Saturday, 30 July 2016

Riverside.south of the Thames and west of the Tower. Walton at Sunbury Lock


Riverside.south of the Thames and west of the Tower. Walton at Sunbury Lock


This post consists of sites south of the Thames for this square only. North of the Thames is Sunbury Riverside

Post to the east Walton Apps Court and Sunbury Rivermead
Post to the west Wheatley's Ait and Walton Waterside

Sunbury Lock Ait

Sunbury Lock Ait. This island has no residential accommodation and is accessible by a footbridge over the lock as well as walkways on the lock gates. There is a bridge to Wheatley's Ait across the weir, but this is not open to the public.  The island predates the deepening of the navigation and was previously known as "Sunbury Church Ait". It was bought by the City of London Corporation from about six proprietors for the site of the lock, which was predated by a flash weir. The footbridge and old lock house are on the site of the original lock

Coal post in the grounds of the Yacht Club, north side of Sunbury Lock Ait.

Middle Thames Yacht club. Founded in 1956.

Wilson’s Boat Yard


Riverside

Sunbury Lock. This is on the south bank at Sunbury.  There are a series of locks and two in current use. These are downstream of the original lock which was built in 1812 having been planned in 1805 and was built with the lock cut was created out of an existing channel beside the island and a lock house. By 1852 major water extraction from this section of the river led to a rebuilding. The lock was relocated to its present site with a new lock house.  There are two locks - One is hand-operated and was built in 1856. A second lock was opened in 1927 by Lord Desborough, then Chair of Thames Conservancy, and includes a slide for small boats.

Sunbury Weir. The earliest weir was built in 1789 to divert water and make a deeper channel for navigation. The main weir is between Sunbury Lock Ait and Wheatley's Ait. There is another weir at the upstream end of Wheatley's Ait.

Old Sunbury Lock House


Waterside Drive

“Sunbury Lock Gas Works” This is actually a tank farm owned by BPA, the British Pipeline Agency Ltd.  Here aviation fuel is received by pipeline and pumped to Heathrow and Gatwick airports.

Weir Hotel. This riverside pub and hotel dates from the late 1870s.


Sources

Industrial Archaeology of Elmbridge

Middle Thames Yacht Club. Web site

Pub History. Web site

Sunbury Matters. Web site

Sweet Thames Run Smoothly. Web site

Wikipedia. Web site. As appropriate

Riverside - south bank west of the Tower. Walton Apps Court

Riverside - south bank west of the Tower. Walton Apps Court

This post shows sites to the south of the river only. North is Sunbury Rivermead

Post to the east West Molesey
Post to the west Walton Sunbury Lock and Sunbury riverside
Post to the north Sunbury Kempton Park

Hurst Road
Apps Court Farm. Apps Court Farm is now a multipurpose 82 acre park comprising grassland with woods and fishing lakes. There are also many activities such as car boot sales and the like. The farm is the only remaining part of the Apps Court Estate which lay on both sides of Hurst Road and was purchased by the Metropolitan Water Board in 1899.  The main part of the manor now lies under the Bessborough and Knight reservoirs. When the water board bought the site they also bought a duty of customary tenure which had existed since the time of Edward II. This meant that ale and bread had to be given to the poor on All Saints Day. The board intended to ignore this but was eventually forced to transfer annuities to the Charity Commission.
Old tower site – this is shown on maps of the 1890s alongside the water works buildings. There is also said to be the fragment of a Homestead moat.
Reservoirs. On the north side of the road - the four reservoirs to the east (see square to the east) are now out of use for water storage and used for gravel extraction. Two storage reservoirs had been planned by the Southwark and Vauxhall Company when it was taken over by the Metropolitan Water Board,
Southwark and Vauxhall Water Co had planned a works here in 1898. This was to include an intake from the River Thames, filter beds and a pumping station near here. The scheme was taken over by the Metropolitan Water Board.
Hurst Road Pumping and Filtration Station.  After the Metropolitan Water Board had been set up the existing plans by the various private companies were reviewed and it was decided to concentrate all pumping requirements in one station here. Charles E. Hearson, Chairman of the Works and Stores Committee of the Metropolitan Water Board, laid the foundation stone in 1908. The red brick building was designed by James Restler then Deputy Chief Engineer to the Metropolitan Water Board.  It was opened when the engines were started in 1911 by John Burns, the President of the Local Government Board. There were originally four inverted vertical triple-expansion steam engines by Thames Ironworks Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Each driving a double stage centrifugal pump lifting 114 million litres of water per day. There were 10 boilers by Babcock & Wilcox, Renfrew supplied with coal from a wharf, which remains. . An overhead ropeway ran from the boiler house to the wharf. Water leaving the reservoirs flows by gravity to the filter beds at Hampton.  An extension was built which was opened in 1926 by Neville Chamberlain, Minister of Health updating the engines and allowing for a scheme to pump water to Honor Oak. . In 1964.The steam engines were replaced by electric power. It remains operational though now run by Thames Water since privatisation in 1989. One of the original steam engines remains though it is no longer operational.
Main to Honor Oak . This was laid from 1917 with work undertaken by Mowlem. It was completed in 1925
Intake.  This was built by the Metropolitan Water Board as part of their scheme opened in 1911. It is an open channel 439m long and 6.7m wide, which brings water to the pumping station for distribution to either the Walton Reservoirs or the Island Barn Reservoir
Filter beds. Additional beds were opened in 1950 on the west side of the pumping station
Ring Main Shaft.  The new London water ring main passes under this site at about 45 metres underground. It was a Construction site with an access shaft. The ring main connects to these shafts at a depth of 40m
Walton Advanced Water Treatment Works. This was built on a 45 acre site alongside the existing plant. It was completed in 1995. The site has three blocks to accommodate new treatment techniques and a fourth block houses the washwater treatment process. The buildings and grounds are landscaped as to minimise the visual impact. Walton feeds the Ring Main with about 50 Ml/d of treated water per day. The Water Supply Regulations Act of 1989 was introduced to tackle pesticides which find their way into water sources. Here were developed processes using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Ozone. Counter Current- 3 Dissolved Air Floatation and Filtration is unique to Walton and further aids particle removal.
Bessborough – see square to the east
Knight Reservoir. This square covers the north eastern part of the reservoir. It was built by the Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company, from 1898 and designed by their engineer, J.W.Restler. The reservoir opened in 1907 with a capacity of 480 gallons. It is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. It was named for Sir Henry Knight Chair of the Southwark and Vauxhall Company.
Coal Tax marker post. This is said to be in the grounds of the Advanced Treatment works


Riverside
Coal post
on the south bank of the Thames 800 yards east of Sunbury Lock

Sources
Apps Court Farm .Web site
Elmbridge Council. Web site
Engineering Time Lines. Web site
Greater London Council. Thames Guidelines,
Industrial Archaeology of Elmbridge
Industrial Archaeology of Surrey
Metropolitan Water Board. London’s Water Supply
Pastscape.Web site
Thames Water. Web site
Walford. Village London

Friday, 29 July 2016

The London/Surrey border - West Molesey and Platts Eyot

The London/Surrey border - West Molesey and Platts Eyot

The London/Surrey boundary carries on up the middle of the river.  North of the river is Hampton

This post covers only sites south of the River

Post to the east Hampton and Hurst Park
Post to the south West Molesey
Post to the west Kempton Park

South of the River - Surrey, Elmbridge

West Molesey
Wharf was a busy cargo wharf, pick up place for ferries, Hurst Park was next to it.
Lambeth Waterworks intake in 1872 and Chelsea Waterworks Intake in 1875. Both had pumping stations and concrete wharves on the bank. Chelsea abandoned in 1924, engine house foundations there, very overgrown. Lambeth also abandoned then and foundations and front steps of Engine House still there.
West Molesey wharf, until early this .century it was very active with cargoes generally carried in sailing barges) of coal, timber, building materials. The-wharf was also used as a pick up point for Platt’s Eyot the works ferryman for- staff who lived on that side of the river.


River Thames

Platt’s Eyot
Islands on the Thames are invariably referred to by the ancient name of 'ayot' pronounced "eight" prefixed with the name of a previous and well known owner. In this particular case it was a resident of Molesey by the name of Platt who used the Eyot for the growing of withies.
Bridge to it from the shore, rabbits got over it and caused trouble. 'Gateway' to London. It rises 'significantly' out of the water.
Osiers. used for the making of eel bucks, fish traps, and numerous other items. varieties used were Salix viminalis and Salix purpurea. last used for osiers in 1884 by E.Clark of Sunbury Ferry and Tom Tagg of Molesey.
Spoil from reservoirs Excavation of the filter beds began in 1900 and spoil was disposed dumped on Platt's Eyot. The result being was barren tumulus in 1901. because of the weight the water-company installed camp shedding at strategic points.
Pipes. In 1888 a channel was driven through the island, which took water from the river on the Middlesex side leaving a and wet dock which became part of the boatyard. Water from this channel percolated down to earthenware pipes laid with open joint. Water flowed through a tunnel under the river to the engine house. The remains of two large cast iron valves are still on the south side of the island. There is also the remains of a brick shaft with iron rungs down to another valve.
Tom Tagg boatyard. A Dutchman by the name of Taag came to Hampton Court in the18th Tom Tagg started boat building on Platt's c.1860. He built house boats, one of which was Satsuma a double storey craft for Hewett of Hampton. Tagg's business was called "The Island Works” and in 1864 his house and offices had a water tower. Southwark and Vauxhall Water Company agreed that Taggs would keep a quarter of the island, the company bought the rest
Immisch built electric launches and a charging station. Inmisch undertook Thornycroft contracts using the old Tagg boatbuilding sheds and workshops. Moritz Immisch was interned at the outbreak of war in 1914.
Thornycroft's need larger premises than their works at Chiswick. they movedthe building of small craft here and the yard became Hampton Launch Works Ltd.in the First World War was fantastic they built C.M.B's (Coastal Motor Boats); powered by a Thornycroft V12 engine and carried a single torpedo fired from the stern. In peace time they built luxury yachts craft for foreign navies, passenger boats tugs. In the 1960s taken over by Vospers and The Hampton yard was taken over by of Port Hampton Ltd.,
Slip 1 1916 by A.A.H.Scott for Thorneycroft for building fast torpedo carrying launches for the Admiralty. Slipway timber framed with zinc sheeting. Industrial glass in fixed casement.
Slip 2 . With Belfast Truss roof.
3. as 1 & 2
4. As 1 & 2 Curved slipway and thus curved unusual roof.
Offices. 1864 but really 1890 brief might have been built by Tagg or they might be Thorneycroft's rebuilt sheds from Chiswick.
Shed over the wet dock 1913.

