Wednesday, 29 April 2015

Riverside, north bank, east of the Tower. Wapping


Riverside along the north bank. Wapping.
The posting below covers only the south east portion of this square. The south west portion is Wapping


Post to the south Bermondsey
Post to the east Shadwell - Ratcliffe and Rotherhithe, Surrey Canal Entrance
Post to the west Tooley Street

Brewhouse Lane
Swan Brewhouse – after which the road is named - was owned by Edward Pickard – the company called Roberts, Pickard & Maitland in 1794. It took most of the south side of the street. In 1809 it was purchased by Combe, Delafield and Co. – and following many other changes 200 years later it is Watneys.
Sugar Refiners – In 1788 they were G.Lear, William Handasyde and Peter Thellusan who had premises consisting of a sugar house a scum house and a dwelling house. This combination of ownership points to liaisons and finance from the elite of London politics, and investment in the late 18th.
Paton and Charles, soap, candle and perfume makers. They were based in Bow Lane in 1880 when they were bought out by Gibbs. Gibbs moved to Paton and Charles Wapping premises, possibly following a fire in their City works. They subsequently became part of Unilever.
Chimney Court.  This appears to be a building used by Gibbs – although address was in Wapping High Street. This may also have been the location of the School of Earth Sciences, University of Greenwich which was present in the 1980s, but is not mentioned in the official history of the University
Sedgwick & Co. rope, canvas and oakum merchants. Re. sale of workhouse oakum. Incl. Billheads 1887
Brewhouse Lane School. This was a London School Board School, possibly opened in 1874. The school was at right angles to Tower Buildings, and what appears to be a part of a school gateway seems to remain.
Tower Buildings. The earlier of two blocks built by Alderman Sydney Waterlow's Improved Industrial Dwellings Co., in 1863. This was the company's second major project by Waterlow's builder Matthew Allen from a prototype dwelling exhibited by Henry Roberts in the 1850s. The standards were better than most contemporary tenements: no shared lavatories and with better ventilation. At the corner is a plaque saying: TOWER BUILDINGS, ERECTED BY THE IMPROVED INDUSTRIAL DWELLINGS COMPANY (LIMITED) 1864.
Bridewell Place. This was a Barratt Homes development completed in 1987. It was mainly new build, but incorporated a building from the 1950s. 

Canal
Ornamental canal which is a central feature of the development of the London Docks. It is a surface water reservoir as well as an amenity.  It was designed by Paddy Jackson Associates in 1982-5, and excavated from the infilled dock.  The original quay wall, built of yellow stock brick with a limestone band, has been kept. This stretch covers some of the east quay of the Western Dock Basin.

Chandler Street
2 The Hurtado Jesuit Centre. A place where people from the neighbourhood can find spiritual companionship. The Centre is the home to the Jesuit Refugee Service and a branch of the London Jesuit Volunteers, The Centre’s patron is St Alberto Hurtado 1901-1952, a Jesuit priest, journalist and intellectual from Chile
15 Wapping Children’s Centre. Health centre and Wapping Community Hall.

Clegg Street
1-16  Innes Bros Warehouse built 1860.  They stored sugar here.

Cinnamon Street
London Underground vent shaft and emergency exits which serve the London Overground line located beneath.

Cork Street
Housing built on an area of what was warehousing on the north eastern edge of Wapping Basin

Discovery Walk
This walkway is along the line of what was the East Quay Warehouses of the Western Basin of the London Dock. The line of the dock wall runs between this walk and Reardon Street

Dundee Street
This was once called Upper Well Street
St Patrick’s Social Club. Derelict and demolished
Presbytery for St.Patrick’s Church
St. Patrick’s Boys’ Club
St Patrick Roman Catholic Primary School. This opened in 1872 and was closed in 2002

Farthing Fields
Before the construction of the workhouse in the mid 1830s, there seems to have been an area of open space to the north of this small road.  A number of accounts seem to describe an area of prostitution and heavy drinking.
The foundation stone of the St.George in the East Workhouse is let into a wall here.

Green Bank
Willoughby House. This is part of the LCC's The Wapping housing and slum clearance scheme, of 1926. During building operations sections of Greenbank, widened by Stepney Borough Council. The blocks, are named after famous voyagers, who, sailed from Ratcliff to seek adventure on the high seas. The scheme was undertaken with the Commercial Gas Co. and each flat had prepayment meters, cookers, bracket, and a point for a gas heater in each flat. The Company installed 824 cookers, 138 heaters, 324 brackets and a number of gas coppers.  Sir Hugh Willoughby was captain of a fleet of three ships, in 1553, who hoped to discover a north-eastern passage to Cathay and India. Two of the three ships reached Lapland but in 1554, Willoughby and his crews died of starvation, and a few years later their remains were found, together with Willoughby's Journal.
Chancellor House. Richard Chancellor was captain of the Bonaventure in Sir Hugh Willoughby's expedition. His ship was separated from the others and he went on alone into the White Sea, and continued travelled to the Court of Moscow. He died in a shipwreck off Aberdeen in 1556
Flinders House. Matthew Flinders was a hydrographer, navigator, and explorer born in 1774. He went as in the Reliance to New South Wales in 1795, and studied the Australian coast. He was taken prisoner by the French at Mauritius and was kept captive and died in 1814
Parry House. Sir William Edward Parry, born in 1790, made valuable charts of the northern seas and was a friend of John Franklin. He died in 1855.
Wapping Rose Gardens. This is a green space opposite Wapping New Stairs which was laid out in 1930’s and has recently been completely replanted. It features perimeter rose beds and large circular rose bed in the centre. Common Ground East has managed the Wapping Rose Gardens project are a charity formed in 2007 by residents and community organisations in Tower Hamlets.
St.Patrick’s Roman Catholic church. This was built in 1880 for the Irish immigrants who worked in the docks and made up a third of Wapping's population – hence the dedication. It was designed by F.W. Tasker, in 1877-9. Charles Willock Dawes and his wife Mary were the benefactors for the church and schools. The exterior was restored in 1987-88 by Simon Crosse and Roger Jorgenson of Feilden & Mawson. An Art Nouveau bronze plaque by Henry Price is a memorial to the deceased staff and pupils of St Patrick’s School. The Lady Chapel altar is said to come from the first London Oratory in King William Street.
Workhouse - St.Patrick’s church was built on the site of a workhouse used by St.John’s Church.
St.  Patrick’s Kitchen Garden. Community vegetable garden on a piece of unused church land.
Turk’s Head. The Turk’s Head Company was established in 1992 as a charity dedicated to improving Wapping. It is in an old, originally 18th but rebuilt latterly in the 1930s as a Taylor Walker House. The name is that of a knot. It closed in the 1950s and used as a GLC Parks Dept store and then passed to Tower Hamlets Council in the 1980s. In the 1990s a local campaign raised £500,000 to buy the building and renovate it. It is   an interwar Taylor Walker pub in use as a community café. A plaque on it says 'Bird Street Erected Anno v Dom 1706'

London Dock
For the London Dock this square covers only the south eastern end of the Western Dock Basin and Wapping Basin. The dock began in 1800 with an Act of Parliament and a 21 year monopoly in handling tobacco, rice, wine and brandy. John Rennie was appointed engineer and Daniel Asher Alexander architect and surveyor. The first ship entered the dock in January 1805.
B shed.  This was on the Eastern Quay and was used for goods to and from Italy.
East Quay. This dealt with the hides and skins trade products,  including wet slated hides, known colloquially as 'Stinkers' .  Men working on them had a small daily allowance.
F Warehouse. Hazardous goods were stored here. A great advantage of dock warehousing was that similar classes of goods could be kept together. Such selective storage was granted a lower rate of fire insurance
South Quay. This area specialised in ships from Holland and the smell of Dutch cheeses was rarely absent. There were also bottling stores.

Meeting House Alley
Meeting house for the Particular Baptists, founded in 1633 and who met her in 1669 in  a building, restored 'as in Cromwell's time', was which  shared with Independents
Hurtado Jesuit Centre – extension to their Chandler Street site

Prusum Street
19 Cultural Education Centre for Wapping Bangladesh Association. This was the Wapping Housing Office


Raine Street
This was previously Princes Street
Wall – some part of the wall of the Eastern Dock of the London Dock is said to survive here
Raine’s House. Raine's Foundation School. This is now the offices of the Academy of St Martin-in-the Fields.  It was built in 1719 as a charity school by Henry Raine 1679-1738, a Wapping brewer of Wapping who endowed a Charity school in 1719 for 50 boys and 50 girls in Farthing Fields.  There are niches for figures of charity school children. One wing was the schoolmaster's house; the other was built in 1985 by the GLC. The school later moved to Stepney and is now in Bethnal Green.
Raine’s Asylum. This was a boarding school for girls built 1736, which has gone. The school was forced to sell it cheaply to the London Dock Company.
Raines Mansions – small park on the site of a previous block of flats
Raine's Lodge. Built post-1883 and heavily altered in 1996-7 by Borough of Tower Hamlets as flats for the elderly.
St George in the East Workhouse. The parish had a workhouse situated between Prusom Street and Princes Street dating from at least 1824. It stood south of Raine’s school. In 1836 the parish’s operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians. The former workhouse continued in use. There was an infirmary at the south-east corner of the site. Premises on the west side of Prince's Street housed the receiving wards, workshops, and dispensary.  In 1925, St George in the East joined the Stepney Poor Law Union and after being taken over the London County Council in 1930, the workhouse became St George in the East Hospital.
St George in the East Hospital. In 1871, an infirmary was added to the workhouse and in 1893 a Nurse Training School was established there.  During the Great War patients were transferred to the here from Bethnal Green Hospital.  In 1948 the Hospital joined the NHS under the Stepney Group Hospital Management Committee, part of the North East Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board.  It closed in September 1956, when it had 280 beds, and was used temporarily as a shelter for Hungarian refugees following the Hungarian uprising.  The Hospital building was demolished in 1963 and the site redeveloped for housing in the area.

