Saturday, 31 December 2016

M25 Belhus Park


Post to the north Brick Kiln Wood
Post to the south Ockendon Junction 30


Ash Plantation
Ash Plantation is an integral part of Thames Chase Community Forest. It was part of the original landscape garden of Belhus House designed in the 18th by Richard Woods and Lancelot “Capability” Brown.

Bellhus Park
Belhus – the names comes from 14th tenants who are said to have come from Ramsden Bellhouse. By the early 15th the Barrett family had inherited a share of the estate and by the mid 17th had built up a large estate. John Barrett rebuilt Belhus House in the early 16th and in 1618 Edward Barrett obtained a license for a park. Thomas Barrett-Lennard, Lord Dacre, made improvements 1744 – 1777 and Lancelot Brown was commissioned to remodel the grounds. In 1923 Thomas Barrett Lennard, who lived elsewhere, dispersed the contents of the house. After the Second World War the park was bought by Essex County Council and developed as a recreation centre, with swimming pool, gym, and golf course. It remains in local authority ownership.
Gardens.  In the mid 17th there were elaborate enclosed formal gardens with a wilderness, rock garden, and palisado garden. These were modernised by Brown for Lord Dacre from 1753, when The Shrubbery was planted. The pleasure grounds were removed in the 20th for the recreational facilities, leaving only the unmanaged remains of Brown's Shrubbery along the western boundary of the park
Park. The park is grassed and managed for a variety of sporting uses with late 20th buildings associated them. Some mature park trees survive as do some woodlands. In 1890 the park maintained a herd of 100 deer and had the ‘ancient and uncommon’ right of free warren.
House. This was a substantial house built round a courtyard around 1520.  The gatehouse was demolished in 1710. From around 1744 it was 'gothic-ised' between 1744-1777 with a new entrance front and hall and many pointed gothic arches. After 1919 the house was not used and began to be damp and the contents were sold in the 1920s. In the Second World War there was some bomb damage and troops stationed there used some of the panelling and the oak floorboards for firewood. The cost of repairs could not be met. A faint outline of the foundations can be seen in the middle of the golf course. Some of the 16th panelling is at Valance House Museum and other fittings are in Thurrock Museum.
Stables. These were from the 16th with an 18th clock and chimneys. Falcons were probably kept here in the 19th
Pets’ cemetery. This was set up for Sir Thomas Barrett-Lennard in the 1850s. He kept numerous dogs, cats and other animals who were buried there including his horses. This is said to be north west of the site of the house.
Golf Course. The central section of the grounds is laid out as a golf course and contains bunkers with 20th shrub and tree planting. Within this area there are two mounds which survive from the 18th landscaping scheme.
Leisure Centre.  Clubhouse is the Capability Brown.  There is also a leisure centre with various swimming and ‘fitness’ activities available at a cost. These are in two bleak brick boxes in the middle of a vast car park in Park Drive.


Garron Lane.
Dilkes Primary School. This school is now an ’academy’.  It was originally an Essex Ccounty junior and infants’ schools named after the adjacent wood. The junior school was opened in 1952; the infants school was opened in 1953
The Archer. Brick built estate pub with large car park. Includes function room.
Extensive greens with trees a and a large prominent electrical Sub station
Shops

Gatehope Drive
Gate to Oak and Ash Plantations

Hamble Lane
Gate and paths into Belhus Park


Humber Avenue
Gate and paths into Belhus Park

Irvine Gardens
Kitchen Garden. The garden walls here were built in 1744 for Lord Dacre in brick with recessed panels.
Icehouse. This dates from the mid 18th and is beyond the north wall of the kitchen garden, in the north-east corner of the park. The well remains excavated in 1979.

Long Pond
Lord Dacre and Brown’s plans for a piece of water were too expensive and in 1770 then Long Pond was created from an existing canal. It provides a unique habitat for wildlife species and forms a focal point for the woodland. This area is rich in wildlife and supports tree species such as Turkey Oak, Wild Cherry, Black Poplar, London Plane, Common Lime and Aspen.

M25
The ground is generally level, with the M25 sunk into a cutting which runs north/south through the eastern half of the park, isolating the woodland areas from the open parkland.
Footbridge.  This spans the motorway and links the site with Belhus Chase, Belhus Park and Bellhus Woods Country Park

Oak Wood
Oak Wood is an integral part of Thames Chase Community Forest. It was part of the original landscape garden of Belhus House designed in the 18th by Richard Woods and Lancelot “Capability” Brown.

Park Lane
This appears to follow the line of a drive to the house. It goes to the clubhouse and sports centre


Sources
Behus Park Golf  Club. Web site.
British History online. Web site
Dilkes Academy. Web site
Historic England. Web site
Lost Heritage. Web site
Thurrock Council. Web site
Whittaker. Deer Parks and Paddocks of England
Woodland Trust. Web site

Friday, 30 December 2016

M25 Ockendon Kemp's Farm




Post to the north North Ockendon
Post to the west Dennises Lane



Dennis’s Road
Kemps Farm. Early 19th farm house
Field House

M25

Railway
Level crossing

Sources
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Essex County Archive. Web site

M25 North Ockendon




Post to the north Thames Chase Forest Centre
Post to the west Cranham Marsh
Post to the south North Ockendon


Church Lane
7-8 cottages built around 1870
St Mary’s Church of England School. This is now Bell House and Benyon House. In 1842 here a day-school and teacher's house were built by subscription on land in Church Lane owned by Richard Benyon de Beauvoir, lord of the manor. The family remained owners of the school.  There are two large school rooms with boys and girls entrances either side. It was rebuilt in 1902 by James Benyon, It was bomb damaged in 1944 and the county council suggested its closure.  It remained open, however but has since closed.
Reading Room Cottages. This wis the Parish Reading Room, a gift of Richard Benyon. Vestry meetings were held there from 1906 to 1910
Garden walls to former North Ockendon Hall 16th and later
Remembrance Cottages. These houses were conveyed to trustees in 1930 by Champion Branfill Russell of Stubbers, as almshouses.

Clay Tye Hill. This is part of Thames Chase Forest

M25

North Ockendon
The village was once known as 'Bishop's Ockendon'. It is the only place in Greater London which is outside the M25. The Poynz family owned it a descendent of whom, John Morris, was arraigned before the House of Lords in 1647 for forging his titles to North Ockendon.

Ockendon Road
Ockenden Kennels. Greyhound Kennels including a greyhound track. It was the site of the Romford Greyhound Owners’ Association retired dogs home.
Cranham Place. This was originally a Manor,  consisting of a house, a barn, & a stable. The Manor House was burnt down and was  rebuilt as flats.  The barn next to the house has been   restored & converted into a bungalow  as have the stables
Railway bridge
Motorway bridge

Sources
Brentford Council. Web site
British History Online. Web site
Domesday Reloaded. Web site
Havering Council. Web site

M25 Thames Chase Forest Centre


Post to the north Cranham
Post to the south North Ockendon


M25

Pike Lane
Broadfields Farm. This is now Thames Chase Forest Centre
Barn. This is a timber building. There are also 19th stables.
Visitor Centre . This is a timber ‘A frame’ building with cedar shingles attached to the barn. Designed by Laurie Wood in 2005. This is the Forest Centre for the Community Forest. woods, meadows, ponds and paths are landscaped on disused farmland. There is a wide variety of wildlife including water voles and newts
Ford education room. This is converted from the farm cart shed and used by schools and community groups for study, as a conference centre and for private hire
Orchard. This is  planted with traditional Essex apple and pear varieties.
Play areas for children, including the Ants Nest, Snake Stepping Stones, Hollow Logs and the Trusty Oak.


St.Mary’s Lane
Cranham Court. The current building is early 20th and is now a care home. It was originally called Cranham Holme, with a gardener renowed for developing orchids.
Cranham Golf Course. This is an 18 hole public course.


Sources
Cranham Golf Course. Web site
Gardeners Chronicle.
Thames Chase Forest. Web site

Thursday, 29 December 2016

M25 Cranham Folkes Lane

London/Essex Boundary.  The Boundary runs down the M25


Post to the north Great Warley
Post to the east Parkers Shaw


Beredens Lane
Beredens was a small independent manor with a house and estate.  By the 1830s the house was known as "Bellevue" by this time and there were also two cottages rented to labourers. The estate was divided and sold in 1865  and in 1918 there was a further sale. The house was destroyed during the Second World War. In 1971 it was sold to the Greater London Council. Concrete foundations may still be observed where the house stood.

Folkes Lane
Folkes Lane Woodland. From four arable field grouped around a steep hill this has become a major landmark, tucked between the A127 and M25. From its top are vistas south over the River Thames to the North Downs and west across London’s Docklands and Canary Wharf. Over 90,000 native trees are on site, providing a screen to the M25 motorway.