Material for this work has been collected over many years and from many source. Clearly The Buildings of England has been useful for some of the posher housing and material from members of GLIAS for both the water works and Platts Eyot

London Surrey border Hurst Park

v
The Surrey/London Boundary carries on up the middle of the river

Post to the west Hampton and West Molesey and Platt's Eyot
Post to the south East Molesey

This post covers only sites south of the river. North of the river is Hampton
Hampton

South Bank - Surrey, Elmbridge

Hurst Park
Hurst Park Racecourse
boxing previously. Now a housing estate. Wates 1962 onwards. Hurst Park Racecourse at one time was provided with electricity from the Immisch charging plant on the Island.
Old People’s Homes 1967
Hurst Park Primary School. 1965 neat
Hurst Park Open Space.

River Thames

Taggs Island
Used by gypsies 1907
Karsino - used by Fred Karno
Small colonies of bungalows and houseboats Thames Guidelines. Bridge to it from the shore, flat, small scale colourful. Was Walnut Tree Island, no evidence Tagg moved there from Platt’s Eyot.
Motor factory for AC

Garrick’s Ait

This work has been compiled over many years and from many sources - clearly The Buildings of England has been very helpful for the posher houses of this section.

The London/Surrey border - Hampton Court riverside path

The London/Surrey border - Thames Ditton
A square by square look at London


This square includes only sites to the north of the river. To the south is Thames Ditton

The London/Surrey boundary goes straight up the middle of the river

The river Ember flows north east

Post to the west Molesey
Post to the north Hampton Court
Post to the east Hampton Court Park and Thames Ditton to the south

North Side - London, Richmond

Pavilion Terrace

This work has been compiled over many years and from many different sources

The London/Surrey Border - East Moseley

The London/Surrey Border - East Moseley/Hampton Court
The boundary between Surrey/London goes on up the middle of the river
The River Mole joins the River Ember and they flow into the Thames

Posh houses - many with great pedigrees clustered round the grandeur of Hampton Court - but there is, or was, some riverside industry here.

This post includes sites south of the river only. North of the river is Hampton Court


Post to the west East Molesey
Post to the south Thames Ditton

South of the River - sites in Surrey, Elmbridge

Bridge Road
23 Prince of Wales pub. Was The Railway Hotel but originally ‘The Prince of Wales and Railway Hotel’ 1853. Gothic. Hampton Court bridge was opened by the Prince of Wales in 1933.
45 old bank with a carved front.
Cloud Nine was the Caernarvon Castle 1867. also called Ferryboat Inn
Tagg’s (or Thames) Hotel 1887. In other use and has lost part of its roof. In 1887, Harry Tagg, a member of the family of watermen, had a house in Bridge Road which backed onto his riverside boat works, which he used as refreshment rooms. He later built a magnificent hotel on the corner, called Thames Hotel.
62 A purpose built cinema, opened in 1912 as the "East Molesey and Hampton Court Picture Hall", it was purchased by one of the cinema chains in 1932, modernised and re-named "The Court Cinema". It closed in 1937 and the premises were taken over as a printing works.
Castle Inn. Ancient inn demolished when the bridge was built.Site under the current roundabout.
Horse trough . At the junction with Wolsey Road. Part of a marble drinking fountain erected for the Jubilee of Queen Victoria.

Hampton Court Parade.
Built 1930s.

Cigarette Island
It is now no longer really an island, - it is the space on which the station stands and the public open space behind it. The area was formerly for the growing osiers for the manufacture of baskets. In 1926, old East and West Molesey UDC wanted to turn the areas into a public park, to curb the 'ever-increasing nuisance of caravan dwellers and occupiers of sheds'. But it was not until 1935 that the Office of Works, agreed to buy it and the freehold transferred to Esher UDC.
Until the 19th Cigarette Island was called 'The Sterte', and is recorded as that as early as 1306. This comes from the Old English word 'Steart', a tail of land - a description of its site between the two rivers. By 1843 it was called 'Davis's Ait' after the owners of the Castle Inn. The present name comes from a houseboat called ‘Cigarette’ which belonged to Sir Henry Foreman, Member of Parliament and Mayor of Hammersmith.
Avenue of chestnuts along the southern edge
Jolly Boatman. Gone.

Creek Road
This end of the Mole was known as the Creek until the 1930s when it was diverted.

Ember Reach

Feltham Avenue
Substation. A corrugated iron building which is now used as an electricity substation and workshop, was originally the Trinity Church at New Malden. It was purchased, dismantled, re-erected here, and opened as a public hall in 1882 and later transferred to its present use.

Hampton Court Green
Mitre Hotel. An inn from 1666. Built by the King's Sergeant. John Burns pawned his wedding ring so that he could eat his wedding breakfast there. It has an early 19th front and is at pains to advertise its modern facilities.
The Green the Keeper's House – the other half is Palace Gate House rebuilt in 1716, divided in two in 1734. Listed
Palace Gate House, the Keeper's House – the other half is The Green, rebuilt in 1716, divided in two in 1734. Listed
Old Court House. Originally built in 1536 as the house for the Surveyor of Works. In 1808 it was joined to the house on the right, then in 1960 detached again. In 1708 it was leased to Christopher Wren who may have made alterations to it. There is a tulip tree in the garden. Listed
Paper House, was the Royal Gardener's house. Front rebuilt 1713. Listed. It has a network of vine and creeper over the fa├žade.
Faraday House with a central bay, originally one with Cardinal's House, as the Masons' New Lodge, rebuilt in 1713- 15 by Wren.. For 300 years the Master Mason's lodging. Listed. Named after Michael Faraday who lived there as a grace and favour dwelling for the last 19 years of his life. It was late the home of Sophia Duleep Singh a suffragette. 16th outbuildings
Cardinal's House. Has a Masonic window. 1713-15 Listed
Rotary Court. The New Toy Inn of 1839, an unsuccessful venture converted to three houses in 1856. It is the largest house on this side of the Green with eleven bays. Later a hospital, since the 1970s flats for the elderly and more recently refurbished as flats.
Prestbury House. Early 18th
White House. 1751.
Chetwynd House c. 1790,
Craven House. Built soon after 1784, altered in 1869 and now let out as flats.
Faraday Cottage & Kings Store Cottage listed
Old Office House. Listed
Court Cottage. The Master Carpenters Lodge 1703. It has an early c 18 front of five bays. Listed
Priestly House, 1743, Priestly never lived there

Hampton Court Way
Built in the early 1930s to form an approach to the new bridge.
Hampton Court Station. 1849. Terminus of line from Thames Ditton on South Western Rail .The station was built on an artificial island between the mouths of the Mole and Ember, which had originally been created by a creek serving a watermill and connecting the two rivers. Built deliberately to pick up the tourist trade it is in Jacobean red brick in keeping with the palace. Possible that the first trains swore horse drawn. Locomotive shed with steep pitched roof and buttresses. In 1869 it was renamed ‘Hampton Court and East Moulsey’. Much done up in the 1930s – including a proposed cinema –and a fancy wall built along the length of the station.
Ember Bridge. Was the only major engineering works on the line.
Locomotive shed built 1895 south of the Ember Bridge. Later in use as a plastics factory.
Goods yard. Closed 1965
Greyhound
Our Lady of Lourdes. 1965 segmented shell concrete dome. Sculpture

Queen’s Reach
Built as a gated community early 1990s

Riverbank
Harry Tagg boat works along built in the 1870s. still stands on the corner of Feltham Avenue

River Mole
In the 1930s the Mole was diverted into the River Ember above East Molesey Mill and the Creek was filled in following road and bridge building.
East Molesey Lower Mill, also known as Sterte Mill. An old timber structure was replaced by a brick building in the 1820's which can still be seen. This was the mill for the manor of Molesey Prior and it was about three hundred yards from the junction of the Mole and the Thames. There are records of work there in the early 13th . Under Henry VIII the mill was Crown property and let separately from the manor but continued to grind corn. Under the Commonwealth it was taken over by a gunpowder manufacturer called John Samine He enlarged the mill and erected others probably making at least two mills at each site. He also had a dwelling house here, most likely standing near to the upper mills, which in 1664 was the largest house in East Molesey. In 1666 local people petitioned the king " to order that the said mills may be taken away or removed to such distance from the said Towne that your petitioners may quietly enjoy their habitation and not be left in such perpetual fear and terror". In due course Sterte Mill, reverted to grinding corn., at least part of the premises were used at one time for milling lead, and as late as 1819 a portion was described as " formerly a Lead Mill" . in 1822, it was demolished and a brick-built mill was erected. This rebuilding is commemorated on a stone plaque still to be seen in the present building. By 1846 besides the milling of flour there was sawing of timber and the supply of slates and a building was constructed on the east side of the mill which is shown on a print of 1849. The flour mill had fifteen pairs of stones.. A house was built on land belonging to the mill, fronting onto Creek Road, named "Creek House". In the 1914 Zenith Motor Company who manufactured motor cycles in Weybridge moved to the mill and remained until they were bankrupted in 1930. the mill was sold to C. Nielson and Son, as a factory for the production of sails and tents and the firm developed into what was at one time one of the largest tenting contractors in the country. in 1938 a part of the mill premises were taken over by Messrs Gays (Hampton) Ltd., toolmakers and precision engineers. for the manufacture of parts for Bristol "Blenheim" bomber aircraft. The company was the first to manufacture bomb carriers for eight thousand pound "block busters".

