Sunday, 19 February 2017

M25 Byfleet West Hall


Post to the east Byfleet


Broad Ditch
This is said to be the original course of the River Wey. It is followed by the Parish boundary and now the borough boundary.

Dodds Lane
Footpath which runs to the Navigation from Pyrford Lane
Traditions Golf Club, This is an 18 hole public, parkland golf course designed by Peter Allis in 1999

West Hall
The buildings at West Hall are reached by a long private drive from Parvis Road to the north.
West Hall. Large house now a care home. In it was used as by land girls and refuges and also as an overflow auxiliary hospital. It was later used as offices by the Swiss Bank and eventually by Mouchel, consulting engineers. West Hall was built in the 1890s by local benefactor Frederick Stoop. It replaced West Lodge which dated at least from the mid 18th when West Lodge was owned by a Richard West. Another later owner was Robert Murray.
West Hall Farm
Orchard. At West Hall the George Carpenter and garden staff develpped three new apples including the “Byfleet Seedling” in 1915.
Moat.  This is a Linear pond east of the Hall. Although it is thought of as a moated site it is more likely to have been an ornamental pond for West Hall.. There is a sluice exit onto the Navigation.

Murray’s Lane
Named after an owner of West Lodge. This is part of an ancient footpath to Pyrford.

Tins Wood

Wey Navigation
The stretch between Dodd’s and Murray’s bridges is unusually a public bridleway.
Dodds Bridge. This was also known as Harris’s bridge and carried a private drive to West Hall.
Murray’s Bridge. This was also known as Twigg’s Bridge and originally carried a private drive from West Hall.

Sources
Archaeology Dataservice. Web site
Byfleet Heritage. Web site
Wardle. The Wey Navigations
Woking Council. Web site

M25 Byfleet



Post to the south Wisley Lane
Post to the west Byfleet West Hall



Bourne Close
This was the site of Halford's Farm which dated from the 18th

Brewery Lane
Sewage Pumping Station. This is at the junction with Church Road and is owned by Thames Water. It replaces an earlier building.
Vanners Parade is at the junction with the High Road and is on the site of Vanners Farm which was here until the early 1900s. Thomas Vanner was an 18th landholder in the area.

Church Road
St. Mary’s Church. This was a medieval church in flint and puddingstone with a 15th shingled tower and belfry. It had a number of 19th additions and a major reordering. On the wall of the nave is part of a medieval wall painting of a king. There is some important modern stained glass, a bassoon in a glass case and the Royal Arms. Among the monuments is a brass of a 15th rector. There is a war memorial made up of wooden crosses brought here from the battlefields of the Great War.
Churchyard. This includes the grave of George Smith, publisher of Jane Eyre and founder in 1882 of the Dictionary of National Biography.
St.Mary’s Hall. Large post war building opposite the church
Clockhouse Poultry Farm. This dated from around 1905 and belonged to the owners of Clock House. It was set up to produce eggs to be marketed but Mrs. Trevor-Williams, the owner, also took an interest in fancy breeds of poultry.

Eden Grove Road
Up to the 19th this was all common fields. Local authority housing was built here from the early 1930s.

Elm Tree Close
Site of the Clockhouse Poultry Farm

Hart Road
St Mary’s Primary School. Built in 1966 with what was described as a forceful blue boiler chimney – it is now white. It replaced a former church school in the High Street

