, formerly the Foreign Missions Club. Established in the nineteenth century to provide economic accommodation for missionaries visiting London, the centre is today a Christian budget hotel.
17 Escuan Lodge, private flats constructed in 1960-61
19 in a Ruskinesque style. A large detached house originally built as the vicarage for St Saviour’s to which it was connected by a path it is now accommodation for people with mild handicaps.
23 Faithfull House
30 convent. Since 1972 this has been the sisters of St. Paul of Chartres. It was previously a girls' day and boarding school run by the Sisters of Our Lady of Zion opened in 1949. By 1960 it had become a mixed school and was closed by 1966
31-41, on the southern rim of the inner circle, built in the 1920s
42-44 a medium-rise housing scheme by Darboume & Darke, 1979-81 with project architects Peter M. Olley and Martin Cornelius. Small houses and flats are piled up like wings to the villas, with pathways over a platform formed by ground-floor garages
70, Aberdeen Court flats built in the 1920s by a speculative builder and the block has balconies and Dutch style gables. It was built on the site of a nursery by the Clinton family.
73 by the same builder as Aberdeen Court and built onto its side and said to have been occupied by the builder
96 Mostyn Lodge, private flats built 1964
106 original lodge house to the estate
110 Beaconsfield Lodge
Newcombe Estate, a group of four blocks of flats owned by the Islington Housing Association and opened by the actress Joyce Grenfell in 1950 – and there is a plaque to her.
Woodlands. A largish block of Council flats built 1964 and within old boundary walls.
Pillar box, this is at the junction with Highbury Grove. Erected 1866-76, to the design of J.W.Penfold. It is hexagonal in cast iron.


Beresford Terrace
Built by 1860
New River. Before 1870 the New River coming south down the line of Petherton road diverged westwards after Beresford Terrace going to St Paul's Road.
2-7, with pretty pierced tympana to the first-floor windows;


Grosvenor Avenue
The New River crossed the road before it was cut back to Stoke Newington Pumping Station in 1914. However, clearly it was removed the line of it was built on only gradually.   Exactly where it crossed maybe the subject of some dispute – although maps of the 1850s show an extremely large gap, infilled by the end of the century, The conduit however crossed the road on a south-west diagonal from the area of now covered by Council flats but a distance to the east of the now defunct Presbyterian church. It crossed to the south side either to 127 or to 139/130a
75 Snooty Fox Pub. This was once the Grosvenor Arms
127 Eve Court. This was built in 1957 and stands on the south side of the road. It clearly marks a break in the earlier terrace.
139 and 139a. These are also newer buildings on the south side of the road in breaking the line of the earlier terrace. It is thought that these were built over what was the garden of 141 in the 1920s. 
141 The New River is thought to have run alongside this property and then turned abruptly to cross the railway. The house was thus given a garden at the side of the aqueduct to compensate for loss of rear garden space. The spot is marked by a black poplar.
Ashfield. Block built by the Metropolitan Borough of Islington in 1949 and named for A.H. Stanley, Baron Ashfield – in 1949 recently retired as Chair of the London Transport Passenger Board
108a Parkchurch. Block built by the Metropolitan Borough of Islington in 1955 and on the site of Highbury Park Presbyterian Church.
Highbury Park Presbyterian Church, 1863 by E. Habershon. The facade remained but had gone now. It was, of a neo-Hawksmoor type, with a low portico.
Spring Gardens. Flats 1970
Station House. This was Canonbury Railway Station House


Highbury Grove
Highbury Grove School. The school was originally an all-boys comprehensive opened in 1967. The founding headmaster was the notorious Dr Rhodes Boyson. It was created from Highbury Grammar School, Barnsbury Boys' School, and Laycock School, as part of a comprehensivisation scheme by the then Inner London Education Authority. It is now a ‘foundation’ school and specialises in teaching music. It has recently been largely and flashily rebuilt on the site of the old Grammar School.  The site from 1891 was Highbury Industrial School or Truants School for protestant boys. Before that it was the Church Missionary Childrens' Home.