Reardon Street
What was Reardon Street in 1914 is now divided by Wapping Gardens into Reardon Street to the north and Reardon Path to the South. At the northern end there is now a right angled turn and the road continued along what was the wall of the warehouse around the Western Dock Basin. There have been many name changes. In the early 18th the northern section was Broad Street and the southern, as far as Green Bank was Anchor and Hope Alley. In the 1890s Reardon Street was Red Lion Street
Vancouver House. This is part of the LCC's The Wapping housing and slum clearance scheme, of 1926 undertaken with the Commercial Gas Co. The blocks, are named after famous voyagers, who, sailed from Ratcliff to seek adventure on the high seas. George Vancouver, born 1758, accompanied Captain Cook. In 1791-92, he explored the north-west coast of America, including the island named after him.
St Peter's Centre. This was Reardon Street School built in 1872 by the brother of the incumbent and a pupil of Butterfield.  It has a central bellcote with wrought-iron by Richardson, Slade & Co. and figure of the Good Shepherd by Thomas Farmer. Converted into a community and neighbourhood centre in 1990 by Architype for the LDDC
Red Lion Street School. This dated from before 1821. From 1894 it was St Patrick's Roman Catholic School.
St.George in the East Casual Ward. This was east of the road and north of Green Bank
Blue plaque to Captain William Bligh who lived here from about 1785. He set sail in the Bounty in 1787 to transplant breadfruit trees from Tahiti to the West Indies. He met Fletcher Christian in Wapping the man who set him adrift in the famous mutiny.

Reardon Path
This was previously the southern end of Reardon Street, Earlier called Red Lion Street.

Scandrett Street
Was previously called Church Street.
St.John Wapping.  This was a Chapel of Ease dedicated to John the Baptist in 1616. By 1694 Wapping St John was a parish in its own right and the church was rebuilt in 1760 as St John the Evangelist by Joel Johnson, a carpenter. George III’s doctor was rector. It was Bombed in the Second World War and fragmentary rectangular shell survived the War. The tower was restored in 1964 by the London County Council. It was converted to flats in the 1990s and the church is now a small chapel at the back of the tower. 
Churchyard. Hemmed in by the old dock wall it was made into a public park in 1951. There is an 18th gateway.
CSt John’s Old School. The school was founded in 1695 and rebuilt, together with the church, after 1756. The central bay has Coade stone figures of a boy and a girl with below each "Founded A.D. 1695" and beneath that "Erected by subscription A.D. 1760 supported by voluntary contributions". A first-floor room is now lined with the panelling salvaged from the rest of the building.  When it was restored by Dransfield Design in 1994-5, as two houses. Though both the architecture and the costumes suggest a rather later date.

Tench Street
John Orwell Sports Centre. This was Wapping Basin, the entrance basin to the London Dock in 1980 undertaken by Shepheard Epstein & Hunter -80 for Tower Hamlets Borough Council. The entrance is a doorway in a stretch of the dock wall. Inside is an activities hall converted from a machine-tool workshop, which hugged the curve of the dock wall at the edge of the dock entrance basin.  The basin itself was infilled for sports pitches.  Round the hall is a covered walkway carried on salvaged cast-iron stanchions.
Wapping Basin. This was the entrance area of the London Dock – in effect the Western Dock Basin built in 1806. It was entered by a lock from the river leading to the half oval shaped basin and ships exited to the Western Dock via another lock. Both locks were crossed by swing bridges. It was filled in 1980-82.
Walls – the road is lined along the side by remains of the East wall of the London Dock. The basin was filled in 1968-70
Wapping Gardens. Formerly known as Wapping Recreation Ground, this was one of the earliest applications under the provisions of the 'Artisans, and Labourers' Dwellings Improvement Act' of 1875. The gardens were formed on the site of slum clearance in 1886 and were laid by the Metropolitan Board of Works. They were opened to the public on 8th June 1891. Wapping Gardens today have a fountain and playground, with perimeter planting of shrubs and a number of fine plane trees.
Wapping Youth Centre. This was Wapping Fire Station until 1947. A plaque says: "This station was opened on the 21st day of December 1905 by Lewen Sharp Esq Chairman of the Fire Brigade Committee of the London County Council”

Wapping High Street.
The road was built around 1570 to link the legal quays in the City to new storage warehouses downstream.  It was a single track road, which got its name from the many sailors' houses, brothels and taverns that lined the route.
Wapping Pier Head.  These buildings surround the site of the original entrance to the London Docks which closed in 1956.
Wapping Entrance Lock. Built 1805 in grit stone ashlar, this was the original ship entrance to the London Dock. The lock was 40 feet wide and 23 feet deep and too small for modern ocean going vessels.  It is still partly visible although infilled and made into a garden in the 1960s.  Cobblestones set in the garden on the left match the arc of the dock entrance gates which had been damaged by barges. It was only 40 ft wide.
Dock Officials' Houses of 1811-13 in two terraces designed by Daniel Asher Alexander. One terrace is four stories because it was rebuilt as offices after the Blitz. They are built n such a way as to suggest a gateway to the river. All the houses of the west terrace were renovated as a single block of flats by a developer in 1971. The lower terraces north of Wapping High Street are reconstructions from 1981 by Tower Hamlets. They face each other across the infilled lock, now a featureless sunken garden.
Dock wall – remains of stalactite gate piers of the type used by Alexander throughout the dock. There is a modern continuation across the infilled lock
Wapping Old Stairs. Stairs to the foreshore, known as ‘old’ three hundred years ago.  Double staircase in good condition, if slippery.
62 Town of Ramsgate.  So named because it is said Ramsgate fishermen landed their catch there. It is on the site of a 17th name in 1688 . In 1750 there were 36 pubs in the street but this is the only survivor. It claims to have been where "Hanging Judge Jeffries" was caught in 1688 by an infuriated mob whilst trying to escape to France. It is also said that, convicts were chained up in the cellars of the pub before being transported to Australia. It is also said that it was once called the Red Cow – however the address of the Red Cow is supposed to have been Anchor and Hope Lane, which is some distance away,
64 Oliver’s Wharf. Beside the Town of Ramsgate. This was designed as a tea warehouse in 1869-70 by F. & H. Franm. It was the first warehouse in Wapping to be converted into flats by Goddard Manton in 1970-2. The red brick Victorian riverside building was built in 1870 in Gothic style for a merchant George Oliver’s Wharf. It handled general cargo and tea. In the 1930s it was occupied by P.R.Buchanan and Co. wharfingers.
75 Gun Tavern. The pub was present in 1911
61 Orient Wharf. A plain building by Shepheard Epstein & Hunter, 1987-9, for the Toynbee Housing Association. The wharf here was a bonded warehouse for tea with an overhead conveyor to the building on the other side of the High Street
72-76 Gun Wharves. Litchfield and Soundy. Wharfingers
78 Dundee Court.  This is a warehouse of the 1870s, converted to offices and flats.  A wrought-iron lattice-trussed gangway spanned the street going to the smaller, warehouses on the riverside.
79 The Sanctuary. Incorporates the remains of a granary of 1880 with white brick window heads and a new crane in welded steel.
St. Johns Upper Wharf. Built in 1873 and called Jack’s Hole. Owned by St. Thomas’s hospital. Handled general goods.
Gun Dock. A dry dock first recorded in 1684, which survived until 1889. In 1791 Boulton & Watt supplied a beam engine, with sun and planet gear and a cylinder of 16-inch diameter by 4-foot stroke, to Sawyer Spence for his lead rolling mill here. He described his occupation as a plumber.
80 St.Johns Wharves. Riverside wharves originally built in 1830. In 1934 they were occupied by R G Hall & Co and were used for the storage of general dry goods such as coffee, cocoa, sugar, dried and canned fruit, gums and cheese. Oddbins moved into the wharves in 1976 for their offices with the warehouse on the other side of Wapping Lane being used as their wine warehouse. The riverside building is used as offices.                          
80 Lower Oliver’s Wharf
82 Morocco Sufferance Wharf.  Royal Mail Steam Packet Co.
84 Eagle Sufferance Wharf. In 1936 occupied by H. Muller handling green and dried fruit. There was an overhead conveyor across Wapping High Street. Royal Mail Steam Packet Co
River Police boatyard.  This is the police launch maintenance works built 1973 by the Metropolitan Police Chief Architect.  The building is clad in moulded glass reinforced plastic white panels, in a sculptural relief. It is a single storey depot and workshop the building with a special lift to raise boats into the workshop at all water levels. There is also a small museum
86 Eagle and Baltic wharves occupied by Taylor.  Both wharfage with general cargo. Could only be accessed by lighters. Baltic wharf was destroyed in the Second World War
Wapping New Stairs. Reasonable condition, gate difficult to open, iron ladder at bottom
Waterside Gardens. These stand on both sides of the High Street transformed from a derelict site by Cooper Macfarlane for the LDDC, 1989 with a bandstand, reusing some cruciform cast-iron columns salvaged from Hardwick's St Katharine Docks warehouses of 1828
81 In 1911 this was the Rose & Crown
87 Black Boy this was a pub present in 1911
86 Gun Place. Tea and spice warehouse opposite Gun Wharves, converted into flats and penthouses.
92 In 1911 this was the Watermans Arms
93 Alfred Alexander, bottle manufacturers. Alexander was in various bottle making enterprises in Yorkshire, Durham and London – this may be the Yorkshire Bottle Co. for which he was agent.  He, or his associates, were later involved in setting up United Glass
94-6 Old Aberdeen Wharf, built in 1843-4 as Sun Wharf for the Aberdeen Steam Navigation Co., converted into housing 1998-9. In the 1930s this was also used by Taylor Bros.
98-100 Wapping Police Station. The Marine Police were formed here in 1798 as the world's first regular police force. They were founded by Patrick R Colquhoun and John Harriot here as the Marine Police Establishment, and funded by the Committee of West India merchants to reduce theft from their ships and wharves.  They patrolled the river in rowing boats to guard merchant ships against theft. Designed by John Dixon Butler, Metropolitan Police architect, 1907-10 in brick and stone. There are flats for officers along the street. 
St.John’s Wharf.  Adjacent to Wapping Police Station, is a warehouse conversion. The 19th wharf, was used for storage of coffee, dried fruit and gum. For a period it was used for Australian wool sales. Thought to have been designed by Sidney Smirke
Sun Hole. This stretch of river frontage by St.John’s Wharf was occupied by the Alexander Tug Company and was used for the storage of supplies and maintenance of their Sun Tug fleet.
Garden.  This was the graveyard to the parish church of St John’s.
103 White Swan. This pub was present in 1911
108 Captain Kidd Pub. Former workshop converted into pub in 1988-9 by Goddard Manton Partnership and adjoining St. John's Wharf
110 pair of early 18th houses each of three storeys and three bays. These, were probably chandlers' shops, are representative of riverside buildings before the spread of  warehouses. Re-creation of shop fronts by Russell & Wright c. 1988
112 Phoenix Wharf. A small warehouse which was once a flour mill. Built 1840 by Sydney Smirke. Converted to flats 1996.
116 Swan Wharf
King Henry’s Stairs. These used to lead to the old Tunnel Pier which was demolished about 1961.  They were also called Execution Dock Stairs in the 18th.  Lamp standard.
Tunnel Pier. Named after the Thames Tunnel which is down river.
Execution Dock between Wapping New Stairs and King Edward’s Stairs.  Where pirates were hanged, presumably as a warning to others. The infamous Captain Kidd was hanged here in 1701 (a gamekeeper turned poacher, he had been sent out to Madagascar by the Government to capture pirates, but instead became a pirate himself). For maximum deterrent effect, the sentence was usually carried out at low tide and three high tides were allowed to wash over the corpse before it was cut down and buried
Tower Buildings. The vacant site was where Tower Buildings stood. This was a charitable block of housing some of which remain in Brewhouse Lane.
118-120 King Henry’s Wharf.  This group of warehouses was owned by the Alexander Tug Company but operated by Hall Wharfage. The wharf was used for handling and storage of sugar and bonded facilities. The name of this wharf recall the alleged Tudor cannon foundry which Henry VIII set up here to make guns for his ships.
121 Carronade is a small residential building at the comer of Wapping High Street and Wapping Lane. The apartments are approached via an atrium entrance hall with an open curved area. There is a full size replica of a Carronade Naval Gun c1805 as a centre piece.
122 Gun House is a new development of flats adjacent to Gun Wharves
122 Gibbs Wharf. Gibbs, soap and toothpaste makers.
123 The Bull. This was a pub present in 1911
124-130 Gun Wharf. These were tea and spice warehouses converted to flats by Barratt East London before 1987.  They date from around 1920  but the style is still of the 19th but with artificial-stone dressings and reinforced-concrete floors. E, F, G and H Warehouses, which line Wapping High Street and turn the corner into Wapping Lane, were built in the 1930s. 