High Road
The Beeches. This is said to be the former home of the owners of the Byfleet Brewery
Byfleet Brewery. It is said to have begun in Vanners House on the opposite corner and was owned by Henry Dennett and then Holroyd Brothers. In the 1890s it was merged with Friary Ales of Guildford and Healeys of Kingston and the business moved to Guildford in 1905.  It was re-placed on the site by the Sanway Laundry and then by The Willows.
Sanway Laundry. This moved here from a site in Sanway and closed in the 1950s.
Kingdom Hall, Meeting place for Jehovah's Witnesses. It was registered for marriages in 1975.
Foxlake Farm. This was on the north side of the road and part of the Christ’s Hospital Estate.. The buildings survived into the late 1960s, when the land was sold for development
160 art deco garage
Blue Anchor Pub. This is said to originate in the 17th or 18th and some claims that it was connected to anchors made at the Byfleet Mill. The Blue Anchor name is recorded in 1836. It is also said to be haunted by a murdered landlord.
Clock House This is now divided and used for accommodation for the elderly. It is an 18th stucco covered house. It is party behind an arched entrance to a court yard with a clock face on a building at right angles to it and above a dome and weathervane. It is said to have been built on the site of smaller Byfleet Cottage and to incorporate the balustrade of Waterloo Bridge.  In the 1930s it was a convalescent home. There is a large pond to the rear.
White House, This stands at what was once the entrance to Mill Lane. It is thought that it was once used as a school

M25

Magdalen Crescent
Manor Primary School. This school closed in 2006 and amalgamated with St. Mary’s Primary School. The buildings are still extant and a notice on the gate says it is a police dog training establishment.

Mill Lane.
Weybarton House. Large house demolished in the 1960s.
11 this was the gardener’s cottage for Weybarton House, next door was the chauffeur’s house
Manor Farm. This is now restored farmland. It was previously a market garden intensively farmed for salad crops but is now meadows and pasture which has brought wildlife benefits. The fields attract skylarks, pied wagtails, linnets and roe deer. There was a Second World War gun emplacement here,

Rectory Lane
This was once called Workhouse Lane
Methodist Church.  This large building replaced an original Wesleyan chapel dating from the 1920s. which later became the Church of England Hall. The present church was registered in 1933 and funded by a local resident.
Recreation ground. This dates from the 1890s and was laid out on land owned by Byfleet United Charities. It had previously been the workhouse field. The pavilion was donated by Frederick Stoop of West Hall in 1926
13 this house was the police station until 2015
Hoodsfield. 16th house hidden behind high hedges
Rectory. This is a recent replacement for a house built as a parsonage in 1834. There are also indications that there was an earlier moated site here.

Sanway
The name is said to be derived from ‘sandy’.
Sanway Laundry. This was on the site of the Sanway Stores but moved to the brewery site on the High Road in the early 20th,

Sanway Road
Laundry – there is also thought to have been a laundry on the site of the disused school.

The Willows
On the site of the brewery

Ulwin Avenue
Ulwin was the tenant of Byfleet from Chertsey Manor at Domesday

Weybarton
On the site of the big house of the same name


Sources
Blatch. The Churches of Surrey
Blue Anchor. Web site
Byfleet Heritage Society. Web site
Illustrated Poultry Record
Parker. North Surrey 
Pevsner, Surrey
Surrey Industrial History Group. Web site
Surrey Wildlife Trust. Web site
Wikipedia. As appropriate
Woking History. Web site

Saturday, 18 February 2017

M25 Wisley Lane


Post to the east Wisley Common
Post to the north Byfleet


Chittenden Cottages
Housing built for Royal Horticultural Society workers in the late 1950s. Frederick Chittenden was the first director of the gardens here and the cottages were built after his death

Common Meadows
These lie along the Wey

M25

Wey
The river Wey winds through this square. In the north running east west through common meadows to pass under the M25 then to run south to Wisley Bridge (in the square to the west) and then to turn south east.

Weybank
Houses built for the superintendants at the Royal Horticultural Gardens.

Wisley Lane
Royal Horticultural Society Cottages
Old School House – timber-framed and brick building with steeply pitched tile roof. 16th with 18th and 20th- alteration
Deers  Farm Close. Royal Horticultural Society Trials Site. Woking Archery Club is on part of this site.
Sports Ground. This includes a pavilion and pitches
Sewage works. This is run by Thames Water and appears to date from the 1920s. . A Romano British Pottery Kiln has been found here.