M25
Beredens Lane path over the motorway. Between junctions 28 and 29.   The central reservation marks the boundary between London and Essex (L.B of Havering on the left and Brentwood on the right)

Sources
British History Online. Cranham. Web site
Forestry Commission. Web site
History of Cranham. Web site

M25 Navestock


Post to the east Horseman Side
Post to the south Navestock Common
Post to the Murthering Lane


Old Road
Loft Hall. Late 18th house in red brick. It has been adapted from an earlier  17th house. Inside is 16th panelling from the old house. There are 18th references to ‘Lost Hall’.
Black Cottage
Navestock Heath House

Sources
British Listed Buildings. Web site

M25 Abridge Golf Course


Post to the south Lambourne
Post to the west Hobbs Cross Road
Post to the north Theydon Mount
Post to the west Stapleford Tawney



Epping Lane
Theydon Mount Kennels
Hilly Spring
Bartlemey Grove
Bush Grove
Abridge Golf and Country Club  The 18 hole course was designed, in 1962 by Henry Cotton. There are practice facilities including a driving range, 18 hole putting green, chipping area, practice bunkers and a par 3 course.
Skinners Farm. The farmhouse is 17th


M25

Sources
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Abridge Golf Club. Web site

M25 ~Epping Bell Common



Post to the west Copped Hall Estate
Post to the south Great Monk Wood


Bell Common
Bell Common is no longer managed as a common and it is rapidly being taken over by scrub and young woodland.
A major part of Bell Common is in the square to the east. The common is a stretch of mixed woodland and grassland that begins at Ambresbury Banks and meanders, mainly along the roadside to Epping.  The Common thus provides an area of transition between Epping Forest and the built-up area, historically as part of a ‘purlieu’, a buffer zone where some, but not all, forest laws applied. a raised ‘purlieu bank’ is still visible along its south side. The common was included among the lands protected as public open space under the Epping Forest Act in 1878, and is now part of the Green Belt and a conservation area,
Beacon  It was once known as ‘Beacon Common’ . From at least the 14th this was the site of a beacon to warn London of invasion. it has been suggested that the settlement of Epping Heath (now Epping) was founded to maintain this beacon.  This is unlikely to be true.
Earthwork. This was at the south end of the common  consisting of about an acre of land raised a few feet to form a perfect level, and was known in the 18th as the “Bowling 'Green.”
Mill.  A mill is said to have stood near the bowling green until around the end of the 19th
Cottages. On the south side of the common there are several small, traditional weather boarded cottages


Epping High Road
The road became a turnpike in 1769 using the Epping and Ongar Turnpike Trust. A toll gate stood near the Theydon Road turning.
Ladderstile Farm. The farmhouse is 17th timber framed and plastered building.
Belle Vue cottage. This was the toll house for the turnpike road
Griffins Wood Cottages. 19th cottages. built for workers from the Copped Hall Estate.
Magpies Nest. Housing and businesses. Plus communal housing of elderly and handicapped
Bell Hotel.  The pub dates from at least the late 18th and was jrebuilt around 1900 and turned into a ‘motor hotel’ in the 1960s, continues to offer accommodation as the Best Western Bell Hotel.

Copped Hall Estate Road
Drive to Copped Hall.  The approach to Copped Hall until the 19th was from the Waltham road. A later drive led from the London road, passing New Farm and Wood House, and was altered by E. J. Wythes.
Griffins Wood
New Farm
Wood House. Built by E. J. Wythes in 1898 built Wood House for a relative of his wife. It was designed by C. E. Kempe and his nephew W. E. Tower. It is modelled on the mid-17th-century Sparrow's House at Ipswich


M25
Bell Common Tunnel. This is a covered section of the motorway which was forced into a very narrow gap between Epping Forest and housing to the north. It T was therefore put underground in a tunnel 470 metres long built between 1982 and 1984 using the cut and cover method


Theydon Road
Windmill Reservoir. This was originally built by the Herts and Essex Water Works. It is now owned by Affinity. There is an attached pumping station
Millhouse Farm.  It is assumed the name of the farm relates to the windmill known to have stood nearby. There are plans for housing on the site of the gardens and tennis court.
Wensley House. Care Home

Sources
British History Online. Victoria County History. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Corporation of the City of London. Web site
Epping Forest District Council. Web site
Essex Archaeological Society. Transactions
London Underfoot. Web site
Wensley House. Web site
Winstone. Extracts from the Minutes of the Epping and Ongar Highway Trust

Wednesday, 28 December 2016

M25 Crown Hill


Post to the west Upshirebury
Post to the east Ambresbury Banks



Brambly Shaw
Woodland and wildlife area managed by the City Corporation

Copthall Green

Crown Hill
Good Intent. This pub dates from at least the 1850s. It includes what is described as a ‘country garden’.
Crown Hill Farm
Raveners Farm. The farmhouse is an 18th red brick building
Crown Hill Nursery. Garden Centre and shop
Copped Hall Green Farm. This was the Rose and Crown Pub dating from the 1840s. About 1903 it became a Temperance Hotel and forest retreat.

M25

Sources
Garden Centre Guide. Web site
Good Intent. Web site
Historic England. Web site
Pub History. Web site

M25 Upshirebury



Post to the south Upshire Honey Lane
Post to the west Ninefields Estate
Post to the east Crown Hill




Blind Lane
A green pathway between trees and hedges

Green Lane
A green pathway between hedges which eventually crosses the motorway. Road names are confusing and on some maps the section crossing the motorway and continuing to Upshire is marked as Woodredon Farm Lane.
Potkiln Wood. There is a remnant pottery site in the wood
Green Lane Bungalows

Horseshoe Hill
Sergeants Green
Upshirebury Green
Copthall Green School. This is marked on maps of the 1870 and annotated as ‘licenced for divine worship”.  The building continues marked as a school until the Second World War.
Home for Feeble Minded Boys (John Nicks). This was set up here in the late 19th by the National Society for Promoting the Welfare of the Feeble – Minded under the auspices of the Charity Organisation Society. Boys were ‘trained’ in cookery and farming, being sent to work on local farms. The reference to ’John Nicks’ in the name is unexplained. The site is also not clear.
Pellew House (site not clear).This was used by Barnardos as a reception centre for small children during the Second World War.
The Bury. This large house is said to be an old farmhouse, It is also said to have originally been a timber buld mediaeval house, faced with brickwork  in the 18th and further extended in the 20th.

M25
A footpath takes Green Lane across the motorway

Oxleys Wood
Ancient woodland managed by the City Corporation

Rugged Lane
A green pathway

Sergeants Green Lane
A green pathway

Southend Lane

Woodgreen Road
Woodgreen Potteries. ‘This was G & A Tuck Waltham Abbey Pottery’. This was founded in 1830 by H.F.Walker, and later managed by Geo. Symondson, and, in 1908 taken over by George & Arthur Tuck. They made 21 different sizes of flower pots, roof tiles and bricks and were apparently connected with Monkhams Brickfield.
The Potteries Industrial Estate. On the site of the Woodgreen Potteries

Woodredon Road
Woodredon  House . This is a large gabled building north-west of the farm and dates from 1889.  It is currently a care home.



Sources
Barnardo’s. Web site
Children’s Homes Web site
City of London Corporation. Web site
Essex Field Club Reports
London Transport. Country Walks 
Pevsner and Cherry.  Essex
The Times

Monday, 26 December 2016

M25 Upshire Honey Lane




Post to the west M25 Junction 25 High Beech
Post to the north Upshirebury


Claypit Hill
This is the steep winding road that cuts Honey Lane Quarters in half. An older name for it is Honey Lane (Buxton).  It was once a rat-run’ across High Beach to the M25 and it was experimentally closed, but now has pinch points and road humps.

Honey Lane
The road name is recorded in 1408
Jewish Cemetery. This Cemetery was officially opened in 1960 although some land was bought in 1926. It caters for members of the United Synagogue who live in the east London. There is a Holocaust Memorial consecrated in 1985 under US auspices. In the Prayer Hall is a War Memorial Plaque as a Plain rectangular stone tablet to 26 dead with inscription in black lettering.  It says Second Great War (1939-45) (Hebrew text)  "How are the mighty fallen! May the weapons of war perish forever." This plaque was presented by Mrs. Rebecca Passer in memory of her husband Nathan Passer.   There is another memorial moved here from the East London Synagogue in Nelson Street, Stepney. It is to the dead of the Great War and has 670 names,  It consists of  two tablets with the Star of David at top with a wreath and ribbon and names in four columns. It says “Dedicated to the honoured memory of the Jews of East London who were numbered among those who, at the call of King and Country left all that was dear to them, endured hardness, faced danger and finally passed out of the sight of men by the path of duty self sacrifice giving up their own lives that others might live in freedom Let those who come after see to it that their names are not forgotten.
Volunteer Pub. The pub was present in 1870 and has been a McMullan house since 1898.
Shelter. This thatched building is described both as ‘Honey Lane Plain Gatehouse’ and also, originally, ‘rest house’.
Horse Trough. The inscription on this reads:” Metropolitan Drinking Fountain & Cattle Trough Association. If you bring your horse here to drink, you can shelter the horse from any bad weather”.
Woodbine Inn. This pub was present by 1880.
Scratching Post. Cat Rescue and re-homing.
Honey Lane Plain. This is a long narrow plain – with a Ride running down to the bottom of Clay-pit Hill   The whole area was open in the middle of the 18th but later became dense blackthorn thicket. Today it is a long, narrow path running southwards up the hill.
Rifle Butts. Honey Lane Plain clearing was the site of a rifle range built in 1863 for the 22nd Essex Rifles. The gun pits were at the bottom and two butts were built at 600 yards and 800 yards. The range closed about 1894. A mound, at the top of the hill, is the remains of the farther butt