River Thames
Hampton Court Bridge, built in 1933 by Sir Edwin Lutyens, across the Thames and designed for road traffic. It has a single concrete arch with red facing bricks and a central shield. The site of the crossing had had a ferry since the middle ages. The first bridge was built in 1752–53, and was privately owned bridge by a James Clarke. It had seven wooden arches, and was built in the design of the Willow pattern brdge. It was replaced by a more sturdy wooden structure in 1778. By 1840 it was dilapidatted and the City Corporation had created Molesey Lock and Weir making navigation through the bridge dangerous. Another bridge was built in 1866, , designed by E. T. Murray with wrought iron lattice girders resting on four columns with battlemented brick walls - one of which remains on the south bank. The modern bridge is thus fourth on the site. It is Grade II listed.
Molsey Lock. built by the City Corporation in 1815 and is the second longest on the river. Beside the lock there are rollers for the transfer of small boats. It was rebuilt in the mid 1800s and again in 1905/6 and yet again in 1964/5 when the original wooden beams were removed and a new hydraulic system


Sources
Stidder.Watermills of Surrey
Penguin Book of Surrey,

Haselfoot, Batsford Guide to the Industrial Archaeology of South East England.
Pev Surrey
London Transport Country Walks
Stevenson. Middlesex
Walford. Village London,
London Encyclopedia
Middlexsex County Council. History of  Middlesex
Pevsner and Cherry. South London,
Headley and Meulenkamp, Follies
The Kingston Zodiac
Clunn. The Face of London
London Night and Day,
Greater London Council. Thames Guidelines,
London Transport. Wren
Middlesex Churches,
Gunpowder Mills Gazette

The London/Surrey boundary - Thames Ditton

The London/Surrey boundary - Thames Ditton

The London/Surrey boundary goes along the middle of the river, passing on the north side of Thames Ditton Island.

This post shows only sites south of the river on this square. North is Hampton Court Park

Post to the west Thames Ditton and Hampton Court Park
Post to the east Seething Wells and Hampton Court Palace Golf Clubhouse

South Bank - sites in London, Richmond

Boyle Farm Road
Home of Compassion. This was originally was Boyle Farm, probably Georgian and facing the river. 19th stables and chapel built in 1925. Closed. The house was built on the site of Forde's Farm by Charlotte Boyle Walsingham in the late 18th century. Some farm buildings and outhouses remain. There were many alterations done by later owners and much of the grounds were sold for building. In 1906 it was bought by an Anglican religious order and used as a nursing home. There is said to be a tunnel under the road going to the Home Farm.

Church Walk
St. Nicholas Church. A church has been here since the 12th but has had many alterations; it is now wider than it is long. It did not become a parish church until 1769 and had previously been part of Kingston parish. The squat 13th tower has a 15th supporting arch and a timber-boarded bell-chamber with a spire – an important example of Surrey woodwork. There is a Norman font with crude carvings, including one of a goat, upside down – this may be zodiacal or Gnostical signs from local Templars. On a roof beam are panels showing part of a painting of the Day of Judgement. There is an Easter Sepulchre, in the form of a six poster bed with crenulations. Above it a small, and very old window. A mausoleum for the Hatton family was built in 1676 but has been used as a vestry since 1781. Monuments: Erasmus Forde’s canopied tomb of 1533 is older than that date and may have been a chantry tomb or confessional from a destroyed church. There are also 16th brasses and monuments to Sidney Godolphin, Robert Smythe, and John Cheke...
Churchyard: Cast bronze scroll on gravestones to the foreman moulder in the foundry. Cast iron grave marker with lead lettering inserts Church used by Lamb. Poet in the gravestones.
War memorial. Made of bronze.
National School here from 1840 and rebuilt in 1860...

Ferry Road
Long Ditton Ferry.
The Ferry – now a gastro pub

High Street
The old Slaughter House. Timber building listed Grade II, used as a picture gallery. This is a late 16th barn which was used in the 19th by Richard Porter, who kept a herd of deer in local fields.
Swan Inn. Overlooking the river - was called 'Swan of the Thames’. Originating in a row of cottages it has been a pub since 16th. Claims to have been approved of by Henry VIII. Has its own jetty.
George and Dragon. Retains a village local atmosphere
Church Cottage. On the site of a Tudor House
Horse trough and drinking fountain. Presented in 1870 by the Lord of the Manor and erected on the site of the parish stocks, but now the roundabout at the junction with St. Leonard’s Road.
56 Picton House. Cesar Picton was an 18th Senegalese slave who become a wealthy businessman based in Kingston, but bought this house in 1816 for £4000.
Ferry Works. Built 1880 by Willans and Robinson to make high speed engines for launches. It had been rebuilt after a fire in 1888. They moved to Rugby in 1890 and eventually became part of GEC. The factory had the earliest known example of a saw tooth north light roof in 1911.
AC Motors – Autocarriers Ltd. – moved to Ferry Works in 1907. The company made the AC Tricar, a three wheeler, and had been started by John Weller in Norwood. Throughout the First World War the factory made shells, and a four wheeled car was brought out in 1918. In 1919 the produced an engine, which remained in production until 1963. The firm had a relationship with the Brooklands Race Track, breaking many records. On the wall of the factory was painted ‘Amazing Cars’. An AC was the first British car to run in a Monte Carlo Rally in 1925. The company was restructured several times and by 1930 Ferry Works was closed and the production continued in the High Street. New cars were brought out and the slogan was ‘the Saville Row of Motordom’. In the Second World War the works again went over to wartime motor and aircraft production but cars were being made again by 1947. They also made invalid carriages, the trains which ran on Southend Pier and diesel railcars for BR. In 1954 they launched the AC Ace which won many prizes as a racing car and other racing models followed. The company had major financial problems through the 1970s and left Thames Ditton.
Rola Celestion at Ferry Works where they made the 'Ditton' Range of loudspeakers.

Portsmouth Road
Filter beds – built by the Lambeth Water Company and an extension of the water works north east of here.
City Arms Pub

Thames Ditton
The village is first mentioned in a charter of 983. In Saxon times it was part of Kingston Hundred and is in the Domesday Book as Ditone and Ditune. After the Conquest, it was owned by Merton Priory.

The Rythe
The Rythe is the boundary between Kingston and Thames Ditton. The river rises near Oxshott and follows the Portsmouth Road in its final stretches.

Riverside path
Houses with private gardens to the rivers edge

St Leonard Road,
On Kingston Zodiac this, obviously, is on the Lion.

Summer Road
An old water tower on the wall of a private house opposite The Swan
Thames Ditton statue foundry... Demolished. The hand operated travelling gantry crane for all major lifting work, was an integral part of the building it was rescued and stored. The foundry was founded in 1874 by Cox and Sons, to cast statues in bronze, and produced many major castings. It became Drew and Co in 1880, then Moore and Co in 1883, and then A B Burton in 1902. In 1933. The business was closed and sold the foundry in 1939 and was used by London Metal Warehouses for industrial castings, and then as a metal warehouse and demolished in 1976. Eros was cast here as well as the Quadriga on the Wellington Arch, and much else.
Thames Ditton Ferry. The ferry was still operational in the 1950s.


Sites in the River Thames

Boyle Farm Island
This is in Surrey and has one house on it.

Swan Island
The only building was a watchman’s hut.

Thames Ditton Island,
Suspension bridge to it from the shore, 1939.
Flat, with bungalows

This page, like others, has been compiled over many years and from many sources. I would however like to particularly mention The Industrial Archaeology of Elmbridge, and other works by the Surrey Industrial History Group and also Gordon Knowles’s book on the Motor in Surrey.

Riverside west of the Tower South (east) bank - Kingston Portsmouth Road

Riverside west of the Tower South (in this case it's - east) bank - Kingston Portsmouth Road

This post shows only sites 'south' of the river. North of the river is Hampton Court Park Rick Pond

ost to the north Kingston and Hampton Wick
Post to the east Kingston
Post to the south Seething Wells and Hampton Court Palace Golf Clubhouse

Anglesey Road
Built by developer Woods on the site of the grounds of Surbiton Hall, which was to the east of this square

East Lane
Archaeological investigations here show economic activity over a very long period but which may be associated with buildings in surrounding streets.

High Street
In the 18th it was called West by Thames.
25-29 The Malt House Office block,
39-41 these are all now chain restaurants but were a series of timber framed houses from the 16th.
52 Picton House. Built 1730 with a brick front and weatherboarded back. In the 1740s the entrance was moved to the side and a wing added. Inside are garlanded ceilings from the 1740s. It was converted to offices in 1979 following neglect and threatened demolition by Peter Jones. There is a plaque to Cesar Picton born in 1755 in Senegal. He was brought to England as a slave and became a coal merchant in Kingston
Kingston Pier. This is Turks Pier, upriver of Kingston Bridge.
58-62 Kingston Mill pub. This was originally opened as a Wetherspoon's pub
River House. This has been in use by Kingston University since 1994. It was previously offices for the Inland Revenue.
63 The Anglers. These flats are on the site of the Anglers Pub, which was licensed from the 1860s
66 Forge House. Site of Stephen Harris’s forge. They made iron work for many local buildings and works.
Town End Wharf. Public wharf for commercial users until the 1960s. It was turned into a park and landscaped in 1964.
River based Swimming bath was moored here. This was a floating platform in the river, plus some screening, which was towed here from near Kingston Bridge in 1882 and was subject to a dispute between the local authority and the Conservators. It closed in the early 1890s. It had been built on the initiative of engineer John Dixon.
68 Town End Pier. This is owned and operated by Turk Launches. Turks date from before 1710. Town End Pier is the company’s office base with a floating office, Aphrodite Before Turks it was used up to 1976 by the Mould family's boat building business.
Kingston Ferry. This ran to Town End and is apparently an ancient crossing. It was still extant in the 1930s.

Kingston Hall Road
Kingston Hall was a mansion on the site of what is now the junction with St James Road to the north and west of this square.
Kingston College. This is the main site of the College. This originated in 1899, when the Borough of Kingston upon Thames built Science and Art Schools and a Technical Institute on the present site in what is said to be the tallest building in Kingston. It is a College of Further, Higher and Adult Education having been split from what is now Kingston University in 1962.