Wapping Lane
Originally called Old Gravel Lane – as a dry road crossing Wapping Marsh. The first Anglo-Saxon residents  probably built their settlement here on the gravel above the marsh and the name Wapping probably derived from a chieftain, Waeppa.
105 Corbett's Wharf (now Gulliver's Wharf), early 19th three storeys with cellars and loading doors
97 White Swan and Cuckoo. Truman pub, was just the White Swan
78-80 with a bowed corner to Brewhouse Lane, a small 19th warehouse, converted to a restaurant in 1984.
Wapping Health Centre
Jackman House This is part of the LCC Wapping housing estate slum clearance scheme, of 1926. The blocks, are named after famous voyagers, who, sailed from Ratcliff. Charles Jackman was part of  three voyages with Stephen Burrough and Arthur Pet, to carry out an examination of the straits which lead into the Kara Sea in the North East of Russia.
Welsh House. Another house in the LCC Wapping estate. James Welsh was master of the Richard of Arundel, who in 1588-91 went to o the river of Beam in West Africa.
St.Peter’s London Docks.  This replaced a tin mission from St George- in the -East under the Society of the Holy Cross in Watts Street. It was begun 1865-6 by F.H. Pownall for Father Charles Lowder. This was the first such mission to the poor in the East End and famous for its advanced ceremonial which led to riots. The church designed 1884-94 by Maurice B. Adams, was not completed until 1939. The building was damaged by bombing in 1940 reconstructed in 1948-50. The east window was one of the early works of Burne-Jones.
St Peter's Clergy House. A blue plaque reads: 'Lincoln Stanhope Wainwright (1847-1929), vicar of St Peter's London Docks, lived here 1884-1929'.

Waterman Way
Housing. Where the wall of the London Dock is left standing .
Watts Street
Frobisher House This is part of the LCC's Wapping housing and slum clearance scheme, of 1926. Sir Martin Frobisher made his first voyages in 1554 fighting against the Spanish Armada. In 1594 he took part in the expedition for the relief of Brest and Crozon
Franklin House. Sir John Franklin, the Arctic explorer, set out to discover a north-west passage to the Pacific in 1845. No traces of the party were found until 1851 but he showed the existence of the North-West Passage
Fenner House. Captain Thomas Fenner, served as Vice-Admiral to Sir Francis Drake in the fleet of 1588 against the famous Armada.
Beechey House. Frederick William Beechey was with Franklin in the North Polar Expedition of 1818 and with Parry in 1819. Beechey Island, in Barrow Strait, is named after him.
14 Turner's Old Star Pub. Named because it is thought that the painter William Turner once bought it and gave it to Sophia Booth. Turner was known to have owned the Ship and Bladebone in New Gravel Lane.


Sources
AIM. Web site
Aldous. Landlords to London
A trio of East London Riverside Pubs. Web site
Banbury. Shipbuilders of the Thames and Medway
Bird. Geography of the Port of London
British History. Web site
Brooking Collection. Web site
CAMRA. City and East London Beer Guide,
Carr. Docklands,
Clunn. The Face of London
Co-partners Magazine
Co-partnership Herald.
Derelict London. Web site
Dockland History Group. Web site
East End Free Art. Web site
East London Record
Ellmers and Werner. London’s Lost Riverscape
Field. London Place Names,
Friends of the Earth. London Gasworks sites
Hurtado Centre. Web site
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Web site
London Docklands guide
London Encyclopaedia
London Parks and Gardens. Web site
Long. City of London Safari
Lucas. London
Methodist Walks,
Nairn. Nairn’s London
Pevsner and Williamson. London Docklands
Picture the Past. Web site
PortCities. Web site
Port of London Magazine
River Thames Society. Web site
Sexby. London Parks
South Quay Estate. Wikipedia Web site
Stewart. Gas works in the North Thames Area
St.Patrick’s Church. Web site
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry. Survey
Thames Discovery Programme. Web site
Thompson. The Making of the English Working Class
What’s in Wapping. Web site
Workhouses. Web site

Monday, 27 April 2015

Riverside - north bank east of the Tower- Wapping

Riverside on the north bank east of the Tower. Wapping

This relates only to the south west corner of the square.  The south east of the square is Wapping

Riverside and dockland area under intense development pressure. Riverside wharves once trading and manufacturing areas are now entirely 20th housing, some in converted industrial buildings - apart from a small park achieved through local community pressure. The area includes the site of the London Dock, infilled and used for modern housing. Some features remain. It also includes the eastern end of the St. Katharine's Dock, now a marina surrounded by housing. Surrounding sites include that of a brewery. There are the remains of earlier settlements, including churches and social support organisations dating back to the 17th. 

Post to the east Rotherhithe, Surrey canal entrance and Shadwell and Ratcliffe
Post to the south Bermondsey
Post to the west Tooley Street


Burr Close
This was previously Burr Street which covered what are now Burr Close and St. Anthony’s Close.  The site was previously the Eastern Warehouses of St. Katharine’s Dock which had been destroyed in bombing.
Housing on it now is part of the South Quay Estate, a mid-rise development of about 300 homes was built by the Greater London Council as selective social housing, 1979 - 1981.  The freehold of the estate has since been purchased by residents from London Borough of Tower Hamlets.  The buildings are in brick and in a style which stands between the brutalism of the 1960s and the post 1980 post modernists.
Maudlins Green – open space as part of the South Quay Estate.
25 King George or Ship King George Pub was here from around 1814 to the Great War

Hermitage Wall
This was previously Great Hermitage Street
20-40 flats by Austin-Smith Lord built in brick around a courtyard in 1988. The flats have balconies and an undulating facade,
Houses. Terraces of tiny houses, built by Tower Hamlets. There are also flats, designed with reference to the 19th  warehouses.
Glass House where flint glass was being made in 1684 with a Lion and Coronet seal. A Glasshouse Yard was north of Great Hermitage Street in 1746
15 -19 Vandome, Titford & Co Ltd, scale maker. They made bankers scales and other specialist weighing equipment.  They were in the street early 20th.
8-10 Improved Liquid Glues Co. They made Croid glue. The company had begun in 1911 set up by P.H. W Serie in Croydon. He made liquid ready-to-use glues. Early aviators relied on Croid glues in some of its construction and this works in Wapping was opened as they needed to expand. , in 1920 they became a subsidiary British Glues and Chemicals and left Wapping eventually moving to Newark on Trent where there new factory opened in 1949. In the 1960s they developed PVA and later the first hot melt adhesives in the UK. In 1968 they were taken over by Croda International. The Newark factory continues to operate and Croda’s headquarters are also based there.
Hovil and Turner. They had a stave yard and cooperage in the 19th

Hermitage
A number of streets and features in the area are named Hermitage. This includes a number of structures on the river front– noted under ‘Riverside’ below, and Hermitage Wall, above and some others like the school, and a brewery. Thus Hermitage Dock, Hermitage Entrance, Catherine Wheel, Hermitage Steam Wharf. Hermitage Community Moorings, Hermitage Wharf – these are all under ‘Riverside’ below.. 
A hermitage appears to have existed here in the early middle ages owned by the City of London based Abbey of St. Mary Graces . This was an extremely wealthy Cistercian Abbey relative nearby in East Smithfield. In the 1530s Hermitage was on land near Nightingale Lane (St, Thomas More Street) described as two gardens and a pond called Swan’s Nest.  In the 14th the hermitage is said to have been inhabited by John Ingram, in seclusion between 1371 and 1380.
The Cressemills or Crash mills were between Nightingale Lane and Wapping Marsh by 1233 powered by a stream which ran parallel to Nightingale Lane. The mills were in various ownership and eventually went to St. Mary Graces, which kept them until the Dissolution. In 1535 they were farmed out for a rent of flour. In the 1530s the site included the Katharine Wheel, A wharf, other tenements and the Swan's Nest
Hermitage Basin. This was added to the London Dock by John Rennie in 1811-21. It was built in order to create a second entrance to the dock besides that at Wapping Pier Head. It was closed in 1909.
Reef Knot sculpture by Wendy Taylor
Hermitage entrance lock. Two sets of gate piers with the stalactite rustication that Alexander used throughout the London Dock.
Impounding station. Thus is in red brick Neo-Georgian stole built in 1913-14. It was the first of what was to be a standard PLA-type designed to maintain water levels in the dock basins. It raised the height of the water in the dock to fifteen feet two inches above O.D.
Ornamental Canal – the pedestrian route runs along the quay of what has become a narrow Canal starting at Hermitage Basin. Designed by Paddy Jackson in 1982 and excavated as a canal from the infilled dock along the edge of the dock basin
Hermitage Waterside. This development is on the North West side of Hermitage Basin. Houses by Jestico & Whiles for Barratt, with standard elevations. The quay wall by Rennie has been kept. There is however a ‘keep out. Private’ notice.
Spirit Quay. On the south quay are houses by Form Design Group built before 1987. The development of a piazza filling the old passage to the Wapping Entrance basin.
Bust - bronze Neoclassical-style of John Rennie, twice life-size, by John Ravera.
Thomas More Court. This is on the north quay by the Boyer Design Group built 1987