Highbury New Park
The road and housing to the north of here was developed as an estate from 1850 by Henry Rydon, a tailor and brickfield owner from Finsbury Circus. Rydon, employed Charles Hambridge to work with him. The houses, attractive to mid-19th small business owners, were in brick with carved stone, polychrome brick and tiles for the architectural details and in a wide range of styled. It is wide and leafy with gardens behind
11 Samuel Rhodes School. This is a school for pupils aged between 5 and 16 with moderate learning difficulties.  The Primary department is now elsewhere and the Secondary department moved in September 2009 to a new building here sharing some facilities with Highbury Grove School adjacent.
23 for the builder, Rydon.
60 Gymboree – this is an American pre-school education outfit. The buildings in the centre of the estate and were used as council offices. Presumably it was originally some sort of estate facility.
96 The Athenaeum. A 1960s block of flats stands on the site of the Athenaeum. The original building with an 80-foot brick facade was built in 1864 as an Anglican church- the 'Iron Chapel', but in 1870 became the 'Highbury House of Commons Athenaeum’. From 1928 it was a recording studio for Piccadilly Records and from 1933 became the Highbury Film Studios taken over by Rank in 1946 and in both cases a lot of B movies were made. In the mid-1950s when it was taken over by ITV to make popular shows like Double Your Money, Take Your Pick, Noddy and Sunday Night Theatre. In 1961 Edith was at a live TV show here, taken over by fascist black shirt group shouting ‘Seig Heill’ during the transmission, which was stopped. It was closed and demolished in 1963 
New River. In 1855 Rydon sold the two strips bordering the channel to the New River Company who later erected iron railings to secure the water from trespassers and accidents.


Melody Lane
6-32 Fourteen houses by Julian Cowie set around a landscaped courtyard for London Wharf.



Petherton Road
Houses by a local builder, J. G. Bishop, were built on the Rydon's estate from 1868 to 1872.   There was extensive bombing in the Second World War.
New River The road laid out in the 1860s and was wide enough to accommodate the course of the New River which ran down the centre for much of its length. The channel had a carriage-way on either side. The river was culverted in 1868-70 trees were planted down its length. The road level drops as it passes Grosvenor Avenue and Canonbury Station, and it rises again towards the end of Wallace Road where it joins St. Paul's Road, so the river channel turned, in a loop, to the west. This meant it was running along the 100ft contour as the original construction did along its entire length from Amwell to Islington.
1 white cubical house
5-7 the earliest houses in Petherton Road were built here.

Seaforth Crescent
Local authority housing at the south-east corner of Aberdeen Park estate.  Built in 1982 in the garden of one of the Italianate houses. It is by Darbourne and Dark and the houses are arranged round an open green with 'traces of Tudor gardens and Lutyens ideas'.



Wallace Road
This was once called Douglas Road North.
Canonbury Station.  Opened in 1870 it is now Between Dalston Kingsland and Highbury and Islington on the East London Line, ex- Silverlink North London Line.  The East and West India Docks and Birmingham Junction Railway had opened in 1850 to connect East London and the Docks with the London and Birmingham Railway at Camden Town; it was re-named the North London Line in 1853. An earlier Canonbury station opened in 1858 to the east of the present site and was originally known as "Newington Road & Balls Pond" renamed "Canonbury" before closure.  The original Italianate building was demolished following vandalism. The station has been upgraded as part of the London Overground and in 2007, was refurbished. From 2010, North London Line services were used the newly constructed platforms 3 and 4, and East London Line trains use platforms 1 and 2
New River. When the railway was widened in the 1850s the New River here was being straightened, piped and covered over. Its new pipeline which web down the middle of Wallace Road was incorporated in the rebuilt railway bridge.



Sources
Aberdeenpark. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Clunn. Face of London
Cosh.  New River
Essex Lopresti.  New River
Highbury Grove School. Web site
London Borough of Islington. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
Modern Buildings in Islington. Web site.
Pevsner and Cherry.  London North
Raytheon. Web site
Robbins. North London Railway
Sugden. History of Highbury,
Willatts. Streets of Islington

Friday, 7 February 2014

North London Railway Newington Green

North London Railway
The North London Railway continues its route westwards

Post to the east Mildmay
Post to the west Aberdeen Park

This post covers only the south west corner of the square


Mildmay Grove North
Laid out in 1850. Long terraces across the deep crevasse of the North London Railway
37 Colony Mews 5 houses in what was 37h Mildmay Grove – this is part of a complex of old industrial buildings and offices.  In the early 20th there was a laundry here and earlier some gardens.

Mildmay Grove South
2a Mount Refuge.  First Born Church of God.
40 ½ modern glass and metal house a sequence of light filled rooms with modern furniture. By Philip Johnson and Leonie Milliner 2007
Railway Wall. The wall part of a former gent’s urinal and once boasted a painted horse, removed by Islington Council. It has been replaced by a boy with a flower.  It has been claimed that this area marks the last remains of the Newington and Balls Pond Station.