Palace Road
So called because it is in a direct line with Hampton Court. Built by developer Woods on the site of the grounds of Surbiton Hall.

Portsmouth Road
This was part of the turnpike road between London and Portsmouth. In the 18th it was lined with trees and started at the junction with today’s High Street. The Surbiton end was for 'hired pleasure'
Queen’s Promenade had been set up by the mid-19th. In 1838 it was still a swampy area used for gravel extraction and the earth slips on the foreshore had weakened the main road. There were many accidents so Brunel was asked to do it but his scheme was too expensive. Developer William Woods had intended to build a causeway to the houses he was building and following a deal with the Kingston Board a promenade was built for public use. This was made of earth from Chelsea Water Works filter beds which were being built upstream and there was also support of expertise from the City of London. The old public landing called Rampier's Wharf was moved to Town Wharf. So the new embankment was opened by Queen Victoria; but following a later collapse was rebuilt using stone from old Blackfriars Bridge. The area had been called Towns End, then Queen's Parade, then Queen's Road. A Bandstand was built to commemorate Alderman Marsh,
1 Hermes Hotel. 17th house facing the river
19 Army Centre. Drill Hall used by the 4th Battalion The Queen’s Royal Surrey Regiment. Since then used as headquarters of a Field Ambulance’. This is on the site of a house once occupied by the family of the artist Millais who tried to bring culture to Kingston.
St.Raphael Roman Catholic Church built 1846/7. It faces the Thames and was built by Mr.Raphael, MP, as thanks for recovery from illness. It was designed by architect Charles Parker in an Italianate style, with early Christian and Renaissance influences. The cost was met by Alexander Raphael, a Catholic Armenian whose family came from India. He was the first Roman Catholic to be elected Sheriff of London. The Church was built as a family chapel but in 1850, Raphael died. His nephew, Edward, inherited it and opened it to the public. It remained with the family until it was sold to the Diocese of Southwark after the Second World War.
28 Angelsea Lodge/The Limes. Home of engineer John Dixon who brought Cleopatra’s Needle to London. Built in the 1870s.

South Lane
1 Scouts. The building belongs to the 3rd Kingston Scout Group which was founded in 1913, followed by a Cub group in 1919. Their original meeting place was at the All Saints' Mission Hall in Wood Street. They fund raised for their own building which opened in 1928. This site was compulsorily purchased in 1966 to allow for the building of the Crown Court. The current building was provided by McAlpine's and opened by Rowan Bentall in 1973. The Group first admitted girls in 1992.
Wilcox Automobiles Workshops and MOT Centre. Archaeological work here uncovered remains from periods from the Bronze Age onwards but particularly late medieval settlement remains. The site is thought to have been the yard of a butchers shop.
Mineral water factory. This was the earliest such factory set up by Thomas Raynsford in the 1850s. The business later expanded and moved to Ashdown Road
Maltings. A malthouse is shown on 19th maps at the south end of the road.

Surbiton Road
Malthouses are shown on both sides of the road at the end nearest the river in hr 1860s
3 The Elms. Built in the 1770s by George Wadbrook
Clock House. This house stood near the river and there are said to be remains in the gardens on the corner of Woodbines Avenue. It dated from 1793

The Bittoms
The name might refer to a low lying meadow. It is said to have been an area of malthouses in the 19th.
Kingston Pure Ice and Storage Co. This stood east of the junction with South Lane – across the road from the current Scouts building. It was extant pre Second World War

Uxbridge Road
33-35 Kingston & Surbiton District Synagogue. There were many Jews in Kingston in the 19th and early 20th centuries. During the 1920s, services and a cheder were held at a house in Catherine Road. After the Second World War three ladies were instrumental in sitting up Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur services at the local Assembly Rooms. By the early 1950s the community owned a site and became affiliated to the United Synagogue. In June 1954 the foundation stone of the present synagogue was laid.

Woodbines Avenue
Name from Woodbines Estate which derived from the Clock House on the corner of Surbiton Road

Sources
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Greater London Council, Thames Guidelines
Hawkins. Archaeological investigations at East Lane and South Lane
Kingston & Surbiton District Synagogue. Web site
London Borough of Kingston. Web site, 
London Transport, Country Walks
Pevsner and Cherry .South London
Pevsner. Surrey
Sampson. All Change
Sampson. Kingston Past
Sampson. The Kingston Book
Shepherd and Laws. The Bittoms
St. Raphael. Web site
Surrey Archaeological Collections. Web site
13th Kingston Scouts. Web site
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames
Turk Bros. Web site

Monday, 4 July 2016

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Canbury Gardens

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Canbury Gardens

This post shows sites south of the river only. North of the river is Teddington Normansfield and Trowlock


Post to the north Ham and Hawker and Teddington Broom Hall
Post to the south Kingston and Hampton Wick


Albany Mews
Albany Park Canoeing and Sailing Centre. Part of Albany Outdoors, Kingston Council
Canbury Gardens
Canbury Gardens. This riverside area had been marshland and osier beds. From 1863. It was known as Corporation Eyot and was a rubbish dump. In 1884, Samuel Gray a local maltster and lighterman who had founded the Canbury Ratepayers' Association in the early 1880s suggested there should be a garden here. Plans were drawn up by Henry Macaulay, the Borough Surveyor, and work began in 1889 on topsoil brought in from the nearby reservoir excavations. The gardens were raised above the tow path and plane trees were planted along it and The Park was opened in 1890. A bandstand was erected in 1891 but later removed for Second World War munitions. There was also an octagonal shelter, benches and lamp column and from the early 1900s sports facilities were added. Surrounding industry has now been largely demolished and anew bandstand has now been erected.
Barge Walk. This is the riverside walk through Canbury Gardens.
Kingston Rowing Club was founded in 1858 by Mr George Bennett at Messenger’s Boathouse, Kingston, from 1861 it was in a building on Raven’s Ait.In 1935 the club moved downstream to the Albany Boathouse in Lower Ham Road. In 1968 the club moved to a custom built premises in Canbury Gardens. Only one year after its founding the club competed at Henley Royal Regatta. In 1897 they were instrumental in the creation of the Amateur Rowing Association. Women were not admitted as members until 1976 but by 1994 the club had its first women captain - who represented Britain at the Barcelona Olympics and who has been followed by others.
Plaque erected by the Thames Landscape Strategy with Working in partnership with the Kingston Aviation Centenary Project to show the history of Aviation in Kingston, including a map of the old factories. The plaque was unveiled by Sir Tommy Sopwith
Boaters Inn. Riverside pub in Canbury Gardens.
Barge Walk Cottage. This appears on maps before 1900
The Pavilion, This is a community resource and centre. The old Council bowling pavilion, dating from the late 19th was going to be demolished. A group of local residents now run it as a community hub.


Lower Ham Road
Boathouse for Leander Sea Scout Troop. The “Leander” Group grew out of the 2nd Kingston Scout Troop which originated from around 1908. The first scoutmaster Erik Robinson was the son of a marine engineer. By 1912, the Troop had begun Sea Scouting activities; their first boat was presented to them by the great-grandson of Captain Francis Grove, who had commanded H.M.S. LEANDER in the early 20th. In 1913 they were based in central Kingston near the Hogs Mill River but from 1921 rented a building in Lower Ham Road. The group now has a fleet of boats and new headquarters.
Albany Boathouse. Gabled boathouse with the Royal Crest built in 1893. It was owned by the Turk family who constructed light river craft. Later they hired out pleasure boats but went out of business in the 1970s. The building was restored recently and is now home to local businessesThe Skiff Club was initially based at the Albany Club in Kingston and in 1897 took over Turk's Albany Boathouse which had been vacated by the Royal Canoe Club that year. In 1914 the Schneider Trophy winning Sopwith float plane was tested on the slipway here. In 1935 Kingston Rowing Club moved here but later went to their present site in Canbury Gardens. It is now the headquarters of an office interiors firm.


Richmond Road
This was once called Canbury Lane


The Albany
The Bank Estate was known as Point Pleasant, Mount Pleasant, Bank Farm and Bank Grove. Created in 1797 by John Nash for Henry St. John. The grounds were landscaped by Humphrey Repton. This was the first completed collaboration between Repton and Nash. The scheme aimed to take advantage of the views both up and down the river. It was later the home of a succession of local gentry. The gardens were said to be magnificent throughout this period. By 1890 it the house was the Albany club, and was later burnt down. The site is now occupied by three blocks of flats. The raised situation still commands the river bend and the two fine Lebanon Cedars which survive may date back to Repton
The three Albany blocks stand out along the river, built on the site of Point Pleasant

Sources
Albany Park Canoeing and Sailing Centre. Web site
Boaters Inn. Web site
Kingston Rowing Club. Web site
London Borough of Kingston. Web site
London Gardens Online. Web site
Sampson. All Change
Thames Landscape Strategy. Web site

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham and Hawker

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham and Hawker

This post shows sites south of the river only, North of the River is Teddington Broom Hall

Post to the west Ham Lands and Teddington Lock and Teddington
Post to the south Canbury Gardens and Teddington Normansfield and Trowlock


Broughton Avenue
Meadlands Primary School


Dukes Drive
Sewage pumping station – this was extant in the 1930s to the south of the road

Ham Common
Much of the Common was lost when Richmond Park was created, but some remains. The area of crossed by Ham Gate Avenue is mostly scrub and woodland. That on the west side of the main road is like a village green, with a cricket pitch in the middle.
1 Cassell Hospital. The Cassel Hospital was founded by Ernest Cassell in 1919 for the treatment of shell shock. It was located in Penshurst and then went to Stoke on Trent in the Second World War. In 1948 it moved to Ham Common. The building was built in the late 18th and called as Morgan House after its owner John Minter Morgan. In 1879 it had become West Heath School for Young Ladies which moved to Sevenoaks in the 1930s. The building then became became the Lawrence Hall Hotel until 1947. The hospital developed behavioral rather than medicinal techniques through group and other psychotherapies and the idea of a therapeutic community was pioneered here in the 1940s by Weddell and Main. The hospital works with University and Imperial Colleges London as well as the Institute of Psychiatry. It provides services for young people and adults and is managed by the West London Mental Health NHS Trust.
15 Gordon House. 18th house
Forbes House .  In 1936 this was built as a pastiche 18th house by Oswald P. Milne. It was demolished by a developer in the early 1990s and a replacement pastiche 18th house has now been built here by Julian Bicknell.
Langham House Close. 1950s development described by the Twentieth Century Society as “a benchmark against which other apartment blocks can be measured”, it was designed by the architects Stirling and Gowan as an example of Le Corbusier influence. It was a reaction against all-glass facades and thin, precise detailing. It had two- and three-storey with exposed concrete floors, a lot of yellow brick, and thick white-painted trim to the window
Langham House. 18th house once home of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher

Lock Road
Ham Christian Centre. This was built in 1928 as the Ham Free Evangelical Church. Services until 1979. In 1998 it was renovated in by the Richmond based Duke Street Church and is now a is a member of the South East Gospel Partnership. It is used by a number of other organisations – for example The Free Church of Scotland.