Sources
Royal Horticultural Society. Web site
Surrey County Council. Web site
Wikipedia. As appropriate

M25 Wisley Common


Post to the east Chatley
Post to the west Wisley Lane


Buxton Wood
Deciduous wood, on the north side of the M25.

Clearmount
Clearmount was part of arable farmland, There is a boundary bank between this and Wisley Common.  The area has now merged into the common. The bank itself is about a metre high, with a ditch on the common side. On it are some old and stag headed oaks – at least 200 years old.

Cockcrow Hill
Bronze Age Bell Barrow – this is an authenticated site. There are also some linear earthworks in the area.

Foxwarren Park.
Foxwarren Park. House buit in 1860, by Frederick Barnes of Ipswich for Charles Buxton in harsh 19th Gothic style. It has polychrome brickwork and terracotta dressings. It in includes an octagonal tower with corbels and a decorated band. Said to have an ‘eerie intellectual atmosphere’.

M25
Junction 10 Wisley Interchange. This is the junction with the A3 Portsmouth Road.

Pond Farm
Pond farmhouse. This was built as a cottage by Lord King 1800-1804. The original building is on tthe east side of the house and it was later extended
The pasture of Pond Farm is the former bed of Wisley Pond and some have needed measures to be taken against flooding. Fields are presently used fpor horses and cattle.
Barn.  This is in brick with some weatherboardeding and a central wagon door.
Possible round barrow east of Pond Farm. It is not known to have been excavated, and there are many natural mounds and spoil mounds in the area,
Lord King’s Ditch. This separates the farmland from the common. Local tradition says it was the ditch cut to drain Wisley Pond

Wisley Common
Part of the common land of Wisley and continuous with Ockham and Chatley Commons – both common land of their respective manors.

Wisley Pond
Wisley Pond. This is no longer extant. It is first mentioned in the 1590s and in  1680, two iron mills are shown on the north side. In the early 19th it was drained and turned it into farmland. The pond was formed by a dam built on its north west side – an area now by a track – and still visible as a bank. It does not appear to have been like other artificial medieval ponds and it is thought to have been partly natural.  The pond remnant is now dry, although its bed can still be seen

Woolgers Wood
Birchmere Scout Camp. Communal facilities in proper buildings, set in woodland with many activities available.


Sources
Birchmere. Web site
Historic England. Web site
Pevsner. Surrey
SABRE. Web site
Surrey County Council. Web sit

M25 Chatley Heath


Post to the east Hatchford Park
Post to the north Chatley


Chatley Heath
Chatley Heath is part of Ockley Common and is registered common land, previously in the area of Cobham. It was enclosed in 1793. As a common it was heathland but as use of it for grazing declined trees began to take over the heath.  Birch colonises  heathland very quickly and Scots Pine was introduced to Surrey for timber and readily seeds itself. The rangers cut invading shrubs and tree seedlings, and clear some of the woods that were once heathland and the bare soil is soon covered with purple heather and, the rare heathland wildlife returns.
Breach Hill Common and Wood are part of Chatley Heath and Telegraph Hill, part of Breach Hill Common
Semaphore Tower.  In 1815 an Act of Parliament allowed for the establishment of a permanent semaphore communication system. Stations were brick with on top a mast with two signal arms with an arrangement of cranks, bevel gears and rods driven from an operations room below.These were made abd maintained by Maudslay & Field. Chatley Heath station was on the semaphore line to Portsmouth ran and later a  never used branch line was begun between here and Plymouth. the London-Portsmouth route continued in operation until 1847 when the electric telegraph was developed.  It was used as a residence until 1963 when it was condemned as unfit and rhere was a fire here in 1984.  It has since been restored by Surrey County Council, with an operational semaphore signalling mechanism,

Hatchford Manor (the majority of the manor site is in the square to the east)
Mausoleum. Temple of Sleep - a copper domed mausoleum for burials of the Samuelson family but the lead coffins were stolen in 1961 as was the copper roof and the vault now lies empty

M25

Ockham Common
This is a heavily wooded place, particularly near the beginning, and the rhododendrons are almost impenetrable. he area is largely one of woodland, with conifers locally dominating the tree cover. Heathland makes up only about 20% of the total land area, and this is constantly in danger of being encroached by scrub. It has also been known as Ockham Heath.