Kennet Street
The street is built east-west across the area of London Docks’ Western Dock and warehouses.  It appears to follow the line of the central jetty coming from the eastern quay.
Western Dock Basin. This was the oldest of the basins of the London Dock completed in 1806. Its area divides into three main housing developments - Western Basin, East Quay and South Quay.  The Western Dock’s history is recalled in the names of the various parts of these developments - Trade Winds Court, Tamarind Yard, Spice Court, etc. 
Quay 430.  A series of short roads and closes to the north of Kennet Street Quay 430. This was built 1989-1993 and covers nearly the entire 16 acre site of the Western Dock and its surrounding warehouses. It is a large housing development with 306 flats with buildings in Tradewinds Court, Spice Court, Leeward Court, China Court, Tamarind Yard, Cape Yard and Bridgeport Place. The buildings look on to landscaped gardens within four crescent-shaped courtyards
Canal. The canal which runs to the south of developments to the south of Kennet Street is a central feature of the development. It is a surface water reservoir as well as an amenity.  It was designed by Paddy Jackson Associates in 1982-5, and excavated from the infilled dock.  The original quay wall, built of yellow stock brick with a limestone band, has been kept. Gabled rows of houses run down each side.

London Dock
This quarter square covers the south eastern section of the Western Basin of the London Dock.  The plan for the dock began in 1800 with an Act of Parliament and a 21 year monopoly for handling the import of tobacco, rice, wine and brandy. John Rennie was appointed engineer and Daniel Asher Alexander as the architect and surveyor. The foundation stone was laid by PM, Henry Addington in 1802 and the first ship entered the dock in January 1805. These docks were three times larger than St Katharine's Dock and were commercially successful and in 1864 they took over St Katharine's Dock. Apart from the two entrance basins most of the dock area have now been filled in for housing
Jetty – this ran east from the west side of the dock into the Western Basin. This had been a wooden structure but it was rebuilt by the Port of London Authority in 1914.  On each side of it were transit sheds for berths dealing with coastal trade and they fed into a covered road running down the centre of the jetty.
West Quay Shed. This lay north of the central jetty, experimental shipments of wine in bulk were received here in the 1950s.
7 this warehouse7 dealt with sugar, wool and general goods
8 this warehouse dealt with sugar, wool and general goods
9 this warehouse dealt with plywood and paper.
Vaults.  Under all the warehouses and some quays of the Western Dock were vaults storing wines and spirits. A forest of stone pillars supported eight feet high brick vaulting ventilated by a system of tunnels. The darkness was relieved by naked gas lights. The constant temperature of about 60°F was of great value in maturing wines and spirits. It was the largest wine storage area in Great Britain. The wine in pipes or hogsheads came from France, Spain and Italy, casks from South Africa, Australia. They were managed by Coopers who also dealt with bottling and labelling. In 1939 they were not opened to people seeking shelter from bombing.

Redmead Lane
This short connecting road is the remains of what was a very much longer road which continued north to the dock wall, adjacent to the swing bridge. It then turned eastwards and ran alongside the dock as far as the wall of the Wapping Basin.  It appears once to have been called Red Maid Lane.
Cobbles on the junction with Wapping High Street

Riverside
Miller’s Wharf. This was British and Foreign Wharves 'G' warehouse of  1860. They specialised in wines and spirits with bonding facilities and the bottling of wine and spirits here. This was the base for James Hartley, and a tenant, Thomas Allen involved in haulage from the 1850s.  They were early users of steam and then petrol driven road transport. A major cargo was Guinness.  The Wharf and warehouse was bought by the London City Bond company in 1980 and converted to flats in 1986-7 by Terry Farrell & Partners.
Alderman’s Stairs.  Waterman’s Stairs. They have a gate pier at the road entrance topped by a spiked metal ball. Large square brick piers with white stone detail; The stairs link St Katharine’s Way to a causeway to the river and to a ramped passage to a public river walk to the south side of the adjacent Tower Bridge Wharf. Currently described as being in good condition.
Summit House. A small office block, of 1984-5 by Goddard Manton Partnership, replacing the Cock and Hen pub. Off-white metal cladding and sheer upper storeys of dark glass cantilevered from the steel frame. The address is 84 St. Katharine’s Way
Cock and Hen Pub. This was a 19th building. Cock and Hen clubs were places where prostitutes could be found.  It was also known as the Cock and Lion for which records go back to the 1790s. The address was 84 St.Katharine’s Way but until 1915 86 Lower East Smithfield.
Tower Bridge Wharf.  Built in 1985/86 on the site of the former Carron and Continental Wharf.  A5-storey housing block by BUJ architects. Composed to suit the bend of the river.
Public terrace along the riverside. This runs along Tower Bridge Wharf.
Carron Wharf. Owned by the Falkirk based Carron ironworking company. Carron Shipping Company, founded in 1758They operated a regular service between here and Grangemouth and Glasgow.  The wharf had facilities for bottling wines and spirits, and fresh produce went from here to Covent Garden.  Demolished in 1974.  It had two berths, with hydraulic cranes lining the jetty & quay
London and Continental Steam Wharf. The wharf was the site of a hydraulic pumping station in 1886. It was the site of two earlier wharves – Downe's and the Black Lion Wharf.
Black Lion Wharf. In 1859, the Black Lion Wharf this was the subject of an etching James McNeill Whistler. The wharf handled trade with Goole and also was used by a marble and stone merchant.
Downe’s Wharf. Used by freight and passenger services to Scotland in the 19th, and possibly handling ballast. In 1800 William Downe had owned the wharf but it was called Hawley's Wharf. It had an Engine House, a warehouse and several sub tenants. Downe himself used part of the wharf to handle mud, ashes and night soil – and was thus called other Dung Wharf.
Hermitage Dock. Hermitage Entrance, below, was built on the site of an older dock shown on 18th maps.  In 1800 it was bounded by Downe’s Wharf to the west.
Catherine Wheel. This was on the west side of the dock entrance
Hermitage Entrance. This was the second of the entrances to the London Dock and it was opened in 1821.  It provided access to the Western Basin for lighters and smaller vessels. Part of the dock entrance, with sandstone ashlar facings remaining.  Because of its small size it was closed in 1909 and formed the site of the pumping station. There was a small tidal dock here before the Ladson Dock Co. bought the site in the 19th. In 1852 Cast iron plates were fixed on the East side show The Trinity High Water Line – which was measured from the ‘old stone’ here.
Hermitage Steam Wharf. This had previously been the Hermitage Coal Wharf. The steam wharf was owned by the London and Edinburgh Shipping Co. Ltd. Who operated a thrice weekly cargo and passenger service to Leith.  It was the site of a hydraulic pumping station. The wharf was destroyed in Second World War bombing, and the company went into liquidation in 1964. It has been used as an air raid shelter during the war.  From 1964 it was used by towage company, General Marine.
Hermitage Community Moorings. This is a co-operative which built, owns, and operates a mooring at Hermitage Wharf. It provides berths for up to 20 historic vessels:
Hermitage Wharf.  Flats built 2001 by Berkeley Homes. Three massive towers by Andrew Cowan Architects copper clad with extensive glazing. The design of the street elevation is claimed to respect the traditional warehousing locally.
Memorial Garden. The memorial garden was built as the result of a long and difficult campaign by local people, with work by Marianne Fredericks, to claim some space for the community from the developers on what was the last undeveloped site in Wapping. It is a memorial to the thousands civilians killed in east London in the Second World War. A plaque reads, partly  “The garden and memorial sculpture are in memory of the East London civilians who were killed and injured in the Second World War, 1939 - 1945, and of the suffering of those who lost relatives, friends and homes. Tens of thousands of men, women and children lost life and limb .......... More than a million homes were destroyed.  The most intense bombing ... became known as the Blitz. ... In the first three months ... bombs rained on London almost every night. The Port of London ... was an important strategic target .... Countless bombs also fell on the surrounding densely packed streets of East and South East London, which were home to many of London’s poorest families. ..... The memorial sculpture was designed by Wendy Taylor CBE.  The symbol of the dove is intended to suggest hope, rather than dwell intrusively on the dead. .
Hermitage Stairs. Old stairs have gone, new stairs end abruptly, no bottom flight.
Colonial Wharf. The warehouse was 7 floors high and was one of several warehouses owned by Colonial Wharves Limited and described as the largest warehouse complex in the area.  It had been built in 1935 although previous wharves here had had the same name. Rubber, tea and oriental goods were handled there including cargos of tea, rubber and cocoa between London and Rouen. It was burnt down in 1937 in a big dramatic blaze which overstretched the resources of the London Fire Brigade.
Cinnabar Wharf. On the central block a life-sized mandarin-like figure stands on a first floor balcony staring out over the river. The development is by Berkeley Homes and was completed in the 1990s. Cinnabar is a made up estate agent's place name.
Voyage 2001. The stands alongside the river between the Central and East blocks of Cinnabar Wharf. The shape was apparently inspired by ships propellers and intended to link local maritime history with modern architecture. By Ethan Baldwin.
Union Stairs. The access to these from Wapping High Street was closed in 1951. A causeway ran from them into the river, from which some remains may still exist
Standard Wharves. Operated by Standard Wharves Ltd. Used for storage of groceries and canned goods by Allied Supplies in the 1940s. The wharf remained operational into the 1970s.
Watsons Wharf. Operated by Trueman’s Brewery 1862-1947.
Black Eagle Wharf. Used by Truman’s Brewery for unloading beer and operated by Watson’s Wharf Ltd.  This is now flats. Most of the former warehouses and wharf on the site was used for handling casks of a;coholic drinks and have Truman’s beer with their sign of the black eagle.
Capital Wharf. Capital Wharf is a housing development built by Berkeley Homes. There are five constituent blocks, called: Trafalgar, Westminster, Parliament, Whitehall, and Tower. The site was originally Black Eagle Wharf. The original developer ran into problems and Berkeley Homes completed it.
Brewers’ Wharf. Also used by Truman’s
Parish Wharf.  This is shown on the late 18th Horwood Plan
Hastie’s wharf .Built on the site of Bell Dock, a 17th dry dock. Handled canned goods. Hastie were Scotch oat meal manufacturers
St Helens wharf.  Built on the site of Bell Dock, a 17th dry dock. Handled canned goods