M25


Pynest Green Lane
Tile Hill Farm


Wake Road
Honey Lane Quarters. This consists of all the woodland on the western slopes from High Beach to Woodridden Hill on the west side of the Wake Road down to the Volunteer and Woodbine Pubs


Woodbine Close
This is a large mobile home site. The park has its own club house for social events


Woodgreen Road
Sudbury Farm


Woodredon Road
Woodredon was a small outlying manor.  In the 19th it was owned by Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, who with his brother was involved in the battle to save the Forest in the 1860’s and 70’s. They continued to own the Woodredon Estate until they sold it to the Greater London Council in 1974. In 1986 it passed to the Corporation of London.
Woodredon Farm.  The farmhouse is a mid 18th red-brick house and is probably the successor to earlier manor houses
Woodredon Riding School and Livery
Coneybury Wood. This is on the Woodredon estate


Sources
Epping Council. Web site
Find a Grave. Web site
Friends of Epping Forest. Web site
Pub History. Web site
United Synagogue. Web site
Volunteer. Web site

M25 - Junction 26 High Beech


Post to the west Black Ditch Dowding Way
Post to to the south High Beech
Post to the north Ninefields Estate
Post to the east Upshire Honey Lane


Dowding Way
Link Road built in the 1990s
Inner Lodge
Lord Paget’s Wood
Poplar Shaw

Honey Lane

M25
Junction 26. Waltham Abbey Interchange with the A121

Sources
Sabre. Web site

Saturday, 24 December 2016

M25 Bulls Cross


Post to the west Whitewebbs Lane
Post to the south Maiden's Bridge
Post to the north Theobalds


Bull’s Cross
The road is a continuation of Green Lanes and thus a drove road into London. Suddenly becomes straight because this is part of the line of Roman Ermine Street which ran from London to York.  This was a small hamlet with a group of old cottages and some ‘big’ houses. The name may come from a family who lived there in the 13th. It was one called ‘Bedalles Cross’.
Manor House. This stood on the junction with White Webbs Road and was the home of Sir John French
The Orchard. This was the Spotted Cow Pub. It was first noted in 1838 and last used as a pub in 1923.
Pied Bull.  This would have stood in the centre of the 17th village. It is a small rendered house and a 17th building when it appears to have been kennels. It is first noted as a pub in 1716. It was also the childhood home of garden writer Frances Perry,
Bulls Cross Cottage. Home of garden writer and broadcaster Frances Perry who was also involved in Capel College and Myddelton House gardens.
Bowling Green House This was a 16th red-brick building associated with the bowling alley belonging to Elsyng Palace. In 1724 it was purchased by Michael Garnault and in 1809 it passed to his sister Anne Garnault who had married Henry Carrington Bowles in 1799.
Myddleton House. This is used as the Lee Valley Regional Park Headquarters. It was built for H. C. Bowles who was Treasurer of the New River Company, on the site of Bowling Green House. Bowles demolished the old house and the present villa was built by George Ferry and John Wallen for him in 1818. It then remained in the Bowles family. In 1954 the property were transferred to the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine and to the University of London's School of Pharmacy. In 1968 it was sold to the Lee Valley Regional Park Authority but The School of Pharmacy Department retained the kitchen gardens. There is a conservatory in the south front which contains two early 18th lead ostriches.
Myddleton House Grounds.  The gardens are on sloping ground falling from north to south and there are views from the higher ground, southwards over to Forty Hall. The New River originally ran alongside but was diverted 1859 leaving a stretch here as ornamental water which was filled in 1968 and is now the site of a curving lawn. .  Botanist Gussie Bowles, created a garden here from 1900, which partly survives. After his death, the gardens fell into disrepair and some plants were lost. Since 1984 the Lee Valley Park has restored it. There is: an alpine meadow and rock garden; a 'lunatic asylum' of plants that grow irrationally such as corkscrew willow and green roses; 'Tom Tiddler's Ground' planted with golden, variegated and coloured-leaved plants; The National Collection of irises with more than three hundred varieties; a rose garden with many of Bowles' original favourites with a summerhouse with an adjoining wall called the 'Irishman's Shirt' and a diamond-shaped brick pier from Gough Park, Enfield; a  terraced lake with water lilies, gunnera and reeds and grasses; a is a new conservatory with tropical. Mediterranean and desert plants plus an exhibition on Bowles' achievements; .on the lawn a petrified tree in a bed of stones and a well bore from the White Webbs New River Pumping Station; the Wild Garden, and the Fern Garden;. The Pergola Garden with a pergola constructed from unsawn oak; the Tulip Terrace, with beds edged in box; an iron bridge, dated 1832 which is planted with a wisteria
Sports Ground with a sports pavilion from the 1960s. In the 18th these were Reynold's Field and Kenney Land and were part of Bull's Cross Farm.
Kitchen garden. This is now a Pharmacognosy Garden for studying drugs of plant origin. The 19th glasshouses were demolished in the 1960s.
Enfield Market Cross. This is now a feature of the Myddleton House gardens and was installed here by Bowles. It previously stood in Enfield Market Place where it has been since 1826.
Stable block. This is early 19th with wings and a clock turret.
Museum – this is an early 19th building which housed part of Bowles' collection of artifacts.
Walls. The garden boundaries are marked by a mixture of brick walls and fences. The red-brick west wall which runs from the entrance is late 18th.
Myddeton Farm. The farm was run as a market garden in the early 20th. This is a training ground for Tottenham Hotspur Football Club it has facilities for the first team squad and youth academy. There is a two storey main building, an artificial pitch under cover and 15 grass pitches outdoors.  Because it is on a green belt site, the club has to plant 150 trees and thousands of new plants, hedges and flowers, as well as creating a wetland habitat zone.
Garnault. Italianate house built around 1860. It has an old loop of the New River running through its grounds

Bullsmoor Lane
The name is thought to mean 'marshy ground associated with a family called Bell or Bull and is clearly connected to Bull’s Cross. It was marshy moorland until the railway crossed it in the 1890s and it was then joined by the upgraded A10.
Capel Manor Primary School. The school opened in 1954 with work done to lay out playing fields in 1959.
172 Bulldog. This pub was built in the late 1940s as part of the Elysing Estate. It is on the site of an entrance to a former Prisoner of War camp and was a Charringtons house. At the rear was a dance hall where there were dances and gigs. It was eventually renamed 'The Gardeners Arms' but has since become a burger bar.
Prisoner of war camp. This had been a camp used for an AA battery. It had a wooden fence surrounding a parade ground, with white washed kerb stones and a flag pole in the middle. T later became a prisoner of war camp, housing Italians who worked in the local nurseries. Home Guard
Capel Manor. The estate dates back to the 13th with an original manor house which was probably on the site of Capel Manor Primary School.  This became Crown property in the 16th and then passed to successive owners. In 1745 Robert Jacomb demolished the old house and built Capel House which was demolished before 1800. A second house was built which is now called Capel Manor which remains as a red brick seven-bay 18th house. A timber porch with Corinthian columns is said to have come from Rotherhithe. In 1840 Capel Manor –became the home of the Warren family who refurbished the house – some rooms decorated with tea and coffee motifs to reflect their role as tea planters. Capel House had early electricity, gas and running water, a dairy by the stable block and an ice house in the grounds of which there are some remains.  Lt Col Sydney Medcalf lived here until 1958 who established a stud here and it became a National Centre for Clydesdale horse breeding Metcalf left the house to the Incorporated Society of Accountants to use as a college. In 1966 they rented it to Enfield College of Technology and from 1968 the grounds were leased to the Capel Manor Institute of Horticulture. It is now a specialist centre for land-based studies with a working estate where students and staff can get experience of horticulture, arboriculture, garden design, floristry, animal care, saddlery and environmental conservation.
Capel Manor Gardens. These are 30 acres of historical and modern gardens and the original 17th garden has been extended by the College, with a series of demonstration gardens. Around the house are mature trees, cedar and other ornamental conifers, and yew hedges and a walled garden. There is a fragment of wall and ha-ha built for James I around Theobalds. The copper beeches are said to be the original ones brought to England. theme gardens created by the college trace the history of gardens and gardening. Among them is an Italianate maze, a 17th walled garden and Japanese garden, as well those created for the Chelsea Flower Show.  One area, for instance, shows many different types of clipped hedging, while another compares pruning methods, with the same plants grown in similar conditions but with different types and degrees of pruning. There is a national collection of achilleas and a low-allergen garden, with no wind-pollinated plants, a sensory garden and a Van Gogh garden, and many others.
Stables and coach house with clock tower and original fittings. There is a weather vane of a horse - Clydesdale ‘Craigie Warren’ which Col. Metcalf bred. .
New River, The channel of the river is crossed by a bridge in this road, The bridge, with an ornamental parapet, is in reinforced concrete, dates from 1927 and has a substructure designed by the Metropolitan Water Board.


Gilmour Close
This is another section of Ermine Street as a pedestrian path on a route which eventually led to Theobalds House.
Walls – 18th listed red brick walls to Capel House.
Bulls Cross Lodge. 19th lodge in picturesque style.