Sources
Association for Industrial Archaeology. Conference notes
Haselfoot. The Batsford Guide to the Industrial Archaeology of South East England.
Industrial Archaeology of Surrey
Penguin Surrey
Surrey County Council. Web site
Surrey Wildlife Trust. Web site

Friday, 17 February 2017

M25 Downside Horsley Road


Post to the east Downside Bookham Road
Post to the north Chilbrook


Goose Green
This tiny strip of land alongside the motorway is registered common land and part of Downside Common.  Was it used for pasturing geese?  There was medicinal well here apparently discovered in 1670. This well is shown on 19th maps and was apparently still extant in the 1930s. At the bottom of the well were ‘stones like Bristol diamonds’.

Horsley Road
Bull Riding Farm. The farm now includes a vet’s practice
Oakdene Farm
Highway Farm
Peaked Rough. This is now a paintball games establishment. There is an American military vehicle displayed in the entrance on the road

M25
Cobham Service Area. This includes the ‘back gate’ to these services which is in the square to the east,

Old Oak Common
This is a small stretch of woodland

Sources
International grotto directory. Web site
Guildford Council Web site
Tayor. Cobham. A History

M25 Downside Bookham Road


Post to the east Bookham Lodge
Post to the north Downside
Post to the west Downside Horsley Road


Beaumont Plantation

Bookham Road
New Barn Farm
Chasemore Farm.  This was Dodewyck which means Dudda’s dairy farm. It is now a stud farm. There is an 18th house which was the home of the Freke family from the 14th . The family were woodmongers of London.   Bookham Brook flows through the farm site
Chasemore Wood
Down Wood. The wood has been cut in half by the motorway. It has boundary defined by the remnants of an earth bank and ditch, with coppiced hazel and other species. A bank surrounding a wood is usually associated with medieval woodland management. This is an Ancient Woodland, with oak, silver birch and coppiced hazel plus wild cherry, red oak, field maple and ash. At the edges is planted rhododendron and Leylandii on the motorway embankment.

M25
This section dates from 1986 and cuts through Down Wood. This western section is in a cutting but rises to grade level past New Barn Farm and rises on an embankment as it goes. It goes over the top of Bookham Road and the railway.
Cobham Service Area. This opened in 2012 and is the largest service are in the country. It is based on the south side of the motorway but serves both directions.

Sources
Mole Valley District Council. Web site
SABRE. Web site
Taylor. Cobham – a History.

M25 Leatherhead - industrial railside


Post to the east Lower Ashstead
Post to the south Leatherhead
Post to the west Pachesham
Post to the north Leatherhead






Aperdele Road
Apedele appears to have been the family name of early medieval landowners in this area.
Leatherhead Trinity School. This Church of England Primary School was the result of an amalgamation of three existing schools t St. Mary's, All Saints and The Woodville. This was supported by local churches – Anglican, Methodist and United Reform. Leatherhead Children's Centre was on a site here which was previously All Saints School. This includes a nursery and reception class as well as day care for younger children and an after school family project
All Saints School. This opened in 1877 using the disused railway engine shed which was also used as a mission church and a Sunday School. In 1900 it moved to new premises in a building  which later became the North Leatherhead Community Centre. From 1953 it was an infant school only.