St. Anthony’s Close
An extension on the line of what was once Burr Street

St.Katharines Dock
This quarter square coves only the eastern portion of St. Katharine’s Dock.
St Katharine Docks took their name from 12th hospital of St Katharine's by the Tower, which was previously on the site. Construction of the dock began in 1827. Some 1250 houses were demolished as well as the hospital. The dock was designed by Thomas Telford and designed in the form of two linked basins. In order to minimise quayside activity docks warehouses, designed Philip Hardwick, were built on the quayside so that goods could be unloaded directly onto them. The dock was unable to accommodate large ships and was not a commercial success. In 1864 they amalgamated with neighbouring London Docks, and taken over by the Port of London Authority in 1909. They were badly damaged in Second World War bombing. The Dock closed in 1968, and was sold to the Greater London Council. In the 1970s developers Taylor Woodrow replaced warehouses around the western basin with modern commercial buildings. The docks itself became a marina.
Eastern Dock.  This opened in 1829. The warehouses around the dock were destroyed during the Blitz in 1940. Offices of the Port of London Authority and Civil and Mechanical Engineering Department were also destroyed. Their sites – those of E & F warehouses - remained vacant until the 1970s.
Commodity Quay. Designed for the London Commodity Exchange in 1984 by Watkins Gray International.  It originally accommodated two trading floors with access off East Smithfield with firms dealing in coffee, sugar and cocoa, and also the International Petroleum Exchange which moved here in 1987, dealing in gas oil, heavy fuel oil, gasoline and crude oil. This replaced C Warehouse.
C Warehouse. This was a five storey warehouse for paper, sugar and general goods.
Marble Quay – built in the 1980s. A 3-storey ‘Dutch’ gabled structure with a restaurant and offices.  This is an extension of Dickens Inn development providing homes and offices on a dockside where ships once unloaded marble from Italy
Ivory House. This lies between the two basins. It was once the centre of London's ivory trade and is the only warehouse still standing. It was designed in 1856-60 by George Aitchison sen., clerk of works to the St Katharine Dock Co. In 1968 it was used as artist’s studios after a campaign by Bridget Riley and Peter Sedgley and later, in 1972-4, converted into flats and shops by Renton Howard Wood Associates. It had an original fire resistant construction with brick arches on wrought iron beams, but shop windows have since been inserted beneath the beams and balconies inserted on upper windows. There is a clock tower at the front.
Flats round the Eastern Dock. Six storey brick bocks of flats were built 1995-7 by Renton Howard Wood Associates.
South Quay Housing.  The housing development on the south quay of the Eastern Dock Had 300 homes built for the Greater London Council. The scheme has pedestrian walkway links at the second floor.
City Quay. The North West and north east sides of the east basin are lined by modern flats designed by Norman and Dawburn and built between 1995-97 for Queensway Quay Development Co. This won the National Home Builders Design Award in 1999,
Housing along the South Quay. A terrace of buildings in weathered brick and weatherboarding by ATP Partnership 1982
St Katharine's Yacht Haven. Opened in 1973. This was the the only yacht haven in central London. There was at one time a collection of historic craft here which left in the 1990s
Dickens Inn. Pub with a weather boarded and galleried exterior by Renton Howard Wood Levin Partnership built in 1974-6. The internal structure of this building is genuinely old being made up of a third of the timber frame of a defunct warehouse. This was G Warehouse which was on the south side of the dock adjacent to South Devon House and may have once been a bean store.  When the building was to be demolished a timber building from 1783 was found inside it and this predated the docks.  This timber frame was moved on rollers from its original position to the present site to become The Dickens Inn.  It has nothing to do with Dickens except that a descendant also called Charles opened it in 1976.
Retracting Footbridge.  This spans the eastern passage and was built in 1994 by Brian Morton.  It is however on the site an original double leaf bridge built in 1829 which crossed the entrance passage and is now preserved elsewhere on the quay.  This was to a contractor's design, and a substitution for one in cast iron by Rhodes, Telford's assistant. It was manually operated, and the leaves withdrew under the quay so that boats could pass between the central basin and the east dock. It was the oldest moveable bridge in Docklands and one of the oldest surviving wrought iron bridges in England.
Tower Walk. Built in 1987 to the design of Watkins Gray International. This is a low crescent of houses, said to be inspired by Regent’s Park terraces

St.Katharine's Way
Some properties which have or had addresses in St. Katharine’s Way with a river frontage are under ‘Riverside’.
The road runs parallel to the northern approach to Tower Bridge. Until 1915 this was Lower East Smithfield.
72 President's Quay. HMS President. Built by Goiani Partnership's in 1984-5 for the Royal Naval Reserve with flats above.  It has a front on the river which would be in the square to the west – South Devon House which handled wool.  The Royal Naval Reserve form the Maritime Reserves. Their involvement ranges from operations, to counter-terrorism and anti-piracy work in the Gulf. The London Division was established in 1903. Early training was held on board HMS Buzzard which was replaced in 1911 by a Flower class corvette named HMS President.  In the 1930’s, this was joined by HMS Chrysanthemum and they both lay on the Embankment. In 1988, both ships were sold and the unit moved to its current location which was a P & O London jetfoil terminal bought by the Crown Estate in 1983.
St Katharine's Estate, which extends to St Katharine's Way. Built by the London County Council in the 1930s. Built on the site of the Red Lion Brewery
Stephen and Matilda. Housing Co-operative in LCC blocks of flats
Red Lion Brewery. Latterly know as Hoare and Co. This stood to the east of St. Katharine's Docks. It may have been the oldest brewery in Britain As early as 1492 the brew house was subject to regulation and it is said there was a public brew house here where Londoners could bring their own material, and for a fee, brew their own ales... In 1705 the brewery belonged to Alderman Humphrey Parsons.  Water came from a well sun to the depth of 100 ft., below which were two bore-holes 300 ft. down to the chalk.  Owned by Samuel Goodwyn in 1794 it has been claimed as the first brewery to install a steam engine  It was owned by Hoare's, the bankers from 1802 – 1933 it pioneered many changes and developments in brewing, and was as a prime producer of 'porter beer' and later owning or leasing many famous tied pubs throughout the south east. Sailing barges at the brewery delivered malt from the east coast. There were malt warehouses in the brewery buildings said to be the oldest part of the premises, with old staircases with broad landings and turnings. The brewery closed in the 1930s and is the site of the LCC estate
122  Riveria Court. Hydraulic Pumping Station designed by Cubit in 1856 for the London Dock  Company . From 1890s this was used by W.Badger, marine storage company. It has a tower, and once had a chimney.  It has been converted to flats.

Thomas More Street
This previously called Nightingale Lane. It was known for its arrangement of Bastille-like warehouses.
Stream.  Old maps of St.Mary Graces Abbey show a stream running alongside Nightingale Lane. It was possibly on this that the Crashe Mills stood.
Thomas More Square. Office development, designed by Sheppard Robson for Scandinavian developers Skanska, 1988-90

Vaughan Way
Takes traffic through the area of warehouses and infilled Western dock basin. It was built about 1980 for which the dock was re-infilled.
Hermitage Primary School. Built by the Inner London Education Authority’s  Architect's Department in 1985-9. It has a central octagonal lantern tower to make it a low-key landmark. There is a mural on the outside wall.
Canal. Vaughan Way passes over what was the Inner Entrance Lock to the Western Basin from the former Hermitage basins. It is flanked by massive, curved sandstone walls have been turned into an impressive landscape feature by a grand flight of steps. The walls were shaped with recesses shaped to the cast-iron swing bridge which stood here and which was stolen in 1976.  It was of thick cast iron and had been much repaired with riveted plates after impact damage


Wapping High Street.
The road was built around 1570 to link the legal quays in the City to the new warehouses downstream.  It was described in the 1590s by John Stow, as a 'filthy strait passage, with alleys of small tenements or cottages.  Inhabited by sailors' victuallers'. In 1879 the Metropolitan Board of Works widened it but its narrowness and the high buildings either side – even all the new flats – give it a very particular style. It has been renumbered more than once – and some properties listed below can be found under a variety of street numbers.
1 Scotts Arms site. This pub was demolished in 2004 and the site is now a glass block partly used as a Thai restaurant
5 Halcyon Wharf, built by Stock Woolstencroft in 2003. Steel with red-terracotta tiles is almost a cliché of late 1990s design.
Riverside memorial garden to civilians killed in the Blitz – see above under Riverside
13 Buchanan’s Warehouse. Present in the early 20th
Royal Jubilee buildings. These were tenement blocks, since demolished
18-24 13-15 Colonial Wharves – see Riverside above
22 Globe. Closed and demolished. This pub moved to a number of adjacent sites in the area due to road widening.
23 Tower  Works. Birt cork merchants – the works was the site of a major fire in 1887
LCC School
26-36 Globe Sufferance Wharf
30 Turks Head Inn – supposedly the condemned were allowed a drink here on the way to Execution Dock. This is not the pub which is now a cafe.
39 Wilkins and Weatherly. Wire rope makers – an important company who made a big contribution to the development of submarine cables.
42 Thistle and Crown. Pub extant in the late 19th


Sources
Aldous. Landlords to London
Banbury. Shipbuilders of the Thames and Medway
Bird. Geography of the Port of London
CAMRA. City and East London Beer Guide,
Carr. Docklands,
Clunn. The Face of London
Co-partners Magazine
Dockland History Group. Web site
East End Free Art. Web site
East London Record
Ellmers and Werner. London’s Lost Riverscape
Field. London Place Names,
Friends of the Earth. London Gasworks sites
Kieve. History of the Telegraph
London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Web site
London Docklands guide
London Encyclopaedia
Long. City of London Safari
Lucas. London
Methodist Walks,
Nairn. Nairn’s London
Pevsner and Williamson. London Docklands
Picture the Past. Web site
PortCities. Web site
Port of London Magazine
Quay 430. Web site.
River Thames Society. Web site
Royal Navy Reserve. Web site
St.Katharine’s Dock. Wikipedia Web site
Sexby. London Parks
South Quay Estate. Wikipedia Web site
Stewart. Gas works in the North Thames Area
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry. Survey
The Telcon story
Thompson. The Making of the English Working Class
Watkin. The Old Straight Track

Friday, 24 April 2015

Railway from London Bridge to Gravesend. Gravesend


Railway line from London Bridge to Gravesend
The line runs north eastwards into Gravesend Station

An inland area of this old riverside town.  It includes much 20th and 19th century housing but also the sites of several entertainment areas built for 19th visitors to what was then a resort. This includes Windmill Hill - now an area of open space in the middle of the town. Otherwise the area includes infrastructure and housing for a busy urban area with a large Sikh population.