Great Cambridge Road
This is part of the A10, a dual carriageway, with 1930s and 1940s houses either side, set back a bit on separate local roads behind greens in some cases and many built by the local authority, This was begun as a bypass arterial road in the 1920s but this section was held up by the Second World War.
Junction – it is crossed by Bullsmoor Lane as a major junction.


Kempe Road
Bullsmoor Library. A community lending library with a collection of fiction and non-fiction books for children, teenagers and adults, DVDs and audio books for borrowing as well as free computer use.
Kempe Hall Community Centre


Lovell Road
Honilands Primary School.  The school was built in the early 1950s for children from the Elysinge estate.


M25
New River Aqueduct.  This is an enclosed concrete structure constructed by Greater London Council acting as agents for the Department of Transport. It is a post-tensioned concrete structure, cast in situ. It carries the river in two rectangular boxes, 90m long, over the carriageways that run east-west. Boxes are lined with epoxy panels to prevent contamination of the water. The top slab of the aqueduct boxes is used as an access road for maintenance by Thames Water and has metal railings at its edges.


New River
The old course of the New River ran west from and is on this square slightly south of the junction with Turkey Street running along the southern edge of the grounds of Myddleton House.,


Turkey Street
New River – Turkey Street crosses the New River on a narrow humped iron bridge. A plaque on it reads “'Priestfields Ironworks 1827. This is now closed to through traffic
147 Loyala Sports Ground. This was bought by the Old Ignations Association in 1999 and they have built an ambitious new club house.  It was previously the sports ground for Belling and Lee whose factory was south of here in Great Cambridge Road.
Radio Marathon. This is a sports centre for people with learning disabilities.


Whitewebbs Lane
Clydesdale Stud. This was built on the site of the original manor house and was set up by Col Metcalf.
Capel Manor Cattery. In the buildings of the Clydesdale Stud.

Sources
Aldous. Village London
British History Online. Enfield. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Capel Manor. Web site
Cinema Theatres Association. Newsletter
Dalling. The Enfield Book
Diamond Geezer. Web site
Edmonton Hundred Historical Society. Occasional papers
Essex Lopresti.  The New River
Historic England. Web site.
London Borough of Enfield. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site
Lost Pubs. Web site
Meulenkamp and Wheatley. Follies
Middlesex County Council. History of Middlesex
Myddleton House leaflet
Pam. A Parish Near London.
Pam. Victorian Suburb
Pevsner and Cherry. London North 
Sellick. Enfield
Sellick. Enfield Through Time
Stevenson, Middlesex
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group, Report
Walford. Village London 
WW2 People’s War. Web site.

Wednesday, 21 December 2016

M25 Potters Bar interchange


Post to the west Potters Bar
Post to the south Enfield Chase
Post to the east Potters Bar


Barnet Road
Potters Bar Community Hospital. This opened in 1995, replacing the Hospital in Mutton Lane.  In 2005 a new Diagnostic and Treatment Centre opened, the first of its kind in Hertfordshire.  The Hospital was then able to provide new services – and a new operating theatre opened for cataract surgery, with staff seconded from Moorfields Eye Hospital. In 2006 because of a deficit 15 beds were closed and the empty ward space used as offices. The Hospital is still operational.
Priory Hospital. This is a fee paying facility and is a 50-bedded inpatient unit.
National School. This was built in 1839. This was built at the expense of the vicar of St. John's Church on land given by George Byng. It was in brick building wth 3 schoolrooms and a teacher's house. It was maintained by voluntary contributions and school money bad after 1870, parliamentary grants. When subsidence under the premises was discovered in 1872 the school moved to Southgate Road. The site of the old school is now a grass verge at the corner of Barnet Road and Hill Rise.


High Street
19 Cask and Stillage Pub. This was previously called The White Horse. It is an early 18th building.

Hill Rise
Potters Bar Spiritualist Church. Spiritualist meetings were originally held in the Co-operative Hall, in Darkes Lane, for several years. The room was reached by climbing an outside iron staircase, which was very dangerous. In 1952 various things happened and one day there was no one to organise things. In time the Co-operative Hall was needed and they managed to rent a top room in an old house called 'Elm Court ‘with just the loan of some chairs. They then spent a lot of time fundraising.  They took on a building previously used by a building firm and raised a loan to buy it. It was dedicated in 1964.

M25
Junction 24. The motorway here interchanges principally with the A111 between Potters Bar and Cockfosters. The first section of what was then to be the outer ring roads began in 1973 was between South Mimms and Potters Bar in Hertfordshire and t opened in September 1975. It was initially called the A1178. The section from Potters Bar to the Dartford Tunnel was constructed between 1979 and 1982

Southgate Road
Abbey House. This is on the site of the Blue Star Garage which was an art deco demolished in 1985. Blue Star replaced Greyhound Garages in 1938
St. Francis Xavier Church. This was a temporary catholic church built in 1925 which served as the Parish Church. In 1845 it was demolished by a V2 and 21 people were killed. The site is now housing
School. St. Johns Junior National School was moved here in 1872 following subsidence at the site in Barnet Road.

Sources
British History Online. South Mimms. Web site
Hertfordshire Churches
Historic England. Web site
London Encyclopedia
Lost Hospitals of London. Web site
Our Lady and St. Vincent. Web site
Potters Bar Historical Society. Newsletter. Web site.
Potters Bar Spiritualist Church. Web site

M25 Ganwick Corner

Post to the north Potters Bar
Post to the south Hadley Wood
Post to the east Enfield Chase


Barnet Road/ Great North Road
The Great North Road here is running along the ridge of Enfield Chase at a height of 400 ft above sea level. It was made up of fragments of existing roads during the 16th to make a main route between London and the north. From Barnet the road skirted Enfield Chase, still within its boundary banks, across common land which is now part of Wrotham Park. Enfield Chase was notorious for highwaymen. The southern part of the current road in this square runs along the border of Wrotham Park. The road was turnpiked from Barnet to Ganwick Corner in 1720 as the Galley Corner Trust
Wrotham Park. This square covers only the north east section of the park. This area is pasture with many mature parkland trees and an oval pond at the north side close to a cricket pitch which lies in the area nearest to the junction of Barnet Road and Dancers Hill Road. This is still a private family estate although there is some use for filming and events.
Duke of York Inn. Three storey 18th inn with a bust of the Duke over the portico and on the first floor an inn sign takes the place of one of the windows. It was once known as the Angel and probably stood a little to the south of the present building.  And this original building was erected illegally on Bentley Heath in 1743. From 1751-88 it was called the White Horse and has been the Duke of York since 1793. 


Bentley Heath Lane
Whitehouse Commercial Centre. This was built as a tractor factory in the 1930s, then becoming a lawnmower manufacturer in the 1970s and since the 1980s as an industrial estate. It is now the site of a new housing estate called Bentley Place
Tractors (London) Ltd. The Trusty 2-wheeled tractor was built from 1933 to the late 1950s. It had a front mounted engine driving a pair of wheels and powered by a 5hp JAP engine.
The White House. a house adjacent to the entrance to Commercial Centre used as a management office.
Bentley Heath Farm. Late 17th farmhouse. There is a converted barn at the back built in the 18th timber framed and weather boarded
.
Dancers Hill Road
Strafford Cottages built in 1876 by the Earl of Strafford who owned the land. There is a monogrammed ‘S’ plaque with the date
Wyeville Garden Centre. This opened in the late 1970s as a rose nursery owned by the Tuck family,

Ganwick Corner.
The name may have come from Gannocks which was a medieval estate at Bentley Heath. Much of the area was subsumed into Wrotham Park and was demolished in the early 19th. It stood on what are now the Bentley Heath Farmlands. It is said that an early Tudor stone fireplace in a farm locally may have come from Gannocks.  The Corner was also known as Galley Corner.

M25

Potters Bar Brook.
This rises north of Ganwick Corner, winds north and then west

Railway
Tunnel. This runs in a tunnel under this area and there is no sign of it. The Great Northern Railway, to avoid severe gradients, negotiated the high ground by burrowing through the ridge.  The line lies directly beneath, deep in the longest of the three Hadley Wood tunnels, Hadley Wood North 232 yards

Wagon Road
Ganwick Farm. The farm operates a fodder store for horses and other pets.
Ganwick House. This is a residential care home for adults with autism and severe learning disabilities.  It is a late 18th house.
Three Oak Hill. This is to the north east of Wagon Road and it is under this that the railway runs

Sources
Archaeology Data Service. Web site
British History on line. South Mimms. Web site
Brookmans Park Newsletter. Web site
Duke of York. Web site
Mee. Hertfordshire,
Meulenkamp and Wheatley. Follies
Potters Bar History. Web site
Webster. Great North Road
Whitelaw. Hidden Hertfordshire
Wrotham Park. Web site

Tuesday, 20 December 2016

M25 Potters Bar


Post to the west Potters Bar
Post to the south Ganwick Corner
Post to the east Potters Bar Interchange


Barnet Road
2 Potty Pancakes. This was The Lion pub. This was built in 1785. It was originally a blacksmith’s shop, built in 1761 on ‘waste’. There is a large chimney stack at the left and a smaller one on the right. In 1837 the property was sold and divided into two - one a smithy and the other a wheelwright’s. By 1841 it was a beer shop and was called the Lion Brewery in 1861.
Particular Baptist Church. There are two buildings here. The older church, to the south, was designed by W. Allen Dixon in 1868. It replaced an earlier Baptist Church of 1789, before which the congregation had met in a field on the same site. It was registered for worship by the Particular Baptists and extended in 1884 with the construction of the Spurgeon Hall. It had a burial ground to the north which remains grassed over. It was damaged by Second World War bombing. It is now used as a church hall and a new church used, which was built in 1964.
Clayton Centre. This was originally the Toc H Hall.  Toc H was a national organisation set up during the Great War by Army Padre Tubby Clayton which continued after the war as a voluntary social service movement. In 1929 a Toc H group was formed in Potters Bar which by 1945 had Branch status which entitled it to its own lamp. They built a hall in Darkes Lane in 1937 on land donated by a Major King. In 1969 the site was acquired by Potters Bar district council who offered a plot in Barnet Road with money to build a new hall. In 1975 this was opened by Cecil Parkinson MP and used by various organisations.  By 2000   Toc H Central was in financial difficulties and needed to sell assets and the hall was sold. Members of the Branch negotiated with Hertsmere to lease the hall under a new management called The Clayton Centre and they have continued to use it under the traditions of Toc H.