Barnett Wood Lane
Poors Allotments.  25 acres on either side of the road were allocated to allotments following enclosure of common land in Acts of the 1860s.
Barnettwood Farm. The farm, which was on both sides of the road, was in the ownership of Merton College and was the subject of a precedent setting case between them and Leatherhead Urban District Council on compulsory purchase issues. Buildings are now in light industrial use and there is also livery and grazing on site.
Barnett Wood Farmhouse. This house is thought to be 18th and to be timber-framed
Gas Works. This was the works of the Leatherhead Gas Company built in the 1850s and remaining independent until taken over by the Wandsworth Company in the 1930s. The works was still extant post nationalisation into the 1960s

Bay Tree Avenue
This road consists of industrial and trading units on the site of the General Cable Manufacturing works.
Genite Works, The General Cable Manufacturing Company. This electrical cable manufacturer opened a works here in the 1930s and remained until about 1969 when they closed. Before the cable works the site was used as a brickworks and by a sawyer.
Ryebrook Trading Estate
2 Berkeley House. Major property developer  Berkeley Group was established in 1976 in Weybridge, Surrey building single homes and ‘executive’ developments.


Buffers Lane
All Saints School. Originally in the engine shed 1877. When the railway relinquished it had been used as a church. When the school left it was a car repair depot.


Challenge Court
Trading estate on an area of allotments and farmland north of Barnettwood Lane.


Cleeve Road
ERA Technology. This originated in 1920 as The British Electrical and Allied Industries Research Association known as the The Electrical Research Association funded by government. It undertook electrical research and technology innovation. Major new laboratories and offices were opened here in 1957 and have remained the headquarters of the organisation along with other  ever since. Development on the 15-acre campus site has continued to the present day with the addition of several large purpose-built facilities. After 1969 ERA began  to find ways of getting income from the industries it served and thus became the first privatised research association. It continued to grow and develop into new research areas, including RF technology and electronic systems. It became a leading independent consulting organisation becoming, in 2001, an entirely commercial organisation.


Copthorne road
Copthorne Brickworks This brickfield operated during the 19th until around  1897.

Dilston Road
Therfield School. This is a mixed comprehensive school educating students 11–18 .It was opened in 1953 as the Leatherhead County Secondary School taking pupils who had been part of All Saints School. It was named Therfield from 1964. It was a Specialist Sports College  2005 —2008.


Kingslea
Kendall Cars. The car hire business on the Kingslea site originated in Guildford in the late 1960s
Henry Moore & Son. Agricultural Merchants and specialists in seed corn. They had a granary on this site and had opened in 1920 being part of a family milling business. They continued here untl 1961.

Kingston Road
Kingston Road straight down over the railway on a long bridge. On north and south of the bridge are slips off Kingston Road, running parallel with the main road and still called Kingston Road - the road numbering carries on down these slips rather than on the main road up on the bridge.
Fairs road - trading estates on old factory sites
265 Royal Oak, The pub dates to the 1850s but had a predecessor which served the stage coaches and appears to have once fronted on what is now Oak Road.. It was a Charrington’s house but has been Greene King since 1994.
201 Neil and Spencer.  This dry cleaning machinery company had been in the town since 1947 based in Station Road. They opened Argosy Works, in the 1960s by which time they were the biggest manufacturers of this machinery in the country. By the 1980s they had left Leatherhead
Recreation ground
All Saints School. . The school moved here from the engine shed in 1902 and moved out in 1978.
North Leatherhead Community Centre. This is the old All Saints school building.
Railway sidings.  This is now Buffers Lane. The original engine shed survived until the 1980s.  When the railway crelinquished it it was first used as a church and a school, and latterly as a car repair depot.
All Saints Church. Dates from 1888 as a district church for the north part of the parish The site was donated by Captain Richardson and the architect was Arthur Blomfield.  In 1981 the church was converted into a dual purpose centre: with a folding screen the nave becoming a church hall. There is a memorial to members of the Church Lads Brigade.   The organ has been sold. It now appears to be a coffee shop.
All Saints Hall – this is on the slip of Kingston Road parallel to the railway and now appears to be in commercial use
.  It was for a while used as a classroom by All Saints School.
Connect and Trident House. Office blocks – these are at the end of the north slip off Kingston Road.
Railway bridge. This very long road bridge over the railway divides north Leatherhead from the rest of the town. It dates from 1867 and the extension of the railway to Dorking.
Gas holder. This is shown on the west side of the street pre-1900  – across the road from the actual works.
117 Perennial. Royal Gardeners Benevolent Charity
93 Plough, The pub is a local landmark although the current building appears to date from the pre-war period, and there was an earlier pub here  There are two Friary Meux signs on the building
Roundabout. Called The Circus or the The Plough Roundabout. This was built in 1934 as part of the Leatherhead Bypass.
Cast-iron distribution cabinets, for street lighting control, stood in the centre Plough roundabout embossed ‘Siemens 1880 London’.
Leatherhead Ambulance Station
Curves. Sports club – this seems to have been built as the Co-op Hall.
Karn Brothers were coachbuilders and blacksmiths on the corner of Kingston Road and Kingslea from the early 20th.. By the 1930s the site was occupied by a garage.
73 Allard Sports Car Manufacture. From 1936 to 1959 Sydney Allard built nearly 2,000 sports cars in Putney and Clapham. In 1948 he opened an experimental workshop at Thorne's  Garage in Leatherhead and developed his 'J' series here,
Trinity School. In 1913 there were two new schools here. One was fhe County Upper Mixed Senior School and the other the County Infants' School.  In 1926 the Infants' School closed and the building taken over by the Senior School and by 1945 they were also using Horsa Huts built by Prisoners of War. The name was changed to Leatherhead County Secondary School. In the early 1950s Therfield School was opened and secondary pupils were transferred to it. All Saints Junior school then moved into some of the Kingston Road premises and it became the County Primary Junior Mixed School. The site was eventually renamed the Woodville County Middle School and in 1993 became The Woodville School, a Surrey County Junior School. It is now called the Trinity School including Stagecoach Performing Arts School.