Post to the west Perry Street
Post to the north Gravesend

Albert Place
This row of houses curved from Wrotham Road into Windmill Street. It was named after the Prince Consort. All this was now demolished for the Civic Centre.  The street name still applies to the area in front of the Civic Centre, now part of a pedestrianised square.


Arthur Street
Public Assistance Relief Office. This was next to No.19 and provided a front office for the workhouse
30 The Nine Elms beer house. Beer house which opened in 1849 and closed in 1973.
47 The Cricketers now the Roisin Dubh. This pub dates from 1842. The current name means Black Rose.


Brandon Street
The road was built between 1840 and 1860 and was originally called Station Street and is still show as such in 1865.  Apparently it was intended to site Gravesend Central Station, built 1849, at the southern end of this road. Named from owners of the land
26a Shri Guru Ramdass Gurdwara. Sikh temple.  This opened in 1993 in what had been Brandon Hall, which was a gospel hall.


Cambrian Grove
Named thus because the builder, Mr. Jenkin Jones, was a Welshman

Clarence Place
Was Lacey Gardens after a builder who was Mayor in 1850.
19 Gravesend Spiritualist Church.
32-33 from 1899 these were Gravesend & Milton’s children's "cottage homes". These were for children under the care of a local authority and housed them in what, hopefully, was a family setting. These are now private houses
Milton Mount Congregational Church. This was built in 1872 and designed by Sir John Sulman. It was built to house 750 people and designed so that the entire congregation could see and hear the minister. Milton Congregational Church was founded following a split of the Gravesend and Milton congregation when Minister Wilhem Guest and his followers moved into the newly built church which was also the chapel for Milton Mount College a school for the daughters of Congregational Ministers. In the early 1950s, the two congregations re-united.   For a while it was used as a petrol station, and then in 1967 was bought by the Sikh community.
Guru Nanak Darbar Gurdwara. Before 1955 congregations were held in a private house and the building used as the Gurdwara was bought in 1968. The community also supports sports and other activities.   This has now been closed and replaced by the new Sikh Temple to the west.  There Aare plans to replace it with flats.
Windsor Castle. This pub was present by 1841, closed in around 1888. It is said to have been ‘near the veterans club’.
Windmill Gardens. The lower slopes of Windmill Hill were bought by the Gravesend Corporation in 1889 and laid out as a garden and were opened in 1902. However a very similar layout is to that currently in place is shown on the 1865 OS map.
War memorial. This is the centre piece of a garden design apparently load out before 1865. The memorial was unveiled in 1922 and, having been damaged in the Second World War re-erected subsequently. It is a figure of winged victory holding out a laurel wreath in her right hand. It stands on tall plinth and two stepped base.
Obelisk. In the gardens is an obelisk for one of the town’s philanthropists, William Tingey. He died in and is seen as the real founder of Gravesend Hospital. The obelisk was unveiled in 1908.
Belle Vue Bowls Club

Clarence Row
Fleming Resource Centre. This is run by AGE/UK as their Gravesend Centre.

Cobham Street
Built between 1840 and 1860. Named for the Darnley family’s residence at Cobham Hall. Before development it was the site of one of James Clarke’s nursery and market gardens
Blackberry Lane. In 1761 because of the dangerous state of the main road the Turnpike Trustees decided to build a new turnpike road along the back of the north side of Cobham Street to Windmill Street. It was abandoned and the site sold in 1801when New Road was built.

Cutmore Street
Built largely between 1840 and 1860. Named from a Mr. Cutmore who worked on the development of the area as part of the Corporation.
29 Hearts of Oak. This pub was here in 1879 and closed by 1914.

Darnley Road
Until the 1796 this road was a field path closed by gates at each end. The northern gate was just south of the junction with Pelham Road.  The road is clearly named for the Darnley family. Before development it was the site of one of James Clarke’s nursery and market gardens
T.W.Walters sited on the south west side the railway bridge. General merchant and house clearances. Used to be Green’s.
Little green at junction with Pelham Road.  This is seen as the last remnant of Manor Farm. A large triangular pond lay at the junction.
Lynton House. This was south of Trafalgar Road and the nursery was alongside it. Between 1918 and 1926 it housed the juniors of the County School for Girls, and was later the Income Tax office. Demolished in 1970
117a Nursery garden with glasshouses. Lynton nurseries and tennis courts.
161 Kent and Essex Hotel. This large pub was set up in 1898 and stayed in business into the 1990s. It has since been demolished.
Four Went Ways. This is said to be the site at the cross roads with Old Road that In 1797, the body of William Wallace, one of the mutineers on the Nore who had shot himself, was taken from the belfry of St.George’s church to the cross roads and buried with a stake driven between the thighs.

Darnley Street
55 was a Primitive Methodist Chapel built 1863 the congregation having moved from the chapel in Stone Street. This is now converted to housing.

Dashwood Lane
St.Mary’s Mission Church. This corrugated iron church stood on the corner with Lynton Road South and was built in 1904. It was succeeded in 1938 by the church on Wrotham Road and became the church hall. It was not demolished until 1972.

Eden Place
This was scheduled for demolition in the late 1940s, and residents rehoused on the Kings Farm estate

Edwin Street
19 Little Wonder Pub. This was in place before 1851 and closed in 2009. It is now housing

Elmfield Close
Housing built on gardens at the rear of the doctors’ surgery

Essex Road
Before development it was the site of one of James Clarke’s nursery and market gardens
Grange Road
The Pavilion Skating Rink. The rink was opened in 1910, as a result of the roller skating craze
Drill hall this was the skating rink which was taken over by the military before 1920. In the late 1930s it housed:. 167th (Kent) H.B.Thames and Medway Heavy Brigade RA (T) and 313th (Kent) Anti Aircraft S/L Company RE (T). The hall was destroyed in 1944 Second World War bombing.
Joint Cadet Centre, This was opened in 2014 for Gravesend Army Cadet Force and Air Training Corps cadets from 402 (Gravesend) Squadron. It replaced previous cadet accommodation which was in a Nissen Hut built here after the war. It now has a shared drill hall, kitchen, and offices classrooms.

Homemead Close
Flats built in 1968 on the site of Peter Street which was slum cleared

Kent Road
Before development it was the site of one of James Clarke’s nursery and market gardens

Leigh Park Road
Portland Hall.  Until 1967 this stood at the western end the road in its own grounds. It was the dream house of William Aspdin, whose father had patented Portland cement. He enclosed an area with a high concrete wall with large gate towers and entrances, intending to build a large house designed by John Morris and Son of Poplar. It was completely cased in Portland Cement, with 11 bedrooms and Portland Cement statuary in the grounds. Only a fragment was built since Aspdin got into financial difficulties and went off to Newcastle. Although the house was built by 1852 the interior was never finished. It was sold in 1853 and partly demolished by he liquidators and hr remains became West Hill House. The remaining part of the estate was developed with houses and some was bought by the Water Company. Town houses now occupy the site of 'West Hill House'. Some stretches of wall remain.

Old Road East
Crossroads with Old Road and Windmill Street. Here until 1929 was the terminus of the Windmill Street tram service, and at an earlier date the turning point of the donkey rides from the Tivoli
Traffic lights - The first automatic traffic lights in the South-east were installed at the Old Prince of Orange cross roads in 1929.
Convent Grammar School. This was on the corner with Spring Grove and had previously been called Glenthorne which was the home of John Russell of the Gravesend brewery company.  It is said to have had a tunnel under Old Road to gardens south of the road.   The school left the premises in 1971 and there are now modern flats on the site.
Milton Mount Hall. This group of buildings is owned by the United ‘Reform Church and was built on the site of a house, itself built in gardens which had belonged to Glenthorne. It had opened as a Congregational Church in 1953.
Old Prince of Orange. On the corner of Old Road East and Windmill Street is the Prince of Orange inn, rebuilt on the site of old coaching house of the 18th century, with a history going back into the 17th. It was the coaching inn for London to Dover coaches which used the old road prior to the cutting of New Road in 1801, after which all coaches passed through the centre of the town. When these changes took place, an inn at the top of High Street became known as the 'New' Prince of Orange and the Old Road inn became the 'Old' Prince of Orange, the licensee moving from one to the other. Adjoining the Old Prince of Orange was at one time a cricket ground used for archery and prize fighting. 
Gravesend Corporation Feeder Pillar. Thus was built by the American “Western Electric Co. London” and installed outside the pub for the tramway extension in 1903 and supplied direct current until 1929. It was then used to supply street lights. Originally supplying direct current, it would have been converted to in 1966. It was decommissioned around 1993/1994 and has been at Amberley Museum since 2013
St Thomas Almshouses – Pinnock’s Charity. They are named for Henry Pinnock who was Portreeve in the late 16th. He bequeathed land for almshouses to the parish. The original site was on the corner of King Street and Windmill Street and in succeeding years there were further bequests. In 1894 it was decided to move to the current site.  During Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee year money was collected which was used for a Common Room and Lodge and more donations followed. More blocks were built in the 1930s, 1950s and 1960s. In the 1980's improvement plans were made but there were subsidence problems and it was discovered the houses were on top of a chalk pit. It was then necessary to redevelop the site with the help of the Housing Corporation.
Reeds Cottages. These were replaced by the almshouses. They were late 18th-amnd belonged to the parish. They were used to house cholera victims in 1832.