Cherry Tree Lane
Footpath which crosses the railway,

Field View Road
Sunnybank Primary School. This closed in 2007

High Street
2-6 Canada Life Place. This large insurance company has a complex of buildings which appear to front mainly on Mutton Lane. The complex appears to date from the 1980s.
20a Solport (Potters Bar) Ltd. in 1955 this was a Surgical Glass works also supplying druggists sundries etc

Mutton Lane
Potters Bar and District Hospital. This replaced the Cottage Hospital in Richmond Road.   It opened in 1939 and was recognized and partly funded by Potters Bar Urban District Council. the building was approached by a wide driveway lined with flowering trees and a flowerbed donated by the Furzefield Women's Institute.  The Hospital was an H-shaped single-storey red brick building with 42 beds managed by the local GPs.  There was an operating theatre, three wards and Out-Patients. The land had been given by Mr. Tilbury, local baker, who had a ward named after him. In the Second World War it became part of the Emergency Medical Service, with 49 beds.  In 1948 the Hospital joined the NHS and later acquired a nurse’s home and a convalescent ward.  By 1964 it had a Casualty Department and an Out-Patients Department, but   in 1967, despite great public protest, the Casualty Department closed along with other changes.  In 1982 it was proposed to move more services to Barnet and close surgical units in small hospitals and an action committee was formed to no avail.   The Hospital became a geriatric hospital with 52 beds in 1985.  In 1990 it was reported that Tesco were interested in buying the site on return for a new hospital in Barnet Road.  This was agreed, and the site now contains a Tesco supermarket.
Tesco. On the site of the hospital.
Star House. Office block for British Gas Eastern Region and also Paper and Paper Products Industry Training Board. Demolished in 2000. It was built in land given in 1938 for a congregational church. The land was sold in 1963 and the church built elsewhere.
Fire and Ambulance Station. Potters Bar fire station opened in 1939 became part of Middlesex Fire Brigade in 1948. On reorganisation in 1965 it became part of Hertfordshire Fire and Ambulance Brigade
Limerick House. This was The Railroad inn (or the Beer Engine House) which lost its licence in 1906 and then became the local headquarters of the British Red Cross Society. It is now used by commercial offices.
St.Mary’s Churchyard. Burial Ground. The church is about half a mile from the churchyard which was t was closed for burials in the late 1970s. There are a number of Great War related graves including at one time the graves of the crew members of the German Schutte-Lanz Airship SL-11 brought down near Cuffley, and also the crew of a Zeppelin brought down at Potters Bar in 1916., all of whom were re-interred at Cannock Chase. These were all re-interred at Cannock Chase.
War Memorial. There is a memorial dedicated to those who died in Prisoner of War camps during the Second World War Two and were buried in cemeteries in Poland, Indonesia, Myanmar, Singapore, France and Thailand. The garden of remembrance was provided by the Potters Bar and Little Heath Urban Council Prisoner of War Fund.

Railway
Railway tunnel. This is on the former Great Northern Railway main line and built in 1849. It is 1214 yards duplicated in the late 1957-9s when the line was quadrupled by Halcrow contractors.
Aqueduct. The railway line is crossed by an aqueduct

Sources
Archaeology Data Service. Potters Bar
British History on Line South Mimms. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Clayton Centre. Web site
Hertfordshire Fire Stations. Web site
Hertsmere Council. Web site
Lost Hospitals of London. Web site
Potters Bar Baptist Church. Web site.


Monday, 19 December 2016

M25 Potters Bar

Post to the west Mymms Wash
Post to the east Potters Bar


Baker Street
Rydal Mount – a ‘big house’.
Pope Paul Catholic Primary School
67 St John’s Methodist Church opened 1941. From 1880 a barn at Darkes Farm had been used for services until a church was built in the Hatfield Road in 1883. St John's was erected in 1941 and the former Hatfield Road premises sold. Potters Bar has formed part of the Barnet Circuit since 1882.  Potters Bar has formed part of the Barnet Circuit since 1882

Dugdale Hill Lane
Dugdale Hill Farm. This stood on the north corner with Santers Lane.
Dame Alice Owen School. Dame Alice Owen’s School was founded in 1613 and has a long standing association with the Worshipful Company of Brewers. In the 16th Alice Wilkes was milking a cow in Islington when an arrow from nearby butts pierced the crown of her hat, without injuring her. She vowed that when rich enough she would do something for posterity to mark her gratitude. Alice married three times and became very rich, and so established a school for 30 boys from Islington in 1613 with the Worshipful Company of Brewers which, as trustees. A girls’ school was built in 1886 which merged with the boys’ school in 1973 and in 1976 they moved to Potters Bar, as a mixed comprehensive

Sources
Dame Alice Oweb school, Web site
National Archoves. Web site
Pope Paul School. Web site
St.John's Methodist Church. Web site

M25 Ridge


Post to the north South Mimms
Post to the west Mimms Lane ford
Post to the south Ridge
Post to the east South Mimms, Bignall's corner



Blanche Lane
Clare Hall. The house was built in 1754, around an existing early 17th century house by Thomas Roberts. It was enlarged between 1797-1842 and became a convent in 1886,, The  Manor was renovated in 1988 and now contains a restaurant, meeting rooms and accommodation for the employees on site.
St. Monica's Priory. This was in Clare Hall 1886-1896.
Clare Hall Hospital. The house became a private smallpox hospital in 1896, taking some cases from local authorities in Middlesex.  The hospital had been established in Clerkenwell in 1746 as the Middlesex County Hospital for Small-pox by Thomas Poole and moved to various premises subsequently. They moved here despite objections from local people and extensions were built. In 1901 16 new wards were built and 16 huts as well as other facilities including a sewage works. In 1907 it was bought from the charity by the hospital board.  From 1911 the National Health Insurance Act allowed public funds to be spent on tuberculosis sanatoria and tubercular patients were admitted to Clare Hall from 1912. It was taken over by the County Council in 1929. It became an emergency hospital during the Second World War and air raid casualties were treated there. Under the NHS from 1948 it was greatly expanded and new buildings erected on both sides of Blanche Lane. It was mainly treating patients with chest diseases. Although it continued to expand in the late 1960s it began to be thought that it was too remote and many facilities were old and inefficient. It closed in 1974. The buildings remained empty until acquired by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund in 1980. Most of the original hospital buildings were wooden and have been demolished.  The gateway, lodge and wall on the west side of Blanche Lane have been retained.  The site of the east side is now a car park.
Wall. Bits of St.Antholin's church from the City of London  were built into the wall which has since been demolished. The fragments were removed elsewhere.
National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. The Institute is the UK’s Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL), responsible for carrying out independent official batch release testing of biological medicines as required by EU law and carry put research into biological standards;
The Francis Crick Institute. Clare Hall Laboratories. This is a biomedical discovery institute dedicated to under Istanding the fundamental biology underlying human health and illness. It was founded by the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Trust, University College London,Imperial College London and King's College London.
Blanche Lane Farm. The weatherboarded timber framed farm house has been replaced by a mid-20th house.