Lower Ham Road
YMCA Hawker Sports Ground. This was the Hawker Co. Sports ground – later known as the Leyland Motors ground and also British Aerospace Sports. When the factory was demolished the sports centre remained and was passed to the local authority. It is now known as the Hawker Centre and managed by the YMCA. This includes a very wide range of sports pitches and a gym as well as a cafe and family and community facilities. These buildings are all that remains of the huge British Leyland/Hawker works


North Weald Road
This is one of several roads built in the 1990s on sites released by the closure of the Hawker factory. Like others it is named after an airfield.

Parkleys
Span. This was part of the fields of Ham Farm – the site of which is in the square to the west. Ham Farm Nursery was established here in the 19the with greenhouses and facilities nearer to Upper Ham Road. The nursery was taken over by Span Developments Ltd in the early 1950s and the Parkleys Estate developed 1954 -1955.  This was a very influential development as the first by Eric Lyons and Geoffrey Townsend. It was designed for first time buyers, offering an endowment mortgage, and the first successful residents’ management companies set up by Span. It was revolutionary in using modern architectural design mixed with traditional materials. The stock and gardener of the former nursery were taken over the estate laid out to keep existing trees and tine landscape is an important integral part of the overall design.


Richmond Road
390 Kingston Fire Station
St George's Industrial Estate. On the site of the Cellon Factory.
380 Cellon. In 1929 the site was developed for the Cellon Doping Company who moved here from the site now covered by the British Legion poppy factory in Richmond. They had previously been the Non-Inflammable Celluloid Company. Alexander Wallace Barr learnt of a German process for using cellulose acetate for "dope" and acquired patent rights to the material. He made this in a shed under the railway arches at Clapham before taking them by car to Sopwith's of Kingston and others. In the Great War the expansion in trade led to a move to new premises in Petersham Road. In Paris he did a deal with the only source of raw materials other than the Germans. After the Great War the company developed industrial paints and cellulose finishes, including Porcelac, for bathroom fittings, and Cerrac lacquers for wood and metal.  In the Second World War they led production through the Society of British Aircraft Manufacturers. The company became part of Pinchin Johnson and was then acquired by Courtaulds in 1960 in order to access its experience in colouring of materials, especially relevant to Cellophane. From 1968 it was part of the International Paint Group. The factory closed in the 1980s and the site became an industrial estate.
380 Nikon House. UK base for Japanese imaging company handling Import, sales and servicing of cameras and microscopes
Hawker Aircraft Company site.
National Aircraft Factory. Because of military demand for aircraft during the Great War the Minister of Munitions set up the National Aircraft Factory.  No.2 “Richmond” factory was built by Dick Kerr in 1917 -1918 on land requisitioned under the Defence of the Realm Act from the Earl of Dysart.
Sopwith works. In 1912 Tom Sopwith set up aircraft manufacture in Kinston expanding to Canbury Park Road. He then leased the National Aircraft Factory and delivered a Snipe, in 1918. Sopwith built 720 aircraft here - Snipes, Salamanders and Dragons, before the armistice.
Leyland Motors. In 1919 the Ministry ended the arrangement with Sopwith and the site was sold to Leyland Motors – although he site was still legally owned by Lord Dysart. Leyland used the factory for converting war surplus Leyland ‘G’ Type lorries.  They then made 17,000 Trojan cars there - the 'can you afford to walk' car which was an early attempt to produce a mass-market car which sold for £140 driven by a four cylinder motorcycle engine. They also made light commercial vehicles, as well as Cub lorries, buses and specially bodied vehicles. In the Second World War they made Lynx lorries, desert water carriers, gearboxes, tank gun drives, Centaur tanks as well as land mines and incendiary bombs. Munitions were made in an underground works in the north west corner – which may still remain. After the war British United Traction trolley buses were built here with AEC.
Hawker. In 1948 Hawker Aircraft – who had taken over Sopwith Aviation bought the works from Leyland Motors. Sopwith had failed when the war ended and had gone into receivership - on the same day Hawker Engineering was formed with the same directors.  In 1958 the Hawker’s management and design organisation moved into a new office block on the site – in brick and stone by Sir Hubert Worthington and Norman Dawbawn and using the profit made from the Hunter. They made Sea Hawks followed by Hunters, Harriers and Hawks. In addition the V/STOL P.1127 development aircraft and Kestrel service evaluation fighters were built at Kingston. There were destructive test rigs where fuselages were set up for stress testing, the high temperature test roar where jet nozzles are tested at high temperature and air flow, and where the original Harrier fuselages were assembled. There were also vertical cylindrical heaters designed to heat the enamel floor space.  Work continued under nationalised British Aerospace and then privatised British Aerospace plc, until its closure in 1992. The works were demolished by Dick Kerr.


Upper Ham Road
24 Hand and Flower.
Ham and Petersham Cricket Club house

Sources
Behind The Blue Plaques,
Blue Plaque Guide
Cassell Trust. Web site
Field. London Place Names
GLIAS Newsletter
Grace’s Guide. Web site
Greater London Council. Thames Guidelines
London Borough of Richmond. Web site
London Encyclopaedia
London Transport. Country Walks
Nairn. Modern Buildings
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Penguin. Surrey
Pevsner Surrey
Port of London Magazine
Richmond Local History Society. Web site

Sunday, 3 July 2016

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham Lands and Teddington Lock

Riverside - south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham Lands and Teddington Lock

This post has sites south of the river only. North of the river is Teddington

Post to the north Ham Lands and Twickenham Crossdeep
Post to the east Ham and Hawker and Teddington Broom Hall

Ham Lands
Nature reserve – this covers the area between Riverside Drive and the river. This is  a stretch of low-lying fields extending into grasslands and scrub, sometimes of considerable width following the curve of the Thames. Recently Part of these lands once belonged to Secrett Farm and part were half yearly Lammas lands. Much of Ham belonged to the Dysarts and ensured their privacy but this did not save these lands being dug for gravel in the late 19th.  Freshwater marsh plants provide some of the flora for this strip of diverse habitat. Three types of orchid grow which is partly due to the chalky character of the infill used at the former gravel workings. Other unusual species found in these former water meadows include the bloody cranesbill and salad burnet which also reflect this underlying substrate. The common plants like rosebay willowherb or yarrow are balanced with dittander and moth mullein. This length of well-vegetated riverside attracts a wide range of insects, including 19 species of butterfly. The hawthorn and willow scrub is cover for numerous birds from woodpeckers and whitethroats to willow warblers and reed buntings. There are also amphibians like the grass snake.

River
Teddington Lock.  The lock marks the limit of the Port of London Authority. Downstream of the lock is the Tideway. Above the lock is managed by the Environment Agency. From 1802 plans for locks in between Staines and Teddington, were drawn up but there were problems with landowners and this bit of river has always been a problem to navigation because of shallows. The City of London Corporation obtained an Act in 1810 for construction of locks and weirs here and this was done by Stephen Leach. Work here began in 1810 but there were delays. The lock opened in 1811, built slightly upstream on the site now covered by the footbridge. By 1827 the timber lock needed repair and in 1829 the weir was destroyed by ice and damaged by the 1840s wash from steamers was giving trouble.  In 1848 after Old London Bridge was removed the water level fell by over two feet.  There were proposals to rebuild the lock in 1854 proposals to include capacity for seagoing craft. This opened in 1858 together with the narrow skiff lock.
Barge lock – this has gates which allow it to operate in two sizes. It is the largest lock on the river and was built in 1904–1905.
Skiff lock. This opened in 1858.
Weir – this is bow shaped weir which stretches to Teddington from an island. It dates from 1811 but was rebuilt in 1871
Teddington Lock Footbridge – this is two bridges separated by the island and it opened in 1889
Obelisk. Erected in 1909 to mark the boundary between Thames Conservancy and Port of London Authority jurisdiction. It says "Thames Conservancy Lower Limit 1909".
Thames Aqueducts.  The water supply Ring main passes under here. It was begun in 1960 but it had been suggested in 1935 – a tunnel to take water from the Thames above Teddington to North London.  It is built in 102in diameter tunnel in interlocking concrete rings for 19 miles, starts at Hampton Water Works and finishes at the Lockwood reservoir.  Built by Sir William Halcrow & Partners.


Sources
Clunn. The Face of London
Greater London Council. Thames Guidelines.
London Encyclopaedia.
London Transport. Country Walks
Parker.  North Surrey
Penguin. Surrey
Pevsner and Cherry. South London
Stevenson. Surrey
Walford. Village London
Wikipedia. As appropriate.

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham Lands

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Ham Lands

This post shows sites south of the river only. North of the river is Twickenham Crossdeep

Post to the north. Ham Street riverside and Twickenham
Post to the south, Ham Lands and Teddington Lock and Teddington

Ashburnham Road
Part of housing development on land given by Wates building company.
St Richards Church of England Primary School. This was originally opened in 1890, to replace Ham Village School.  It was then called St Andrew’s School at Ham Common.  In 1966 the school re-opened on the Wates Estate as St Richard's with St Andrew's Primary School.  The school developed a successful School Choir which sang on television and radio many times.  The school swimming pool opened in 1972 paid for by local fund raising. It was opened by Hugh Wheldon, Managing Director of BBC Television.
St Richard's Church. This church was built on Wates land and the foundation stone was laid in 1964 by Norman Wates. It was designed by Architect Ralph Covell based on the Star of David to make a hexagonal space. There are fourteen stained glass windows by Henry Haig to shown the life of St. Richard. There is an organ by Bevington and Sons dating to 1900 and rebuilt here in 1965. Outside the church is a wooden cross on a mound made by local young people in 2006.