Mildmay Park
Part of the estate which belonged to the Halliday/Mildmay family but sold off for building in the late19th by Sir John Mildmay. The family had had a house since the 17th on the south side of Newington Green. The grounds to the south of it stretched almost to the Balls Pond Road, and it is this area which was developed.
92 Clarendon Pub. This may currently be called The Dissenting Academy, and it was for a while The Nobody Inn.
85n Modern House by Graham Bickley
75a C.L.R.James House. This was 19th Founders Lodge and now the only remains of the Mildmay Mission - the Movement for World Evangelism - where it was used as a home and for retreats. Founders Lodge, Mildmay Centre. This was built for the Mildmay Movement . It is asymmetrical in yellow and red brick.  It is now flats.
Mildmay Park Station .Opened in 1880 On the North London Railway.  It stood on the east side of Mildmay Park at junction with Mildmay Grove North’s. The street buildings were designed by E.H, Horne with entrances in Mildmay Grove and Mildmay Park.  It had ‘Mildmay Park Station’ and ‘North London Railway’ set in cement lettering around the top of the building and an ornamental rail round the roof. It closed in 1934 but the street building stayed in place used as a car repair workshop. It was demolished in 1987. Some parts of the platforms still remain as do the foundations of the over bridge and the street building.

Newington Green Road
Newington and Balls Pond Station.   Opened in 1858 Built by the East and West India Docks and Birmingham Junction Railway to connect East London and the Docks with the London and Birmingham Railway at Camden Town. In 1870 when the line was widened from to four tracks the station was replaced by Canonbury Station on a different site. 
59 The Alma. Recently closed and reopened.
98 The Weavers Arms Inn was, probably established in 1716 and rebuilt in the 1820s.
125 The Cellars Edinburgh. Mosaic floor saying ‘Billiards and Saloon Bar’. Formerly the Edinburgh Tavern. There is a Truman box sign above the corner door, possibly 1970s.
Brick boundary wall to the hospital and mission area remains