Crossoaks Lane
Ridge Farm. Farmhouse built between 1822 and 1838. There is an 18th Barn with a timber frame and weatherboarding on a brick base. There are stables which extend forward to the road from the end of the barn. They are 18th and 19th with a timber frame and weatherboarded.
Telephone kiosk, This is ourside Ridge Farm. It is type K6 designed in 1935 by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott..
Old Guinea Pub. This was built before 1881 to replace an earlier pub. The earliest record is from 1750 when it was kept by Francis Grant. It then had one bed and stabling for two horses. Its cellar was used as the village lock-up and in 1852 it included a post office.
Vicarage. This is a brick house with a 19th design, It was built between 1822 and 1838 as the Vicarage to St Margaret’s Church. It is thought to stand on the foundations of an earlier vicarage and has stables and a coach house at the back.
Workhouse. this was built in 1834 and closed in 1842.
Pillbox. Second World War hexagonal pillbox with a thick concrete roof. It is opposite Deeves Hall Lane under a tree.
Baytree Cottages. This was the Sovereign Public House until about 1880. It is now two houses. It was built in the 17th, with a timber frame, rendered and weatherboarded. .
Forge Cottage House. Probably built early 17th with a timber frame and a weatherboarded first floor.
Orchard Mead . This was built as five almshouses in 1844 by Sir G.G.Scott and W.B.Moffatt for Miss J.Trotter of Dyrham Park. It is in knapped flint facing on clunch walls with red brick dressings. There is a blank rectangle for a dedicatory plaque in the gable

Deeves Hall Lane
St.Margaret's church. Ridge Parish was set up in the late 13th on land belonging to St. Albans Abbey and remained in the Liberty of St Albans until 1870 when it became part of Hertfordshire. The chancel of the church dates from the 14th, and may have been a small church there is a 13th piscina in the chancel.  The nave and tower were added in the 15th in knapped flint with clunch dressings and some pudding-stone in the tower. In 1740-46 following repairs box pews and a three-decker pulpit were added and in 1810, a gallery was installed. It was restored again in 1881 1 by A.Billings destroying most of a medieval doom- painting  but a large, defaced, wall painting of St Christopher is on the north wall. Recently more repairs have been carried out, the roof was renewed in 1976, and other work done.
Deeves Hall. This house was built around 1760 as a gentleman’s residence with a small farm. It was recorded as Deve Hall at that time and gave its name to Deeves Hall Lane. The band, Deep Purple, was developed here.
Granary at Deeves Hall, This is timber framed with weatherboarding. It rests on eight staddle stones
Deeves Hall Barn, This weatherboarded barn is now a house
Church Farm. Barn from the late 17th with as timber frame and weatherboarding. There are weatherboarded stables towards the yard.


Earls Lane
Earls Farm. Weatherboarded barns.

M25
This stretch of the motorway was built as the A6.

Sources
British History on line. South Mimms. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Crick Institute. Web site
Hertsmere Council. Web site
Historic England. Web site
London Transport. Country Walks
Lost Hospitals of Loondon. Web site
Mee. Hertfordshire
Meulenkamp and Wheatley. Follies
Middlesex County Council. History of Middlesex
National Institute for Biological Standards and Control
St Giles and St,Margaret. Web site
Walford. Village London 
Whitelaw. Hidden Hertfordshire.

Sunday, 18 December 2016

M25 Redwell Wood

Post to the west Ridge Hill
Post to the south South Mimms


A6
The A6 was built in the 1970s to replace the St.Albans Road, and is now used as the M25.

Blackhorse Lane
Flint Cottage, house with stables
Woodhill Farm

Hawkshead Wood
Ancient replanted woodland

M25
Orbital motorway taking over the previous A6

Redwell Wood
Redwell Wood.  This is a Site of Special Scientific Interest with ancient and secondary woodland, heath and scrub. The woodland canopy is dominated by pedunculate oak. The woodland includes areas of high forest, coppice with standards and small areas of recent selective felling where birch scrub has developed. Part of the wood was replanted with conifers but these have largely failed and natural regeneration is proceeding. Ground flora include bluebells and enchanter’s-nightshade, while heath land species include heather and rare creeping willow
Swallowhole. There are temporary swallow holes from seasonal streams where cross boundary between geological beds.

Sources
Hertfordshire Geological Society. Web site
Natural England. Web site
Welwyn Hatfield Council. Web site

M25 Ridge Hill


Post to the west Salisbury Hall
Post to the north Coursers farmland
Post to the south Rapley Park

Post to the east Redwell Wood

M25
This section of the M25 was originally the A6 itself adapted from what was Telford’s St. Albans Road.  On the A6 A dual carriageway bypass was built around 1970, and this section became the M25 in 1986.

Old St. Albans Road
This is a pathway between Rectory Lane and Ridge Hill. Mentioned from 1220 the old road to St. Albans followed a tortuous course . It was often flooded and in need of repair. A new road was built the east to carry the A6 and in 1965 it was decided to close the old road to motor vehicles to stop them joining the A6 trunk road. In time it was difficult to see the old road at all. It has now been improved by the County Council.

Redwell Wood Farm
Redwell Wood Farm.The farm buildings and surrounding area support a number of businesses of various sorts as well as farm use and livery. There have been proposals for other uses including a composting facility and a solar panel farm. There is a prominent silo
Mast. Telefonica uk

Rectory Lane
Shenley Lodge. This is an 18th later used as a health resort. It was extended in the late 19th and early 20th. It was used as a land army hostel in the Second World War. Post Second World War; it was the home of double-agent and gangster, Eddie Chapman. It is now a private fee paying school
Manor Lodge School. This is a fee paying private primary and ‘prep’ school. It opened in 1992 and has caters for over 400 children over this time. The main school building was Shenley Lodge but there are now extensions and other building including a refectory and a sports
Ridgehill Stable and Riding School
Sign post on a small island of grass
Post Box. This stood on the grassy island and is marked on historic maps but has been removed. Brickwork remains of the post-box can still be seen at the foot of the mound.
Steddle stones. These are used ornamentally on the entrance to the riding school
Shenley Lodge Farm. This appears to be a dairy farm
Shenley Lodge Farm Wood. This is a designated wildlife site


Ridge Hill/St.Albans Road
This is what was the St.Albans Road, following the line of the pre-Telford Holyhead Road, which is the route of the M25 and which crosses the old road on Ridge Hill. The section of road from Barnet to South Mimms, completed in 1828, followed a fairly straight line to Ridge Hill.  At the beginning of the 20th the old turnpike had become a green sunken track, but most of it was then repaired and tarred. Raised on an embankment at times over 30 feet higher than the original road, the present road is one carriageway of the 1970 trunk road, running alongside the M25.Tthe north carriageway disappeared when the huge embankment was created to carry the motorway.
The St. Albans Turnpike Trust was established in September 1715, by Private Act of Parliament. The original route began at South Mimms through London Colney to St. Albans. It was the oldest and longest-lived turnpike trust in the county. In 1807 the road between Ridge Hill and South Mimms was straightened and widened and there were plans to lower Ridge Hill itself. It was later decided to avoid it and hence in 1818-1820 the Telford road was built.
Wagon and Horses. This was bought out in 1903 and became the first Trust House with an ex-policeman as manager. The idea was to provide a refreshment house which was not tied to a brewery and thus could provide drinks of all sorts. It was demolished for the motorway.
Packhorse Cottages. Demolished. They stood at the corner of Blackhorse Road and Ridge Hill.
Milestone. South side of the road.


Sources
British Listed Building. Web site
Hertsmere Council. Web site
Historic England. Web site
Manor Lodge School. Web site
Patchetts Green Bridleway Trust. Web site
Randall and Hopkirk (deceased). Web site
Webster. Great North Road
WW2 People’s War. Web site

M25 Salisbury Hall



Post to the north Bell Roundabout
Post to the east Ridge Hill



M25
This section was originally the A6 but was adapted into the M25 in the 1980s.

Ridge Hill
Salisbury Hall. Formerly called Shenley Manor. And in the 9th this was part of the Manor of Shenleybury held by Asgar the Stallar. In 1380 it to Sir John Montague, later the Earl of Salisbury.  A new house was built about 1507 by Sir John Cutte, Treasurer to King Henry VII and Henry VIII. This was bought in abut 1668 by James Hoare, a London banker and then to Jeremy Snow who rebuilt it.
Salisbury Hall House. Built in 1668-79 for Sir Jeremiah Snow but some parts date from the 14th. It is in red brick and 20th extensions replace the earlier service wings. Snow’s arms are carved on a pediment. Inside are 16th medallions with busts of Roman emperors brought from Sopwell Priory. The house is completely surrounded by a moat. In the late 19th it was occupied by a succession of farmers but in 1905 Lady Randolph Churchill lived here and in the 1930s it was the home of Nigel Gresley, of the London and North Eastern Railway.
Mosquito. The house was chosen by de Havilland in 1939 for development, in private, of a high-speed, unarmed bomber, of wooden construction, the de Havilland Mosquito design team moved here as a security precaution against the British Government stopping work on the project. The Mosquito was conceived as an unarmed high speed bomber but developed into the first multi-role combat aircraft. A hangar was built across the moat where the first prototype was hand built out of wood using non-strategic material and labour. Construction from wood is a specialty of this area, connected with the Chiltern furniture industry and several de Havilland aircraft were made of wood. Three Mosquitoes were flown out of the surrounding fields to Hatfield De Havilland left in 1947 and the Hall became derelict. In 1955 Walter Goldsmith an ex Royal Marine Major named took it on.
De Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre.  This is the the oldest aircraft museum in the country. It first exhibit was the Mosquito Prototype W4050 which was saved by Bill Baird and Walter Goldsmith. Baird was trying to find a home for this aircraft, and Goldsmith fundraised among the original sub-contractors and a Robin hangar was found in which the Prototype was assembled. A committee was formed including Geoffrey de Havilland.  More aircraft were added to the collection and the freehold of the site was acquired. It opened to the public in 1959. The name was changed to the Mosquito Aircraft Museum, and in 1974, the Supporters Society was formed and later the de Havilland Aircraft Museum Trust Ltd
Granary.  This dates from the late 17th and is timber framed and standing on staddle stones.
Barns. These are on the east side of the hall and include a tack room. They are late 17th and timber framed and weatehrboarded. The tack room is 18th.
Nell Gwynne's cottage. This was originally the pump house to Salisbury Hall. It is early 18th in red brick with some timber framing. Nell Gwynn is said to have lived there in the 17th and to haunt the hall
Dairy. This is 19th and is linked to the pump house.
Secret passages. There are stories of several. Some are said to run from deep cupboards in the attics.   Also on the side of the moat is said to be a circular bricked-up opening going to an underground passage nearly five feet high, which connected Salisbury Hall with St Albans Abbey.
Salisbury Hall Farm 