Ham Lands
Coldharbour Farm. Farm buildings present before 1930 and sited in the area of later gravel working
Ham River Grit Co. In 1904 the Earl of Dysart leased part of the farmland for sand and ballast construction. The company was owned by George and William Brice, clay and barge operators from Rochester. A dock was constructed in 1913 and a lock in 1921 allowing barges into the flooded pit. The remains of this system are now used by the Thames Young Mariners. There was also a narrow gauge railway. Later a depot was built on the road to Kingston and the railway extended to it.  During the Second World War the pits ace said to have been used to store parts of the Mulberry Harbour. Later they were filled with rubble from the bombing. After 1952, when extraction ceased, housing was planned for the area. The area was however designated as Metropolitan Open Land.
Light railway – owned by the Ham River Grit Co. This ran along the tow path. One locomotive, Odin, was running on a preserve railway until 2012.
Ham Lands Nature Reserve. This is next to the river and has a mixture of habitats that range including woodland and wetland and contains many plants and animals. Wildflowers attract bees and butterflies and there are many different birds. It has unusual vegetation due to the underlying alkaline rubble instead of the more acidic fluvial deposits. At the southern end of the site is a stretch of natural river bank with shingle.  As the gravel pits were closed the concrete barges used there were abandoned. They gave formed solid lumps of concrete which impact on water movement here.
Kew and Ham Sports Association. The association runs a number of sports facilities here and since 2007 have used the pavilion here.  This has 6 large changing rooms and a large meeting room. Facilities include the Ham Hawks football school run by Kew Association Football Club
The Ranges. This site is entered from Ham Street. Ham Rifle Range operated by Ham and Petersham Rifle and Pistol Club Ltd, which is a private shooting club. The club was founded in 1906 although it is thought it began in 1903.  Charles Hanbury-Tracy, the 4th Lord Sudeley was President of the Ham & Petersham Rifle & Pistol Club from 1906. It has six outdoor ranges for archery, air guns, rifles and Black Powder pistols. There is also a clubhouse and bar.
King George Field. This is entered from Ham Street. The field takes its name from King George V who originally gave the land to the borough. The Foundation was set up as a memorial following the King's death in 1936. It was previously called Walnut Tree Meadow
Thames Young Mariners. This was established in the 1960s on a 25 acre site including the lake. It offers water-based activities in a controlled environment and is recognised as a teaching centre. A rare opportunity to see a surviving area of flood meadow. Drawdock


Wates Estate.
Ham Riverside Village. This was developed by building company Wates in the mid 1960s as Ham Riverside Village. There are townhouses with integral garages and 2 storey houses in 3 different sizes. There are also maisonettes. Being built on recently reclaimed land the estate has continued to suffer from subsidence problems

Woodville Road
Woodville Day Care Centre


Sources
Arcadian Times. Web site
Greater London Council. Thames Guidelines
Ham and Petersham Rifle and Pistol Club. Web site
Kew and Ham Sports Association. Web site
Parker. North Surrey
Penguin. Surrey
St Richard’s Church. Web site
St. Richard's School. Web site
Walford.  Village London
Wikipedia. As appropriate

Saturday, 2 July 2016

Riverside - south bank West of the Tower. Ham Street Riverside

Riverside - south bank West of the Tower. Ham Street Riverside

This posting only shows sites south of the river. For sites in this square north of the river go to Twickenham


Post to the east Ham House and Marble Hill
Post to the north St.Margarets
Post to the west Twickenham
Post to the south Ham Lands and Twickenham Crossdeep


Ham Street
Ham House entrance and lodges. This is the entry to the stable yard, which is itself in the square to the east
Playing Fields and riverside car park
Ham Well of the Richmond Water Works on the car park site
King George's Fields entrance. The gate piers have the standard heraldic stone plaques that denote all King George's Fields.

Sources

Riverside, south bank, west of the Tower. Ham House

Riverside, south bank, west of the Tower. Ham House

This post shows sites south of the river only. North of the river is Marble Hill

Post to the east Richmond Star and Garter
Post to the west Twickenham and Ham Street Riverside
Post to the north Richmond Riverside and Central

Douglas House Meadow
Petersham and Ham Sea Scouts. This is one of the oldest scout troops still in existence, beginning in 1908. It is called the Phoenix troop because the scout hut has burned down on several occasions.
Spitfire. A Spitfire from the Second World War is rumoured to be buried in the field.

Ham House
Ham House.   Originally built in 1610, Ham House was built for William Murray first Earl of Dysart who was educated with the young Prince Charles.  William was given the lease of Ham House and its estate as a gift from the King in 1626. It had originally been built by Sir Thomas Vavasour in 1610 as a typuical H-plan Elizabethan hioiuse.  From 1637-9 he began alterations to it. After the Restoration the house was owned by his daughter Elizabeth. In 1672, she married the Duke of Lauderdale. They transformed Ham House into one of the grandest houses in England. . The work was done by William Samwell who filled in the space between the arms of the Jacobean H. The house remained in the ownership of Elizabeth’s descendants from her first marriage for nearly 300 years. It was passed to the National Trust in 1948. It is one of the largest early 17th houses in the Greater London area and of great h architectural and decorative interest. The plan of the house is that of an oblong with two wings. It is in brick with stone dressings. 
The North Front. This dates from 1610 and was once part of a courtyard, decorated with the marble busts. The iron gates date from 1672. In 1800, it was opened up as it is now. The Coade stone pineapples and the Coade stone statue of Father Thames, by John Bacon the elder were installed then. The topiary shrubs are clipped into a 17th style-. The trees are Portuguese laurel.
The South Terrace and Platts. This was built 1672-4 to provide a shady walk for ladies. Scented paths were created with box and orange and lemon trees, oleander, myrtle, almond trees and other exotics. The border was replanted in 1997 in the 17th style; the standard trees are Hibiscus syriaca and pomegranate. On the wall are fan trained plums. The eight lawns, or plats, were restored in 1975.  The large trees growing on the outer platts were probably planted are English Oak, Sweet Chestnut and False Acacia.
Stables. The stables were with Ham House in 1610 and they were symmetrical reflecting a new taste. The north east elevation of the stables was extended in 1787and a cupola and weather cock was added.  The interior is more intact, with a timber arch in the Jacobean timber frame. Water was pumped from the north wing of the stable block to the house via underground pipes. The Tollemache family auctioned off the estate in 1948 but kept the stables. They were sold and sold again and Ham House Stables were set up there as a business. Some of the buildings were converted for housing in 1979-80 by Colin Bottomley, retaining one original unit
Gardens. The Duke and Duchess of Lauderdale redesigned the gardens in the latest formal French, Dutch and Italian styles. The results were spectacular, and visitors came to marvel. It was later landscaped by Repton, and restored in the 1970s by the National Trust to the formal layout of the 1670s. They include the Cherry Garden, with lavender parterres hornbeam arbours. There is a 17th orangery with a kitchen garden, a licensed cafe; and a terrace with a Christ's thorn bush.
The Wilderness. A popular idea in 17th gardening, the Wilderness was a geometric arrangement of clipped hedges radiating out from a central point. The hedges were formed into compartments planted with wild flowers and meadow grass, or as a dense shrubbery. These represented wild nature tamed by man,
The Orangery and Garden. This may be the oldest Orangery in the country- built around 1670. It was to provide over-wintering for the Duchess's collection of citrus. It became a laundry in the 19th and is now the Tea Room.
Approach Road. The present approach from Ham Street is not the original. The approach laid out in the 1670s was by two avenues, one from Petersham Road and one from Ham Common. The lodges remain.


Hammerton’s Ferry
Hammerton’s Ferry. In the past there was little demand for cross-river services on this stretch of bank. In 1901 Marble Hill House in Twickenham was bought for the public and the riverside footpath by Ham House became a public right of way so a need was created. In 1909 Walter Hammerton began to operate a regular ferry service here. In 1913 the operators of the Twickenham Ferry, slightly up river took legal action against it. And eventually the House of Lords ruled in favour of Hammerton. The ferry is currently owned by Francis Spencer and operated by Stan Rust. Hammerton's original skiff is now on display at the Museum in Docklands. It operates between a floating boathouse on the north bank of the Thames and small jetty on the south bank.

Polo Ground
Ham Polo Club and Clubhouse. Founded in 1926 and the last active club in Greater London. The ground is in what was the orchard of Ham House converted for their use in 1958.

River Lane
Manor House, Early 18th house,
Courtyards. Built 1964 by L. Manasseh,
Drum House. Built by L. Manessah in 1964. A semicircular projection at one end containing a swimming pool
Petersham Lodge.  The original house was built around  1740 and occupied by Robert Ord in 1778. Max Waechter gave it to the local authority it to preserve it and it was used as a holiday home for governesses.  There is said to be a rotunda in the garden from 1740.
Glen Cottage. This is traditionally where Vancouver lived and where he settled in 1795 to write up his voyages for publication. He died in l799 when he was only 40 and is buried in Petersham churchyard.
Douglas House. The house was built in 1690 as Douglas House and bought in 1969 for use as a German school by the Federal Republic of Germany.  They built a school around the house which became the reception and school offices. It opened in 1971. Later buildings were designed by the German firm Kersten Mertinoff & Struhk, for architects were W H Marmorek and Clifford Culpin & Partners. The school was for children of diplomatic staff from the embassies of West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland
Petersham Lodge Wood. This was once part of the Lodge' landscaped grounds. The wood had been owned by the local council since 1902 and managed jointly with the London Wildlife Trust, assisted by local Petersham Environment volunteers.It is is protested by a dyke along the riverside but some flooding is allowed.