Old Road West
Victoria Pleasure Grounds. This included concerts and balls and rural sports including archery and bowls. The decline of Gravesend as a resort led to closure.
Cemetery. This was built on the site of the Victoria Pleasure Gardens, and using much of the same layout.  The cemetery chapels were once the Assembly Hal of the gardens.  The cemetery was established by Private Act of Parliament in 1838 promoted by London based speculators who were bankrupt by 1847. It was taken over in 1905 by Gravesend Corporation. Since then it has been extended to double its original site. The architect was Stephen Geary, a specialist in cemetery design – including Highgate.   He provided a bank of gothic catacombs at the back of the cemetery although these were never finished. The entrance lodges and gate were built in 1840 probably by Amon Henry Wilds. The cemetery gates have a triumphal arch composition in Brick rendered pink and included a flat for the superintendent. Originally it was decorated with sarcophagi and mouldings.
Wartime Mortuary. To cope with expected mass deaths from air raids mortuaries were set up a specially designed one still exists next to the cemetery. This had bays for storage of corpses and a viewing place for relatives to identify bodies. 
Dashwood Road Recreation Ground.



Pelham Road
Manor Farm. This belonged to the Earl of Darnley and land stretched from the Northfleet boundary to Windmill Street. The farm had buildings around three sides of a courtyard, and orchard to the south. It was demolished in 1890, and the remaining granary burnt down in 1911
2 the Earl of Darnley’s manor house was on this site.
5 Church of the Latter Day Saints. Church of the Latter Day Saints designed by Butler and Robinson
7 Bronte School. In 1905 William and Florence Vine established the school in Bronte Villas, Parrock Road for the education of their own children. In due course, their three daughters took over. They carried on teaching until the last Ivy Vine, died in 1977.  However, a parents’ committee was the formed to save the school and Peers and Susan Carter, ran it from then on. In 1999, the school moved to Mayfield and there have been a number of additions. In 2002 22 Pelham Road, was added for Bronte Nursery. Around 2012 a search was started for a suitable new owner and the school and nursery were acquired by Nicholas Clements.
Mayfield House. A concrete house with a conservatory built in 1875 by I C Johnson, to his own designs. Johnson, who claimed to be the first developer of Portland Cement, owned local cement factories.  The house was partly built as a demonstration of what could be done with concrete. He lived in Mayfield until his death in 1911 at the age of 101. Later it was used for educational purposes and in the 1980s was part of the Gravesend Branch of the North West Kent Technical College.
17 Surgery in what was Kent County Council offices
25 educational facility and Driving Test Centre.
36 used by the Red Cross and extended to the rear
Football ground on Girls Grammar School site. The site of the Girls Grammar School was farmland and later used for sports.
Gravesend School for Girls. The school was founded in 1914 as the County School for Girls and moved to the newly erected school on its present site in 1926.  The school was opened by the Duchess of Atholl, Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education. The architect was W. H. Robinson.  The original building with its bell tower, central quadrangle and walled playing fields remains today. It is a selective school and is now Mayfield Grammar School, Gravesend to reflect the fact that they accept boys in the Sixth Form.

Portland Road
Portland Road, which rises steeply from Wrotham Road connects to Windmill Hill, this section of which was formerly known as West Hill.

Rathmore Road
Before development and the arrival of the railway this was the site of one of James Clarke’s nursery and market gardens
Gravesend Station.  The station was built by the South Eastern Railway who had parliamentary approval for a North Kent Line which would come from London Bridge through Lewisham, Blackheath and Woolwich, thence onto the Thames Estuary towns of Dartford and Gravesend and on to Higham and Strood. It opened in 1849, with a layout built to main line standards, upon a gentle curve. There were two platforms separated by a two line width track bed with lines acting as sidings. The main station building was behind the ‘’up’’ platform. It was built in brick designed by Samuel Beazley and had two-storey-high towers flanking a single-storey booking office. There was a flat for the Station Master. Until 1971 it had a rather portico but then the columns were boarded by British Railways. The original North Kent line to London Bridge ran via Woolwich and Blackheath, and there was one train every two hours, with one extra train up in the morning, and one extra one down at night. Changes were made before the SE&CR Joint Managing Committee was set up. This included turning the two central sidings into running lines. Single-storey extensions were installed on the up side building, and canopies were added and a105-foot-long roofed lattice footbridge was put in between the platforms. And an additional line was put in behind the up platform, to the west going to a turntable plus a water tower with a brick base building with arched windows. Another stabling siding was laid to the west beyond the road bridge and alongside the down line. In 1899 the station was named Gravesend Central. Extension of the third rail electrified network took place in 1930 and the platforms were extended at their western ends. Concrete bracket lampposts were use and Target name signs. The up side locomotive turntable was removed and a bay for stabling Port Victoria trains was formed. Steam-hauled services remained for services to the east and from 1932 to 1939 steam shuttles went t Allhallows-on-Sea. Platforms were lengthened again in 1954 and in 1965 the station became again just ‘Gravesend’. In 1961 the All Hallows service ended and with it went the water tank, although its base remained and was roofed.  In 1983 the station was refurbished with cleaned brickwork and restored platform canopies, and in 2007 it was planned to include lifts to a new footbridge.  High speed services to St. Pancras International began in 2009 and the station became an interchange for metro and high speed services. In 2013 a major overhaul of the station, involved the demolition of the water tank base the installation of a new large sheltered bridge with lifts and the removal of the early 20th footbridge.  The track layout was altered to allow 12 coach trains. Platform 1 became a London facing bay platform and takes terminating trains from London. A new central Platform 1 is on the site the former Up 'through' road. Platform 2 caters solely for coast bound services. The Gents WC has been reopened; there are new indicator screens and more shops. Gravesend is likely to be part of an extension for Crossrail. .
Goods, there was a goods shed on the ''down'' side, and a single-track wagon shed at the eastern end of the site. It closed in 1961 and in 1971 was tarmacked, buildings demolished and it became a car park. This is to become six storey major transport interchange building with a 396 space multi storey car park, a six-bay bus station, lots of tacky shops and ticketing facilities for train, buses and Fastrack.
Signal box. The layout was controlled by a small SER-designed signal box, at the eastern end of the site, beside the down line. When the layout was changed a second, larger signal box was put into a hole in the chalk beside the stabling siding. This had a brick base, and a timber top half, with SER sash-style windows. This cabin became No. 1 Box, and the older box was No. 2 Box, eventually closing in 1928. No.1. closed in 1971 when semaphore signals changed to colour light operation.
Car park.  A park for motor cars was laid out by Gravesend Corporation in 1957 on land used previously as allotments at the back of Cobham Street.

Rouge Lane
This lane winds up Windmill Hill, skirting the summit.  The name is probably really ‘Rough Lane’.
Queens Jubilee Beacon
Veterans’ Club. This is on the site of The Maze – one of the 19th attractions on Windmill Hill.  The club was built in 1954 for men over 60.

Saddington Street
Runs parallel to the south side of the railway and was previously called Farringdon Street.

Sheppy Place
Named thus because builder Wood’s foremen on the site came from the Isle of Sheppy
Baynard Castle This was a castellated Gothic house, built in the early 19th century by Edward Lacey, a former mayor, used later as a girls' school, and demolished in 1953.

Shrubbery Road
This was originally a lane running along a gully.
Millers Cottage. This became a beer house in 1842

The Grove
The Grove was originally an extension of the development of Harmer Street and was to be a gated road called Upper Harmer Street.
Flats on the west corner with Saddington Street. These are on the site of Harmer House School. This was run by W. H. Hedger. It later became Shaw and Sons laundry. The building has since been demolished and the flats built.
Shaw’s Laundries. This was started by Thomas Oswald Shaw in the late 19th. It eventually became a very large business with many outlets, and a large dry cleaning arm.  The vans had a distinctive ’gaiety girl' image. The business closed in 2002 when it employed 200 by which time it was part of a larger service group.
11 Gravesend Coop Society Education Offices. Later this became the Guru Nanak Day. Centre which was sold in 2012
13 Home for Friendless Girls. This appears to be Kendall House which had been set up to teach young women and help them start employment. In 1929 it was named after a Miss Kendall who was the supervisor of the home. In 1946 the house was sold and the home moved to Pelham Road
19-20 St. Andrews Presbyterian Church of England. This was established in 1870, with twin spires but was demolished to make way for motor showrooms in the early 1960s.  The stained glass was reused in St.Paul’s, Singlewell Road.
34 Gravesend Salvation Army. This extensive building dates from the 1966 but the army had had a presence in the town since 1883.
37 The Grove Dance Centre.
Tudor Lodge – this was on the junction with Parrock Street and may have been designed by Amon Henry Wilds for one of the speculators who built up Windmill Hill.

Trafalgar Road
St. James's Hospital. Before the passing of the National Health Act this was the Gravesend and Milton Workhouse, built in 1847 on Man of Kent Field by the Board of Guardians under the Poor Law Act of 1831 replacing a building in Stone Street. It was designed by John Gould with an H-shaped layout with an entrance block at the south with the board-room, Master's room, and school rooms. Kitchens and dining hall connected this to the main accommodation block at the rear. An infirmary was added in 1855, a children's' ward in 1882, and accommodation for lunatics in 1891. It later became St James' hospital. The site has since been developed as housing for aged and infirm people as St.James’ Oaks.
9 The Darnley Arms. Dates from at least 1848

Windmill Hill
An early name for the hill was Ruggen or Rouge Hill and it has been the site of a beacon. On the north east side was Furzy Hill where there had been sand pits. There was a mound called the Devils Mount and also Sandpit pond. The Windmill Hill Pleasure Ground Company bought a lot of the area and, along with others, set up many attractions. This got a bit out of control and there was a lot of public concern. The local corporation tried to buy it in 1843 but did not raise enough money. There was ongoing trouble.
Denehole.  Found by a workman digging a cess-pit, who used the traditional method finding it by falling down it.   The shaft was said be 55 ft. deep with two chambers at the bottom – one 18 ft high.   Roman potsherds, oyster shells and worked flint were found.
Windmill. It is thought there was a windmill here by the early 17th. A windmill here was burnt down in 1763 and another demolished in 1787. The one bunt down was rebuilt and remained. The camera obscura was moved here in the 1840s. A gallery was built round it in 1843. It was burnt down in 1902.
Gipsy House. This was next to the mill and was somewhere people could hire cutlery and buy drinks.
Mill Barn – somewhere else people could buy drink.
Observatory. This was built in 1836 by Thomas Smith from Dockhead. It had a spiral staircase to a flat roof with a camera obscura. There were also kitchens, refreshment rooms and bedrooms.
Belle Vue Tavern. This originated from the purchase of the hill by London based speculators, Smith and Snow.  They commissioned Amon Henry Wilds to draw up plans for a pub and pleasure garden. The building dated from 1838 and there was a Camera Obscura on the roof. Nearby were a souvenir shop and a fairground with a shooting gallery.
Royal Saloon of Arts. Opened in 1839 in the camera obscura and then into a pavilion which was part of the pub. There were exhibitions of silhouettes.
Windmill Tavern. This had an archery ground for a while.
Granite blocks on the hill mark sites of a bomb dropped by a Zeppelin in 1915