Newington Green
The Green is mentioned in 1480 and there was a small medieval settlement at Newington Green connected to the City by what is now Essex Road.  It attracted affluent residents in 16th and by the 17th it had become a smart place to live and a number of new houses were built, some replacing older ones. The green was enclosed in 1742 and became an urban square and was given railings. Development followed in the 19th partly replaced by council flats between the wars and after Second World War Bombing. Today the area has a large Turkish population.  The village around the green was once strongly non-conformist. Following the 1662 Act of Uniformity with a sympathetic land owner dissenting clergy came here and Mary Wollstonecraft tried to found a school here.
It is popularly thought that Henry VIII used the area for hunting and that he installed mistresses in a house to the south of the Green. The area does not seem to have been an enclosed forest in the legal sense and thus not available for hunting. Henry Percy, Duke of Northumberland, had a house here and died here in 1537.  At her trial Anne Boleyn claimed to have had a contract of marriage with him and he granted his estates to the King to be handed on to family members.
Mildmay Hall – this was between Mildmay Park and Newington Green Road, south of Newington Green.  This was a Conference Hall for the Mildmay Mission built in 1870 and demolished in 1959. The Deaconess House was attached.
Children’s play area behind Hathersage Court, This is on the site of Mildmay Hall. There is a memorial stone to Pennefather
Mildmay Cottage Hospital. This originally  opened in 1866, was run by the nursing branch of the Mildmay Deaconess Institution, a group of Christian women led by the Vicar of St. Jude's, the Reverend William Pennefather. A new hospital was built in the centre of the compound in 1883 and called the Mildmay Memorial Cottage Hospital. In 1908 ‘Cottage’ was removed from the name. During the Great War the Hospital offered 23 of its beds to the War Office. By 1944 it treated mainly private patients. The Hospital joined the National Health Service in 1948 as part of the Archway Group. It closed in 1958 and was demolished and replaced by a council housing blocks
Hathersage Court. Local authority housing built in the 1960s on the site of the Mildmay Hospital. It is a 6 storey concrete framed block with pre-cast concrete infill panels with an exposed flint aggregate finish.
Besant Court. Local authority housing built on the site of the Mildmay Hospital in the 1950s.. Previously it was the site of the Spring Gardens Inn, built before 1725, Spring Gardens Coffee House by 1765.
9-10 Mildmay House. In 1611 William Halliday, a City Alderman built a house which was inherited by Henry Mildmay and thus it was called Mildmay House. It was later a boarding school and became the Nurses' Home in 1885. Demolished in the 1950s and is partly the site of Hathersage House.
30 Cromwell Lodge, 19th
31-32, a plain pair of houses built around 1809 with later extensions. May be built on the site of Bishop’s Place
The Bishops Palace was here until 1800 and may also be what has said to be .Henry VIII’s hunting lodge.  It may also have been the home of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. A timber-framed building stood here which was probably 16th forming four sides of a courtyard and containing gilded and painted wainscotting. By the time it was demolished, it was called Bishop's Place and was divided into tenements for the poor.
Newington Green Primary School. The school fronts on to Mathias Road but on the Newington Green frontage is a plaque to the girls’ school started here by Mary Woolstonecraft.
35 may be one of six houses built in the 1690s next to a farmhouse belonging to Joan Nubler.
33-34 Mildmay Club. Thin Baroque of 1900 by Alfred Allen; over large segmental pedimented doorway small cupola. Began as Mildmay Radical club in 1888 at 36 Newington Green Road and moved to a newly built clubhouse at. 34 Newington Green in 1893. In 1930 it changed its name to Mildmay club and institute, and became nonpolitical; in the 1950s it staged weekly variety shows
35 behind projecting 19th shop fronts. A double-fronted 18th house – there has been a suggestion it is earlier, 1690, and may incorporate timber from an earlier building.
36-38 houses hidden behind projecting 19th shops. The houses date from the early 19th but may have older cores
39 Unitarian chapel.  This is the earliest active Nonconformist chapel in London. It was built by in 1708 by Edward Hamson, goldsmith, for a congregation established in 1682 It has a 19th front and inside are box pews and monuments. Prominent members included Dr Richard Price, Anne Laetitia Barbauld, William Godwin Mary Wollstonecraft; Samuel Rogers, Dr Andrew Pritchard
Dissenting academy founded by Charles Morton in 1667 on the site of the Unitarian Church
40-41 Tariro House. Built as a bank in 1892 and used by Barclays. It is now flats and a care home.
41-43 Newington Green Mansions with a spirelet. Built in 1892 on the site of Monte Christo House an 18th mansion
42 The Gate. Restaurant on the ground floor of a block of Housing and health centre. Designed as a Six-storey curved comer tower by Rivington Street Studio's who won a Peabody Trust competition in 1996 for it.  It is on the site of Holland or Olympic House which was a brick house  belonging to the Brownswood estate, possibly dated from  1680 with a timber frame and which contained oak panelling attributed to Grinling Gibbons but years later. Demolished for factory buildings in 1965. The 18th-century iron gates and railings remained and are incorporated in the new buildings.
44-45 China Inland Mission building. Overseas Missionary Fellowship before 1964 called the China Inland Mission is an interdenominational Protestant Missionary society based in Singapore. It was founded in Britain by Hudson Taylor in 1865 and built their headquarters here in 1895 with a 20th baroque screen with arched gate and open colonnade above between blocks of flats. Redeveloped in 2004 as student accommodation by Shaftesbury Student Housing. The remainder of the site to the rear was reconstructed as four blocks of new student housing for City University postgraduate students. The area to the rear is now the Alliance Club Hostel accommodation in reconditioned block.
46 -47 17th buildings likely to have originally been one house, itself one of a pair. The other one was demolished in the 20th for a new frontage to the China Inland Mission. There was originally had a front courtyard with stable blocks on the side.
52 -55 an example of speculative building in London in the 17th. It was built in 1658 and replaced a house, with a garden and orchards.  It may have been built by Thomas Pidcock, and has a fa├žade design introduced from Italy by Inigo Jones. It is said to be London's oldest surviving brick terrace.  The entrance lobby to each of the two inner houses is approached by a central passage now between shops and the end houses probably also had side entrances before adjoining buildings went up.  Between each pair of houses is a tiny light-well to light the staircases. 
54 Home of Richard Price radical thinker and supporter of the French and American revolutions. His home became a centre for dissent.
56-61 shops built in the 1880s. This is the site of Gloucester House at one time the home of Samuel Rogers built in the 17th


Northampton Grove
Floral Place nursery in building at one time called Northampton Works, and used by Consolidated Electrical and other electrical firms.

Petherton Road.
Wide enough to accommodate the course of the New River.  The New River channel had a carriage-way on either side, which accounts for the road's unusual width laid out in the 1860s, following a straight reach of the river, with one slight bend at the present Ferntower Road

Railway
In 1874 a Tunnel from Finsbury Park to Canonbury Station to relieve congestion at Canonbury Junction lines going off to Finsbury Park from NLR


Sources
Clunn. Face of London
Cosh.  New River
Disused Stations. Website
Essex Lopresti.  New River
London Borough of Hackney. Web site
London Borough of Islington. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
Pevsner and Cherry.  London North
Robbins. North London Railway
Sugden. History of Highbury,
Thames Basin Archaeological Group. A Survey of Industrial Monuments of Greater London
Willatts. Streets of Islington