Sources
British History. On line. Shenley. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Chelsea Speliological Society,. Newsletter
De Havilland Museum. Guide book and leaflets
De Havilland Museum. Web site
Historic England. Web site
London Transport. Country Walks
Osborne. Defending London
Whitelaw, Hidden Hertfordshire

M25 Bell Roundabout


Post to the west London Colney
Post to the north Tyttenhanger
Post to the east Coursers Farnland
Post to the south Salisbury Hall


Coursers Road
Willows Farm entrance and car park

M25
Junction 22. This is what was The Bell Roundabout. This was originally a roundabout on the A6 at the south end of the London Colney bypass – the A6 then running as a north west – south east through route.. When the M25 was completed between the A and the A (M), the section of the A6 dual carriageway to the south became the M25 motorway and two extra roundabouts were added to the south. (One of these is in the square to the west)The section of the A6 to the north became the Colney bypass.
Carriageways on the north of the roundabout remain as they were originally designed for future use in a different road configuration to that which was actually built.
The Bell. This pub dates from at least the 1880s and is now a burger bar. It was previously a road house band a venue for rehearsing rock bands

Ridge Hill
This is part of the B556 originally a cross country route dating from 1935 and running between Hatfield and Radlett. The route changed here when the M25 was built.
Salisbury Hall Lodge, This is now a cattery

Sources
Lost Pubs Project.  Web site
Pub History, Web site
Sabre. Web site


Friday, 9 December 2016

Riverside west of the Tower and north of the river. Fulham riverside

This posting relates to sites north of the river only. South of the river is Putney High Street

Post to the west Putney Boathouses
Post to the east Wandsworth

Church Gate
Until 1937 this little road was called Church Row.
All Saints Church. The first records of a church here are from the 13th, and the tower of the church was built in 1445. Traces of an earlier building have been found to the south of the current church. In 1880 the medieval church was thought too small and liable to regular flooding and it was therefore replaced by a new church designed by Arthur Blomfield also built of Kentish ragstone but higher to avoid floods. Most of the stained glass dates from the rebuilding of the church but the monuments were saved from the old church. There is a tablet to Elizabeth Limpany 1694 in a carved wooden surround and many other monuments.
Churchyard. The earliest known burial is that of Richard Colman in 1376. In 1611 pigs were not allowed into the churchyard, and in 1738 people were stopped from drying or airing clothes here. The burial ground was enlarged in 1781 and land to the south was added, and again in 1783.  The entrance was changed at various times to allow for carriages to enter and iron gates and fencing were erected. The churchyard was closed to burials in 1863.  From the early 19th the churchyard was subject to body snatching, The churchyard still has its gate piers and iron gates and the ground is planted with yew, holly and laurel, and there are limes along the walk. There are monuments including the tombs of ten Bishops of London.  There us a Great War Memorial dedicated in 1923 with a bronze life-size figure of Christ. There is a sculpture by Helen Sinclair, 'The Mother and The Child' installed in 2000. Also there is what may be a 12th font found buried in the High Street in 1827 and used for horses to drink out of and then later planted with flowers from 1867. It was presented to the church and put on a brick base
Old Vicarage. This was first recorded in 1430 and had a garden of over an acre with big trees and shrubs from the arboretum at Fulham Palace.
Vicarage Garden. This is a small public garden laid out in the early 20th once the garden of the vicarage but reduced when Putney Bridge Approach was built. The site of the former vicarage was close to the site of the War Memorial. There are large plane trees, rose beds, and shrub borders with what used to be a kiosk.
William Powell’s Almshouses. Powell lived here in the mid 17th and left a number of almshouses for poor men and women in the parish. They were managed by the Vicar and Parish Officers and over the 200 years the lessees changed repeatedly. In the 1850e it fell into disrepair and in 1867 it was decided to move. The site chosen was garden that belonged to the Lord of the Manor were a since demolished private school for young ladies had stood. The foundation stone was laid in 1869 and almshouses designed by J P Seddon were provided for 12 almswomen. A square tower had originally housed a water cistern. A tablet on the first house says: 'Sir William Powell's Alms Houses Founded 1680 re-built 1869. A plaque says 'God's Providence Our Inheritance'; with Sir William's and Bishop Blomfield's arms.
War Memorial. Erected 1921. The memorial has a bronze statue representing Peace and a kneeling cherub, the work of Alfred Turner. The inscription is "To the Honour of Fulham's Gallant Dead" "They died for freedom" 1914–1918 and 1939–1945. There is a Roll of Honour set into the wall, and iron gates.
6 Egmont Lodge. This was renamed thus after the owner of Egmont Villa moved here after its purchase by the waterworks company. Fire mark insurance plaque
Church Gate Hall. This was a Baptist chapel now converted to a house, having been a photographer’s studio. It dates from the early 20th
The Vicarage moved to its current location between 1915 and 1921, when the old one was demolished

Fulham High Street
69-79 Fulham Green. Office block
87 Fulham House TA Centre. This is an early 18th house, with probably earlier cellars. Owned by the army since 1903.  This is a centre for The Royal Yeomanry RHQ, and the Command (Westminster Dragoons) and Support Squadron – and the cadets. The house was restored in 1987-89 by Suoud Mallis & Partners. There is a brick extension to the back and railings at the front with a stone entrance gateway.
89 Eight Bells. This was claimed to have been licensed in 1629 as the Blue Anchor, and then changed its name later to the Anchor, then The Anchor and Eight Bells and finally the Eight Bells by c1754. Has clearly since been rebuilt
69 Philip & Tacey Ltd. School Stationary factory. The company had started in 1826 in the City Road by John Tacey supplying schools with basic equipment. In 1902 they joined with Henry Philip and Boy and by the 1920s were working with Froebel and Montessori. They moved to Fulham in 1919 and in the late 1960s moved to Andover, where they remain
The Fulham Theatre. This opened in 1897 as a live theatre designed by W.G.R. Sprague, There was a portico entrance with Ionic columns, and a statue of Britannia and two hand-maidens above. Lighting was provided by a Crossley gas engine – and special arrangements had to be made for this installation in the water logged sub soil. It was later known as the Shilling Theatre, and used as a cinema from 1912. By 1937 it was re-named Grand Theatre with live theatre and films on Sundays. It closed in 1950, demolished in 1958. Riverbank House was built on the site – now between the High Street and the Bridge Approach. .
156 Cambridge House. This stood west of the old Fulham Bridge adjacent to the Swan coal wharf. It was built in 1843 on the site of the stables of Fulham Hall. In the early 20th it was the White Lodge Laundry.
Fulham Hall. This was on the west side of the street and had replaced 14th Stourton House in the 17th. It was demolished in 1842. This was for a while the home of Granville Sharp who is buried in the nearby churchyard. He was an associate of Wilberforce and mounted one of the earliest legal challenges to slavery in England.

Hurlingham Park
Hurlingham Park.  This square covers only the south west portion of the park. The southern part of this area is still an area which is part of Hurlingham Club
Hurlingham Club. This was once called Hurlingham Field farmed by Saxon settlers in 500AD and from the 8th it was part Bishops of London’s manor. In the 17th it was a burial pit for plague victims and an isolation hospital until 1736 – although the location of these is not known.  By the 18th there were riverside villas as well as meadows and nurseries. Hurlingham House (in the square to the east) was built and was the home of successive grandees and the park was laid out by Humphrey Repton. From 1860 it was used as a shooting ground and as the Hurlingham Club. The pigeon shooting area from which the club grew was what is now Hurlingham Club property south of the running track. The pigeon is still the Club’s crest and until 1905 live pigeons were released each summer from near the present Tennis Pavilion. In 1879 the estate was enlarged with the purchase of Mulgrave House and its grounds. In 1906 Edwin Lutyens designed pavilions which remain. In the Great War the area passed into military use and the polo grounds suffered trench mortar and other damage. In the 1930s an outdoor swimming pool, squash courts and bowling greens were added plus a 9-hole golf course. The 1930s Swimming pool has now been replaced. The Croquet Association had its headquarters here from 1959 to 2002.   When the Polo Grounds were taken over for use as a public park the club retained the southern section of the grounds and this remains as a private sports facility.
Polo. Polo came to England in 1869 through Lord De L’Isle who was a trustee of the club. The game was established at Hurlingham in 1874 and the Club then became the headquarters of Polo for the British Empire. International competitions were played here.
Hurlingham Park. After the Second World War, the London County Council compulsorily purchased the Club's polo grounds for public recreation and the park retains much of the ambiance of its days as a polo ground. It has a major focus on sports facilities of which there are all sorts – an All Weather Football Pitch; 3 Tennis Courts, a Multi use games area, a Bowling Green, 2 Football pitches 2 Rugby pitches and a Floodlit training area.  A sports pavilion is located in the centre of the site where there are toilets, changing rooms, meeting space and a viewing gallery. The park is bounded to the street by iron railings, with London plane trees and silver birch around the edge.
Mulgrave House. This was on the west side of the park and included the lake. Hurlingham Club bought it and demolished it in 1927. It had been the seat of the Earl of Mulgrave, and later of other wealthy people.
Tennis Courts. Tennis began here in 1877 and the first ‘All England’ tournament was played here. In the Great War trenches were dug around the tennis courts. Towards the end of the war, a hanger and other buildings were built for RAF balloons. The polo grounds were reclaimed by the club in 1919-20. During WWII, troops were again quartered at Hurlingham. Barrage balloons were tethered in the grounds and an anti-aircraft battery was installed.
Hurlingham Stadium and running track. The opening meeting of the running track was on 1954, the day that this became a public park. It was originally a cinder track and the field was part of the polo ground. A concrete polo grandstand was built in 1936 to replace an earlier one but was demolished because of poor repairs in 2002. It has been replaced by a pavilion. The track was the base of London Athletic Club and last used for a race in 1979. When a meeting was held with the same schedule of events as the first open championship in 1879
Hammersmith and Fulham Rugby Football Club. The Club was started by teachers from Henry Compton School and decided at a Hotel in Wigan in 1977. In March the Leisure & Recreation Committee of the London Borough of Hammersmith granted them the central pitch at Hurlingham Park and they made their own arrangements with the Peterborough Arms.  Find out about the annual club awards and the winners.
Little Mulgrave House. This was west of Mulgrave House and dated from 1715.  It was later bought by the Hurlingham Club and used as their manager’s house.