Leatherhead Common
This is the area north of the railway, also called North Leatherhead.

Leatherhead Bypass
The A245 starts at Junction 9 of the M25 and heads towards central leagtherehead. It is called By-Pass Road because it was originally part of the A243 Leatherhead bypass. .

M25

Oak Road
Many works and trading units

Railway
The railway in this square runs north from Leatherhead Station. On  both sides of the line there remain the sites of sidings replaced with industrial and trading units. The history of almost all of these sites is unknown to Edith.
Plough Industrial Estate. A siding to the east went to works at the back of the Plough Pub. This is now the Plough Industrial Estate
Factory site. A spur of Kingston Road goes alongside the railway on the eastside and then passes under the Kingston Road Bridge it to access a large factory site on the east
Sidings north and west of the station site accessed a large works to the west of the line


Randalls Park Avenue
Transforming Station. The 132kV grid system for South Eastern England was completed in 1933. In 1935 a feed to the 33kV Epsom Ring was enabled with a a 132kV transforming station in Randalls Farm Lane, adjacent to the railway line, and was connected into the existing 132 kV line between Woking and Wimbledon.  Although this site address is given as Randalls Park Avenue it appears now to be accessed only from the northern cul de sac slip of Kingston Road and to be behind Connect and Trident House, where there is what appears to be a switching station.

Randalls Way
Trading and industrial Estate
Leatherhead Enterprise Centre
Randalls Research Park
Imperial Park. Trading area

Sources
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Disused Stations. Web site
ERA. Web site
Knowles. Surrey and the Motor
Leatherhead Local History Society. Web site
Leatherhead Parish Church. Web site
Leatherhead Trinity School. Web site
Leatherhead Web. Web site
Mole Valley District Council. Web site
Pevsner. Surrey
Surrey County Council. Web site
Tarplee. Industrial History of the Mole Valley District
Vardey. Leatherhead. A History. 

Tuesday, 14 February 2017

M25 Lower Ashtead


Post to the south Leatherhead Fortyfoot
Post to the north Lower Ashtead
Post to the west Leatherhead Industrial railside



Agates Lane
Merry Hall.  This is a late 18th house with 1788 on the chimney. It was the home of writer Beverley Nichols.
Barn – this is near Murray’s Court. This is now used as a stable. It is probably 17th with a timber frame on brick plinth, with
weather-board on the front

Barnett Wood
Once a large area of woodland now reduced to a few trees on verges.