Tree Close
Tree Close. Sheltered housing by Manning & Clamp, 1976

Sources
GLC, Thames Landscape Strategy
Ham House. Web site
London Transport. Country walks
London Encycliopedia
Parker. North Surrey Parker
Petersham Environment Trust.  Web site
Petersham Sea Scouts. Web site
Pevsner and cherry, South London
Pevsner. Surrey
Pritchard. Ham House and its Owners.
Tucker. Ferries of the Lower Thames
Victoria and Albert Museum. Ham House
Walford. Village London

Friday, 1 July 2016

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Richmond Star and Garter

Riverside south of the river and west of the Tower. Richmond Star and Garter

Post to the north Richmond Hill
Post to the west Ham House and Marble Hill


Buccleugh Gardens
Buccleugh Gardens . This was once part of Hill Common, common land in the Royal Manor where in the mid 17th tile kilns stood, which was closed down in 1767.  Land was bought here for George Brudenell, Earl of Cardigan and Duke of Montagu to the gardens of his riverside house and the house was rebuilt in the mid 18th. The estate passed to the Duke’s daughter who was married to the Duke of Buccleugh and then their children. The 5th Duke bought Lansdowne House which he demolished added the gardens to his own. The 6th Duke sold the gardens to the Vestry of Richmond and they opened Terrace Gardens.  Buccleuch Gardens was the site of the Duke's House which Richmond Vestry had sold. This was bought back by Richmond Council in 1937 following concerns about drainage on the hill above the gardens and the likelihood of land slips. The park is a narrow riverside strip with some plane trees and shrubs and a lawmen bordered by the Thames Path. The change of slope running north-south along the riverbank marks the flood line of the Thames. There is a 1930s brick shelter on the site of Buccleuch House and arcades from the house are used for storage.  At the entrance is a 20th drinking fountain.
Tunnel. A private tunnel under the road goes to Langham Lodge.
Tunnel. In the 18th the Duke of Montagu linked the two parts of his grounds by a subterranean grotto/tunnel under the Petersham Road. This remains and in Buccleuch Gardens the entrance is a grotto with three bays. In Terrace Gardens are two sets of curving steps.
Buccleuch House.  There appears to have been an 18th cottage on the site of the house which was enlarged for Earl Ferrars in 1725. In the 1709s the site was inherited by the wife of the Duke of Buccleugh and by then a house had been built by the Duke of Cardigan and his family.

Bute Avenue
Bute House was the home of The Earl of Bute when he was Prime Minister. It was demolished in 1908. Bute Avenue used to run northwards to the house but has been cut off by modern development.

Church Lane
St.Peter's Church. This lies on a path leading from the main road, the Domesday Book records that there was then a church in the village.  In 1266 another was built of which some of the chancel remains. This was rebuilt in 1505 and added to in 1600. There were later 17th and 19th additions. The church was originally a chaplaincy of Kingston.
Churchyard.  The walled churchyard has some fine trees. Tombs include the simple grave of George Vancouver of the Royal Navy, who discovered the island off the west coast of Canada that is named after him. This is halfway along the south wall. Other tombs include that of Albert Henry Scott designed by his father George Gilbert Scott. The entrance to the churchyard has a metal arch with lamp erected in 1997.
Petersham Nurseries. This local garden centre was opened in part of the Petersham House grounds in the 1970's.  It was taken over by the Boglione family in the late 1990s who reopened it with a wider offer in 2004. It now includes a Michelin starred restaurant.

Drift Way
This path within Richmond Park runs east-west through Sidmouth Wood.

Hobart
A small playground is built into the communal space at the rear of Hobart Place where the ground opens out, giving space for gardens and added parking. This was part of the Richmond Parish Lands housing scheme off Queens Road

Nightingale Lane
This was originally a straight path down the hillside. In 1810 Richmond Vestry leased part of Hill Common to the then owner of Nightingale Cottage. This area is now the hotel car park and cannot be built on.
Petersham Hotel. The Hotel stands between the remains of Richmond Hill’s Common and Petersham Common. In 1639 was leased and by 1650 a cottage was built in the central section. It was rebuilt in the 1770’s and called Nightingale Cottage and later Ashburnham Lodge. In 1863 the Richmond Hill Hotel Company bought it and built a hotel here designed by John Giles with a tower, high pitched roofs and many balconies. The Portland stone staircase is said to be the tallest unsupported stone staircase in the country with ceiling paintings by Ferdinando Galli. In 1877 the name was changed to ‘The Mansion’ and in 1889 ‘The Mansion Hotel’. In 1922 it became the ‘New Star and Garter Hotel’.  In 1945 the Bank of England bought for a staff hostel calling it ‘Nightingale Hall’. In 1951 it reopened as ‘The Star and Garter Hotel’. In 1978 it was purchased by the Dare family and renamed ‘The Petersham Hotel’. An extension for a restaurant was built in 1957 and there have been further extensions since.


Petersham Common
Petersham Common.  This is land between Petersham Road and Star and Garter Lane. Originally part of the Ham House estate Lord Dysart tried to enclose it. This was opposed by the Commons Preservation, now Open Spaces, Society.the Earl of Davenport transferred the freehold of Petersham Common to Richmond Town Council in 1902 and specified that it be managed by Petersham Common Conservators, and this continues to be the case.

Petersham Meadows
The Meadows were part of the Ham House estate between the 17th and 19th. The land is let to a grazier who maintains a herd on the land which is now owned by the National Trust. At one time there were water meadows. Despite the concrete flood wall, the Thames is regularly allowed to flood these water meadows in the traditional way
Richmond Water Works. Petersham Well No.1 was situated in the north west corner of the meadows, near the river. It is said to have had a chlorination plant attached and pumping equipment.

Petersham Park
Petersham Park. This is a landscaped park on the western edge of Richmond Park. It was a private park from 1686 with a lodge built in 1692 along with formal gardens. In 1734 part of the park was merged in with Richmond Park and avenues of trees were planted. The rest became part of Richmond Park in 1834-35.
Petersham Lodge. In the 1630s when Richmond Park was created a manor house existed on the site which later became known as Petersham Lodge. It was used as a house for the park’s Deputy Keeper, Ludovic Carlell. The Countess of Dysart and her husband took it over when they became the joint Keepers.  In 1686 it was leased the Earl of Rochester. He demolished the lodge and built a new mansion called New Park.  This was burnt down in 1721, and replaced by a new Petersham Lodge for William, Earl of Harrington, later called Viscount Petersham in 1733. It was demolished in the 1830s, when the grounds became part of Richmond Park.
Petersham Gate Playground. This has a sandpit area, a bark pit with a climbing frame and jumping lily pads, an elephant piano, a see-saw, a water play feature and a timber pergola with seats.

Petersham Road
194 Fox and Duck. This was previously The Horse and Groom. The old wooden pub thought to date from the early 18th was demolished in 1940. It had been a staging post on the London to Guildford
road.  It was rebuilt on a slightly different site. There is a small Truman lantern featuring the brewery's 'eagle' trademark.
Petersham lockup. This is said to be the white-boarded, slate roofed building in the Fox and Duck car park. It dates from 1787.
The Russell School.  The school was founded in 1851 as a new village school by Prime Minister John Russell who lived in Pembroke Lodge. The Richmond Park site was given under a Royal Warrant for the education of the poor. In 1891 Russell's interest in the school site handed over to the British and Foreign School Society. In 1943 Petersham Russell Infant School was bombed and a new school needed to be built by Surrey County Council. The Russell School, which opened in 1980, therefore is now housed in the buildings of the Orchard Junior School which opened in 1952 and the new Petersham Russell Infant School built in 1954.
190 Avenue Lodge. One of the original lodges to Petersham Park. It dates from the 17th in plum brick.
188 Farm Lodge. One of the original lodges to Petersham Park. It is 17th but has been refaced in the 18th or 19th in yellow brick.  It had also has been extended at the back
186 Montrose House.  Early 18th brick house. It was built for Thomas Jenner, a Catholic judge. It is named for the Dowager Duchess of Montrose who lived there in the 19th.
184 Reston Lodge.  An early 19th front and cast-iron gates with thick ornament.
182 Lodge at what was the entrance to Bute House. All Saints Church was originally intended to be approached from here, via a driveway through the former grounds of Bute House
145 Rutland Lodge. Thus was built in 1666 for a Lord Mayor of London who was subsequently disgraced for misappropriating funds intended for the rebuilding of London after the Great Fire. The name relates to the Duchess of Rutland who lived here in the 1740s.  It was converted into flats after fire damage in 1967
135 Dysart. This was The Dysart Arms but it is now a very very posh restaurant. The building dates from 1904 in brewers’ Tudor. The oak bar said to have been installed in the 1850s from an 18th war ship. The name is that of the Dysart’s who owned Ham House. The original pub was in an old farmhouse dating from the late 17th. It was then called the Plough and Harrow which was demolished in 1902. Although this is now a posh restaurant the pole which the inn sign hung from is still standing in the street outside. There is also a cast iron 'No public right of way' sign with Hodgsons' Kingston Brewery Co.,Ltd.
Club house for the Ranelagh Harriers running club to the rear of the Dysart Arms.
Petersham Road Lodge. Grand entrance gate to the drive to Ham House with the Dysart Arms. This dates from 1900 and was designed by R D Oliver for the Dysart Family in red brick.  There is a stretch of stock brick walling attaching the gate piers to the gatehouse. The gate piers themselves are partly hidden in ivy.
Ham Polo Club. This is the last polo club in London
Petersham Farm Stables. Livery and riding about. The tenancy of Petersham Farm passed through many hands until 1880 when Mr Hornby and Mr Clarke founded the Hornby and Clarke dairy with milk from the Petersham herd. The lease later passed to Express Dairies and since. Then a series of private firms and individuals have tried to run a dairy herd here.
Petersham Common Woods. A broad leaved woodland, designated as a Site of Metropolitan importance for Nature Conservation. The site links Richmond Park and the Thames. It is owned by Richmond Council and managed by the Petersham Common Conservators
Rose of York. This pub and hotel is in what were the stables of the Petersham Hotel. It was previously called Tudor Close.
146  Langham Lodge

Queen's Road
Wesleyan College. Methodist College to train missionaries. This opened in 1843. It replaced Hoxton Theological College.  Thomas Jackson was the first theological tutor and one of Methodism's greatest scholars. Dr. W.F. Moulton served here for fifteen years. Institute for Foreign study.  It was the Wesleyan Theological Institute 1841-3 and throughout its history it had a special link with overseas missions, and its students include Josiah Hudson, William Goudie and William H. Findlay of India and David Hill of China. Dr.J. Parkes Cadman crossed the Atlantic to become a well-known figure in American Methodism.   Later known as the Richmond College, it became part of London University, whose degrees it awarded until 1971. In 1972, it became Richmond College, an independent, international, non-for-profit, liberal arts college. Now it is Richmond University, The American International University in London.  The original building was by Andrew Trimmer in Bath stone. It is said to be surrounded by rare trees planted by the previous owner of the site. The library was added by Maufe in 1931.  From 1868 the Missionary Society owned the college but from 1885 it trained young men to serve the Methodist Church at home or abroad. In 1902 it was recognised by London University. During the Second World War, it was an administrative centre for the University and it suffered bomb damage in 1940.  It closed for lack of students in 1970. It is an American international university and the original chapel is now used as a theatre. The original entrance was in Friars Style Road but it was moved to Queens Road when the Vineyard School was built.
Lass of Richmond Hill. Young’s pub dating from at least the 1860s. Named for the 18th popular song, which is supposed to be about the Yorkshire Richmond.