Putney Bridge Approach
This was previously called Bridge Street. When the current bridge was built a new rising approach was formed from the High Street at its junction with Church Gate through the Vicarage garden. This is now the main traffic route
Fulham/Putney Bridge.  The earliest bridge, dating from the mid 18th was accessed from Bridge Street with a toll house between the two. The current Putney Bridge dates from the 1880s and is built a short way to the west of its predecessor
Toll house between the two – this toll house being effectively an arch with a building either side of a roofed space. Below the house an arched passageway took the riverside path under the tollhouse and the bridge
Aqueduct. This was built by the Chelsea Water Works Co to bring water from Barn Elms to north London.  This water is now carried in a trunk main under Putney Bridge. The water company bought and demolished Egmont Villa as part of these works
2 Riverbank House. This was ICT’s Bridge House North by Siefert and Partners. On the building is a sculpture of the The Swanupper by Edward Bainbridge Copnall.  This dates from 1963, and was the first fibreglass sculpture in Britain, and therefore probably in the world.
3 Putney Bridge Cinematograph Cinema. This was in the corner with Gonville Street. It opened in 1911 and was re-named Putney Bridge Kinema in 1915. It became part of Town Theatres, and closed in 1940 for alterations to be carried out. Because of restrictions in the Second World War it was still closed when it became art of Odeon Theatres in 1942 and never re-opened. It was demolished in 1957/1958 and a Premier Travel Inn hotel has replaced it.
Premier Inn. This was Bridge House South for International Computers (ICT)
Pryor's Bank Gardens.  These are part of the old Bishop's Park. The house and garden were sold by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners to Fulham Vestry. The river wall was extended to Putney Bridge and the area was cleared and laid out. The house’s formal garden was preserved and opened in 1900. The east garden had a lawn with roses and a fountain. In 1953 in commemoration of the Coronation four statues by James Wedgwood, whose studio was local, were installed – these were of Adoration, Grief, and Protection. These are all in Portland stone, and Leda in Caen stone was also added as was, later, Affection in Portland Stone by Hermon Cawthra. In the formal garden is a fountain with three tiers, the top basin supported by three fish, thought to have been erected by Fulham Vestry in 1894. West of the house are rising formal terraces planted with roses but which were previously ornamental bedding with the Fulham coat of arms. Another paved garden has a memorial of 1997, dedicated to local residents who fought in the Spanish Civil War with the International Brigade
Pryors Bank. This was a Strawberry Hill Gothic house with battlements and turreted chimneys. It had been built in 1837 for Thomas Baylis and William Letchmore, both antiquaries, who filled it with their collections. It was eventually purchased by the Vestry, and demolished in 1897, as unfit for public purposes.
Pavilion. This is on the site of Pryors Bank. It was built in 1900 designed by C Botterill, the Borough Surveyor. It is a mock Tudor pavilion, originally a refreshment house, inside the gates of Bishop’s Park, with a veranda overlooking the gardens and a lawn with specimen trees and shrubs. It also housed a public reading room and had staff accommodation on the first floor. It is new leased from the council by All Saints Church, and their offices are on the first floor.
Malt House. This was on the riverside on the east side of the road. It dated from the early 19th with an oast style kiln. It was connected to the Swan Inn brew house and stood behind the pub. In 1900 it was known as the "Swan Maltings" and belonged to the Royal Brewery, Chelsea.
Swan Wharf. This was taken over with the old toll house by the Vestry and used for rubbish removal after the erection of the current bridge in the 1880s. Rubbish was tipped into barges here for disposal down river at Rainham in Essex. It was named for the "Swan" Inn
Cramer Roberts & Co coal wharf.
Swan Inn. This dated from at least 1698 and stood on the riverside wit tea gardens going down to the river. In the mid 18th it had an adjoining brew house and maltings. A paved area in front of the pub was used as the parade ground of the Fulham light infantry volunteers. It was burnt down in 1871 Swan Wharf Chambers subsequently occupied the site and Swanbank Court flats.

Ranelagh Gardens
This road runs parallel to the river and is now the site of large mansion blocks of flats.  In some cases these have replaced working wharves
Ranelagh House. The road is named for Ranelagh House which was to the north of here but south of Hurlingham Road.  It was built for Viscount Ranelagh in 1804. It became a country club in 1848 but the club moved south of the river in the 1880s and the house was later demolished.
Willow Bank. This was a house built in 1816 overlooking the river standing in gardens. It replaced a number of older houses and cottages.  It was bought by the District Railway Company in 1889 and demolished for the railway bridge.
Fenning's Granite, Marble and Mosaic Works. This was on Willow Bank Wharf where Willow Bank House had stood. It had been established in the early 20th by Daniel Fleming with an interested in quarries at Shap in Westmoreland.
Carrara Wharf. Development of flats by Higgs & Hill in 1987-9 on the site of Fenning's Wharf.
Swanbank Court
. Local Authority sheltered housing in brown brick, built in 981 by Green, Lloyd & Adams. This is on the site of Willowbank.
Railway arch. Single span of the railway bridge carrying the District Line over the road
Pillbox. There is a Second World War defence pillbox on the south east abutment of the bridge. A type 22 design, the pillbox is multi-sided and consists of two storeys, the lower storey doorway being on the west side but without loopholes.
Plaque. On the side of the bridge. Which says “Father of the British Motor Industry. Beneath this arch was situated the first workshop of Frederick Richard Simms 1863 – 1944”
Simms workshop. Simms first commercial workshop was under the arch of this bridge, a space for fitting Daimler engines to motor launches, in what was probably Britain's first motor company. Simms, is credited with coining the words 'petrol' and 'motorcar', and built the world's first armoured car, and invented the rubber bumper, and founded the Royal Automobile Club. In 1889, the 26-year-old Simms had met Gottlieb Daimler, from who bought the rights of Daimler's high-speed petrol engine in the British Empire. They were first used in motor launches but led to the British motor industry. In 1891, Simms demonstrated the motor launch on the Thames, and in 1893 formed The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited work to put petrol engines into boars in a space here,
Rivermead Court flats.  Overlooking the Thames built 1950s. Private gardens. Spacious grounds overlooking the river

Railway Bridge.
Fulham Railway Bridge. This was constructed 1887-1889 by the London South Western Railway and refurbished 1995 - 1997 for London Underground Limited by Tilbury Douglas Construction Limited. It carries the District Railway line from West Brompton an ornamental viaduct approved by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and designed by William Jacomb, LSWR Engineer
Footway.  On the downstream side opened July 1889. This is reached by steep steps from the road. There are curled lamp fittings and at the river’s edge a pillar is topped off by an ornate pediment, with swirls and scallop painted in delicate green.

Station Approach
Putney Bridge Station. This was opened in 1880 and lies between Parsons Green and East Putney stations on the District Line to Wimbledon. It opened as Putney Bridge and Fulham when the Metropolitan District Railway extended its line south from West Brompton and was the terminus of the line until 1889 when the Fulham Railway Bridge was built and the line was extended south to the London and South Western Railway's East Putney station and then provided a through service to Wimbledon. Originally it had wooden platforms with an entrance through the east part of the garden of Willow Brook and there was a footway to interchange with river boats. In 1902, it was renamed Putney Bridge Hurlingham but became Putney Bridge in 1932. The station has an ornate yellow brick fa├žade at the entrance. There are Cast iron lamp standards and at platform level are ridge-and-furrow canopies and white serrated valancing. A forked wooden staircase goes down to the ticket hall and remains are much as it would have been in 1880.
London Underground Electricity Sub Station


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