Bypass Road
The Bypass. This section is the remains of a road which ran from the Knoll Roundabout (in the square to the south) to the Plough roundabout and a junction with Kingston Road (in the square to the west). It is now the A243 and having reached Junction 9 with the M25 now continued north instead of curving west.
Highways Agency Depot.  This is in an island between the Bypass Road and the M25.

Duckworth Drive
Appears to be new housing on the site of Ashstead Grange, and the subsequent school on that site.

Grange Road
St Peter’s Catholic Primary School. The school began is a small building next to the Church of Our Lady and St.Peter in Leatherhead, in 1947. In 1958 they moved to the present site and in 1975 the school became a First and Middle school. In 1993, with the reorganisation of the age of transfer, it became a Primary School.
St Andrews Catholic School. This is a Christian secondary school and sixth form college.. Originally a convent, its main buildings are from  the mid-1950s and a new building are being added.

M25
Junction 9. This is the Leatherhead Interchange which opened in 1985, and was one of last junctions of the M25 to open. It interchanges with the A243.


Ottways Lane
Gate Lodge. This was the lodge to Ashstead Grange. This has a monogram on it and the date of 1895. The monogram appears to be W. R?? B – which presumably refers to Mr. Birts.
Ashtead Grange, This was the home of W. T. Birts in the late 19th and sold in 1919.  After that it appears to have been a poultry farm and to have become St.Michael’s Convent School by the time of the Second World War.  The site is now housing.
Old Cottage. Timber framed house which was a bakery in the 19th, although earlier in the 19th it was called Ordnance Cottage. In the early 20th it was a nursery for roses.

Sources
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Leatherhead Local History Society. Web site
Mole Valley Council. Web site.
SABRE. Web site
St. Andrew’s Catholic School. Web site
St. Peter’s Catholic Primary School. Web site

Monday, 13 February 2017

M25 Leatherhead - Fortyfoot


Post to the east Leatherhead Ermyn Way
Post to the west Leatherhead
Post to the north Lower Ashstead



Beechwood Park
Housing on part of the site for the Royal School for the Blind.

By pass road
This is divided by the roundabout at The knoll. North of the roundabout it is the A243, south is the A24 which continues that road which has joined it from the east and which originally continued in to the town centre.

Epsom Road
Downsend School. Pre-‘preparatory’ department in a building originally called The Rowans.
Christ Church. This dates from 1829 when it wass an independent Congregational church, joining the United Reformed Church in 1972. The current church was built in 1935 about to replace building in the town centre
Cottage Hospital. This was opposite the end of Garlands Road on the site now covered by Victoria House. The Leatherhead and District Victoria Memorial Cottage Hospital was opened in 1904 and enlarged in 1927. Later a house opposite, Fairmead, was added as the X Ray department. Patients were expected to provide their own bed wear and changes of bed linen.  In time it was decided to build a new hospital and fund raising began. The Cottage Hospital closed in 1940 when the new Leatherhead Hospital opened. In 1960 the former building was converted into a home for disabled people by the Voluntary Association for Surrey Disabled and renamed Victoria House.  By 2000 it was too the old and the home closed in January 2011. Victoria House is a block of flats built in 2005.


Forty Foot Road
This road was built before 1895. It was referred to as a private road and has never been adopted.
The Beeches. A residential care home,
Fortyfoot Recreation Ground. This was opened in 1925 by Leatherhead Urban District Council. It includes a small children's playground and football pitch and a bowling green which is used by Leatherhead Bowling Club. There is also an informal woodland area with a number of paths
Leatherhead Bowling Club. The club was founded in 1908 and moved here in 1925. They have hosted several Surrey County matches. In 1966 the Leatherhead Ladies Bowling Club was formed but in 2012, Ladies and Men’s associations merged nationally.
Fortyfoot Hall. This is also Epsom and Leatherhead Mencap Hall and likely to be replaced with flats above a new hall.
Woodlands School.   The school caters for pupils with severe or profound learning difficulties from across Surrey.
St.Marys Church of England Infants School. The school's name changed when it moved here from Poplar Road and it was officially opened in 1986 and closed in 2006.