Richmond Hill
132 Terrace Cottage. This was once the cottage for the pub, and was probably altered around 1840.
138 Richmond Hill. This house, on the site of an earlier home of William Hickey was rebuilt in 1769 for Christopher Blanchard, Master of the Company of Playing Card Manufacturers and King George III’s card-maker. It is believed the architect may have been Robert Taylor,
142 Doughty House. 18th house. In 1769, the Cook family added an art gallery behind the house. It is named now for Elizabeth Doughty who funded St.Elizabeth's church
The Wick.  This is in the corner of Nightingale Lane. Late 18th house on the site of the Bull's Head Inn designed by architect Robert Mylne for Lady St. Aubyn. The there is an iron lamp-holder at the front.  It has a basement in which there reputedly is a recording studio - it has been the home of musician, currently Pete Townsend.  Past occupants have included the actor John Mills.
Wick House. Designed by Sir William Chambers and Built in 1772 as a weekend home for Joshua Reynolds. It became a hotel in 1916 and later used as an annex to the Richmond Hill Hotel. It was occupied by the army in the Second World War and then bought as a nurses' home for the Star and Garter home.   It is now a private house
144-150 The Richmond Hill Hotel.  This is made up of a number of properties, first built in 1726.  In 1875 it was the Queen's Hotel and later the Richmond Hill Hotel in 1913, which took over Mansfield Place.
Metcalfe’s Hydro. Hotel present in 1910 which used water therapy.
152-158 Richmond Gate Hotel.  This was previously the Morshead Hotel.  The site also includes, Crawford Cottage and Syon House. In the 1960s the hotel was extended to occupy all these properties, with new building and a conference centre.
Star and Garter Home. The modern equivalent of the hospitals at Greenwich and Chelsea for invalid and incurable servicemen. It was named after its predecessor on the site, the Star and Garter Hotel.  The current building is 1921-4 by Sir Edwin Cooper which he designed free of charge with money from Women of the Empire.  It was built by Mowlem’s. There is a marble Memorial Hall. It was opened in 1924.  In 2008 the governors thought that it no longer suited their needs/
Star and Garter Hotel had begun as a small tavern in 1738 and was enlarged until it was a substantial hotel in the early 19th.  The site was originally leased from the Earl of Dysart and named for his membership of the order of the Star and Garter.  It became one of the most famous luxury hotels in the country. Charles Dickens held an annual private dinner here to celebrate his wedding anniversary. It closed in 1906. In 1915 the Auctioneers and Estate Agents Institute of the UK raised the money to buy it and give it to Queen Mary. She gave it to the Red Cross to open a permanent hospital for seriously disabled young men returning from the Great War.  It was unsuitable for wards, and thus rebuilt.
Ancaster House. This is by the park gate. Built in 1772, the house has been attributed to Adam. Latterly it has been the home of the Commandant of the Star and Garter Homes.

Richmond Park
In the 14th was part of the Manor of Sheen and a royal palace was built here. Kings and Queens hunted in the area and under Charles I this was created as a new park – but the public could access it via ladder stiles. Under the Commonwealth the park was given to the City of London. Under George II aristocrats were appointed as Ranger of the Park. It was cleared and drained but a long dispute began about the ladderstiles. Lodges and gates were rejected and eventually public access was easier. In the late 18th three were new plantations and it ceased to be designed for hunting. In 1851 Parliament secured full public access and after the Great War the deer returned and sports facilities set up. It is now managed by the Royal Parks Agency and is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a National Nature Reserve in 2000.
Richmond Gate. The main entrance to Richmond Park from Richmond Hill. This was set up in 1798 and widened in 1896. There are wrought iron gates with the two central gate piers showing the initials GR and CR (for George and Charlotte) painted in gold. The two piers to either side have the date the gates were erected, 1798, in Roman numerals (MDCC and XCVIII).
Richmond Gate Lodge. Built in 1798. Attributed to John Soane, King's Deputy Surveyor of Woods and Forests.
Holly Lodge. Cooper's Lodge was built in 1735 on the site of Hill Farm. It was later known as Lucas's Lodge and as Bog Lodge.  It was renamed Holly Lodge in 1993 and became a base for the Metropolitan Police's Royal Parks Operational Command Unit. There is a game larder in its courtyard, built in 1735.   It is now the Holly Lodge Centre which was founded in 1994 as part of the Royal Parks education programme.  The Centre officially opened on 23 February 1994, but has since become an independent charity. There is also a livery in six old police horse stables there. At the rear is a line of trees said to be 700 years old.
Pembroke Lodge.  This is an 18trh mansion with eleven acres of beautifully landscaped grounds. It was the home of Prime Minister John Russell and the childhood home of Bertrand Russell. It was the regimental headquarters of the Phantom Squad in the Second World War. It is part of the Crown Estate used as a catering, conference and wedding venue as well as tea rooms
Henry VIII mound.  This is now in the grounds of Pembroke House. Henry VII is said to have wanted it built so he could watch the game being driven past and it is the highest point in the park. It is said that Henry VIII stood here in 1536 waiting to see a rocket fired from the Tower of London to announce that his second wife, Ann Boleyn, had been successfully beheaded. – But this is not true because he was in Wiltshire. On the Kingtston Zodiac it is on Sagittarius.  It is thought it may date from the Bronze Age and was afterwards used a as viewpoint for hunting and falconry.
Memorial to Ian Dury. This is a memorial bench sponsored by Warner Chappell Music in Poet’s Corner, Pembroke Lodge. It was designed by Mil Stricevic to enable people to listen to the music of Ian whilst enjoying park views. The back of the bench is inscribed with: Reasons to be cheerful, - he title of one of Dury's songs
Memorial to the poet James Thomson. This is a board with a poem about Thomson by the writer and historian John Heneage Jesse.
Petersham Gate - the entry to the park from Petersham Road
Sidmouth Woods. A path runs through the woods which are protected by a deer proof fence.
'The Way' - St Paul's Cathedral Tercentenary Gates. New gates, which can be viewed through the King Henry's Mound telescope, have been installed on the edge of Sidmouth Woods to mark the tercentenary of St Paul's Cathedral. They are by Joshua De Lisle
Bishops Pond. Which has a resident heron
Conduit Wood. Site of White Conduit. Earliest of the conduit houses built to serve Richmond Palace after the fire of 1499. The Red Conduit and the Petersham Conduit are now gone.
Kidney Wood so called from its shape.
South African War Hospital. In the Great War this was built between Bishops’ Lodge and Conduit Wood.  In 1914, a group of South Africans living in London formed a Committee to und hospital which was eventually built here.  They also supported the hospital with comforts and eventually extensions. There were also occupational and vocational work projects. By 1917 there were 620 beds and in 1918 it amalgamated with the Richmond Military Hospital. The Hospital closed in 1921 and was demolished in 1925. 

Terrace Field
From the early 17th there were brickworks in this area. When they closed in 1767 some acres of grazed meadow were given as royal bounty, and were called Terrace Field.  The park consists of a steep meadow, cut for hay in the late summer to allow the Six Spot Burnet Moth to complete its breeding cycle.  Some sections of the 19th brick walls which divided the former private estates remain: one on the east part of the boundary with Terrace Gardens. There are sets if unusual acorn head bollards here.

Terrace Gardens
This square covers only a brief southern strip of these gardens, built on 17th brickworks.
Three Pigeons Gate – gate into the park from Petersham Road. Late 18th or early 19th brick gate piers with ball finials. It is opposite the former Three Pigeons Inn.
Conservatory with a small service yard behind. This replaces a series of earlier conservatries. In the present buildings back wall is a carved stone relief of Adam and Eve, plus apple tree and snake. This is said to be have come from the Landsdowne estate.
Field Gate. This leads into Terrace Field. Ire is a 19th iron gate within an arch in the brick wall,
Wilderness Garden. This is in the west corner of the park and it is a series of paths and steps, lined in brick and stone, with some possible fabricated stone running through a densely shrubbed and wooded area down the slope from the southernmost end of the Terrace Gardens. These date from at least before the 1860s



Sources
Bollards of London. Web site
Brewery History Society. Web site.
Clunn. The Face of London
English Heritage Web site
Hearsum collection. Web site
Kingston Zodiac,
London Encyclopaedia
London Gardens Online. Web site
London Transport. Country walks
Panorama of the Thames. Web site
Parker. North Surrey Parker, 
Pastscape. Web site
Penguin. Surrey
Petersham Hotel. Web site
Petersham Nurseries. Web site
Pevsner and Cherry. South London,
Pevsner. Surrey 
Port of London Magazine
St. Peter’s Church. Web site
Thames Basin Archaeology of Industry Group. Report
Wikipedia. As appropriate