Windmill Street
The road marks the dividing line between the ancient parishes of Gravesend and Milton.
46 Clarence Hotel and Tea Rooms was on the corner of Clarence Row.  It was later the Clarence Arms which opened in 1832 and closed in 1855. It was then used as a college and was demolished in the 1920s.
51 Salisbury Arms. Pub present from 1849 to 1862
55 Emmanuel Baptist Church. Built in 1843, to the designs of John Gould, with his father as builder. It is rendered with giant pilasters.
62 Milton Hall. This is on the corner with South Street. In 1855 this was built as a timber building, Tulley’s Bazaar-  a place of leisure and entertainment for tourists to listen to free music and buy souvenirs. Illuminated views of Italy and Switzerland could be seen as through a porthole and in the evenings there were concerts. Milton Hall was built in 1859, and has been used as a drill hall for the Local Artillery Volunteers, with a small cannon standing outside and in 1890, a grocery Milton Hall Stores, later it was a wine shop.. It has a stucco façade with a curved pediment. In 1890 it was a grocery store called Milton Hall Stores.
77 The Clarence. This pub opened in 1855 as the Clarence Arms following the closure of the original. Recently refurbished and reopened in 2012 as The Clarence.
The Blue House. Around 1800 this was described as a dairy farm and the home of James and Hester Clarke who opened the local nursery and the market garden to the west of Windmill Street. A pub with this name opened here in 1803 and was renamed to The Blue Coat Boy in 1830. It closed in 1835 and Tivoli House stands on the site.
Sandybanks – Clarke’s Nursery. Land north of the Wingfield Road between Windmill Street and Wrotham Road as far as Woodville Halls was derelict and known as 'Sandybanks'. It had once been part of Clark's nursery. James Clarke lived at the Blue House on the site of what is now Tivoli House. He established a Nursery in the 1790's on the west side of the road. Here he grew saffron, and asparagus – which was shipped by river to London markets. Clarke also extended his activities as a grower to other local sites. By 1864 the business, under Charles Clarke, was in financial trouble and the Windmill Street land was mortgaged to George Arnold.  The property was sold in 1868 to builders by a younger generation of the Clarke family.
Tivoli House. This was originally the Tivoli Hotel opened in 1836. Known as Tivoli Tavern as a hotel, refreshment and ball rooms for the Windmill Hill Pleasure Gardens. It was later taken over by a Mr. Berkowitz and turned into a Jewish School – Tivoli House Academy – when it was extended. A small synagogue was built at the rear.  Mr. Berkowitz and his son became leading local citizens. The school was closed during the Second World War and moved to Harrow.  The building is now flats.
Fragments of the boundary wall to West Hill House survive on the corner of Leith Park Road. West Hill House was built by William Aspdin, but was unfinished when he went bankrupt and the materials were used to in Portland Villas
109 – 110- North House and South House.  This was once one house surrounded by iron fencing decorated with the town arms - originally part of the railings in front of the town pier.
132 Cygnet House. Council built office block, subsequently sold and is now housing.  This was previously the registry office. There is a mural at the entrance of a former registry office. It was created by Alan Boyson in 2009
133 A Police Station was built here in 1940. Civil Defence had wartime provision of static water tanks here as well as air raid sirens. It was demolished when a new Police Station was opened in 1975 by built by D. F. Clayton, County Architect.  This was closed in 2009
158 Queens Arms. This pub was established by 1836 and closed in 1963. It was demolished in 1968. It was on the edge of Albert Place.
Houses high on the slope of the hill were built during the 1930s, and are on the area once the gardens of the Tivoli hotel.

Wingfield Road,
The name dates from the 1880s, and recalls that of Gravesend's first Member of Parliament, Sir Charles Wingfield, in 1868. 

Woodville Gardens
Where Windmill Street and Wrotham Road join is the site of the 'pound', used in 1864 for the election hustings.  This area is now part of the square laid out in front of the Civic Centre and opened in  2011.
Burial Ground. This was a public garden which had formerly been a burial ground and a few of the old tombstones remained against the north wall.  The land had been acquired in 1788 by the churchwardens to supplement the old graveyard of St. George's. The site was closed for burials in 1855 and laid out for gardens. There is a plaque “This square is on the site of the former Woodville burial ground, an extension to St George's churchyard, consecrated in 1789.The original boundary of the churchyard is marked by the studs in the paving. The new square was officially opened on 19 July 2011. The gardens provide a large amount of public open space. In 1977 the area was laid out as a garden for the blind, provided by the Rotary Club in dedication of its 50th Jubilee
The Woodville Halls. These were opened in 1968 by the Duchess of Kent.  Part of the concept was to provide a public space between Wrotham Road and Windmill Street. a large underground car park was included The building was designed by architects H. T. Cadbury-Brown and Partners of London and the contractor was  G. E. Wallis and Sons Ltd.  of London. The Mayor's suite and Committee rooms link the two buildings. A foyer area is now shared with the Civic Centre
Civic Centre. A concrete panelled office block ‘to a good brutalist design’ by Brian Richards of HT Cadbury-Brown’s office of 1961-8 and with design input from Elizabeth Cadbury Brown.

Woodville Terrace
This terrace of housing was removed to make room for the Civic Centre and the new police station.  The houses dated from the 1840s in a private road.  They were eventually used Gravesend Council as offices.  The street was originally built on the site of a brickfield owned by a William Wood – hence the name


Wrotham Road
Part of the Gravesend to Wrotham Turnpike Road set up by Act of Parliament of 1825. It was de-turnpiked in 1879.  Previously, north of the Masonic Hall it was called Ruck Lane; south of this was Tadman’s Lane.
Clark’s nursery. Clarke had extended to five acres on the west side of Wrotham Road where Essex and Kent Roads now stand and extending as far as the Old Dover Road. 
1 Gravesend Rubber Company offices. Demolished in 1973
26  Prince Albert. This is at the junction with Zion Place. It was a Shepherd Neame house. It contained three organs which were used for nightly sing songs and concerts – it eventually lapsed for lack of a licence.
Masonic Hall. This was taken over by the Masons in 1906 and had been Ruckland
40 Wrotham Ale Shades. This pub was established in 1880 and closed in 1958. It is now demolished. A number of pubs in the Gravesend area have been called ‘Shades’ which seems to be peculiar to this area.
53 Man of Kent. This pub was established by 1842.  A Man of Kent comes from east of the Medway.
72 Wrotham Road Board Schools. This is on a bank on the eastern side is and, built in 1894, was the third of such schools built in Gravesend.
92 St.Luke's Hall.  This was built as a mission church for St. James's in 1890 y architect, Basset-Smith. It was used for community events including the Church Lads' Brigade, Sunday school and so on. It was demolished in 1964 and a clinic is now on the site.
Headquarters of the 402 (Gravesend) Squadron Air Training Corps. Built in 1956.  The cadets have since moved to the new combined cadet centre in Grange Road
97 Ashenden’s Nursery. George Ashenden had a nursery and florist here in a building with a dramatic white iron and glass frontage. This existed in the 1890s and was still present in the 1950s.   There is now housing on the site
111 Bat and Ball Cricket Ground. This was founded before 1854 for a County Club organised by Earl of Darnley – which led to acrimony over the path between the pub and the ground. It was used for county cricket and In 1849 Kent played an All-England Eleven in the grounds first first class match. It seems to have begun about 1845 as a private cricket ground for Ruckland House, and in 1853-4 the Earl of Darnley and others formed the North Kent Cricket Club with the Bat and Ball as its home ground.  Here the giants of the game have scored some of their great personal successes, Dr. W. G. Grace, Frank Woolley, Kenneth Hutchings, G. Jessop - Lionel Troughton, Kent's Gravesend captain, was also among them. From 1849 to 1971, the ground held 145 first-class matches for Kent, the last of which saw them play a touring team of Pakistanis.  The ground has also played host to 24 matches involving the Kent Second XI. In the 1900s the ground was bought by a local builder for building, but enthusiasts raised the money to buy it from him. In 1960 the Club got a 999-year lease at a peppercorn rent. Not only cricket, but bowls, tennis, and more recently, hockey, are played here. The ground is the home venue of Gravesend Cricket Club who play in the Kent Cricket League
113 Bat and Ball. The pub was present by 1862
From this point northwards the houses belong to an earlier date than those on the south, dating from the opening years of the 19th century.  Before the erection of the houses between Wrotham Road and Darnley Road, much of the ground was known as 'Man of Kent Fields', named after the licensed house on the corner of Arthur Street.
Pavilion Theatre. Around the area of Essex Road junction and to the south and west is the site of Thomas Eves’ The Pavilion Theatre. Eves was a nursery man who developed his nursery, inherited through his wife from the Clarke family who had had it for many years.  It had become the Subscription Grounds – flowers, walks and lanterns. There was a games area, and eventually the theatre. Eves was murdered and the land sold for building in the 1880s.  A thatched bandstand from the gardens is said to have remained until the 1920s
Brickfield. This was owned by Wood and Gregory in the 1860s and was south of Old Road on the west side of the road. Brickfield Cottages were in Old Road.
185b Ladies bowling club. This club had a grass rink here until the 1950s. It was on the junction with Old Road and has since been replaced by housing.

Zion Place
So named because it led to the Baptists’ Zion Chapel in Windmill Street which was built in 1843


Sources
About Gravesend. Web site
Bat and Ball Ground. Wikipedia web site
Bygone Kent.
Carley. The Gravesend to Wrotham Turnpike Road
Gravesend Historical Society. Transactions
Gravesend Station. Wikipedia. Web site
Gravesham Council. Web site.
Harker. The Book of Gravesham
Hiscock. A History of Gravesend
Kent Archaeology. Web site
Kent Rail. Web site
Lost Pubs Project. Web site
Phillip. A History of Gravesend and its surroundings
Pub History. Web site
Twentieth Century Society. Web site.
Workhouses. Web site