Green Lane
This may be on the line of a long distance Bronze Age trackway called the Harroway.  A Saxon mass grave was found in this area in 1927.

Highlands Road
56-66 Kingston House. Royal School for the Blind.   This was founded in Southwark in 1799 and moved here in 1902. Was one of the largest such institutions in the world with the King as patron.  In 1939 at the start of the Second World War the school became King's College Hospital‘s Emergency Medical Service. With an operating theatre and laboratories, etc.   Part of the School was damaged by bombs in 1940. It was decommissioned in 1946 and the Chelsea Pensioners infirmary until 1956.  It was eventually re-opened in 1958. In the late 1990s the buildings were sold  and main building is now flats; Lavender Close and more blocks have been added. The Chapel is now serviced offices.
Entrance to the Royal School. The pillars remain without the gates. The Lodge is now a private house.

Knoll  roundabout
The Knoll was a house on the corner of Epsom Road and what became the ByPass Road. It was used as a school in the Second World Warl

Leatherhead road
Downsend School. Private fee paying ‘prep’ school. The school was founded, owned and run by the he Linford family. It first opened in Hampstead in 1898.  In 1940 it was set up at the Downsend site. By 2002 there were no more Linfords and it was sold to Asquith Court Schools Ltd, It is now run as a profitable business by Cognita

M25

Poplar Road
Leatherhead Community Hospital & Clinic. In 1938 work began on a new hospital to replace the Cottage Hospital in Epsom Road.  It opened in 1940 and immediately joined the Emergency Medical Service.  In 1948 it joined the NHS as a modern GP hospital. In 1959 Dr C.W. von Bergen one of the founders died. A plaque to his memory was unveiled by Lord Beaverbrook. In 2006 the Hospital became the responsibility of the Central Surrey Health a not-for-profit community services provider owned by its employees who continue to run it.
Church of England School, this was on site here for for 102 years but moced to new buildings on the Fortyfoot Road site in 1986. The old Poplar Road school was converted to maisonettes.

Quarry Gardens
There was a chalk pit in this area

Sources
Christ Church. Web site
Downsend School. Web site
Leatherhead Bowls Club. Web site
Lost Hospitals of London. Web site
Mole Valley District Council. Web site
SABRE. Web site

Sunday, 12 February 2017

M25 Leatherhead Ermyn Way



Post to the east Stane Street
Post to the west Leatherhead Fortyfoot


Ermyn Way
Rayon Manufacturing Company. From 1926 artificial silk was made here by the Rayon Manufacturing Company. It closed because of a shortage of water on site and because of complaints about smell.
Goblin. Goblin took over the Rayon Company site in 1938, having moved from Fulham. Cecil Booth had designed and patented the prototype cleaner in 1901, setting up what became Goblin where the first portable cleaner was made in 1904, electrically driven from 1911. In the Second Wold War they made munitions and other equipment. Post war they made vacuum cleaners and large fixed plants for major buildings and ships.  In a market now dominated by Hoover they also diversified into gadgets like the Teasmade. By the 1970s the factory needed modernising and the site was sold and the company moved to Hampshire. The factory was demolished in 1984
Esso House. This is a headquarters for Esso opened in 1990. They are now part of Exxon Mobile.
Milner House. This was originally a 19th private house called The Long House. It was, bought by the Ex-Services Welfare Society for the Mentally Disabled after the Great War.  It is now a private nursing home
Remploy factory. Hunter's Workshops  were built adjacent to Milner House for access by their residents.  It was later taken over by Thermega Ltd who made woollen goods, electric blankets and medical heating pads. They employed disabled people from Milner House.  In 1981 Remploy took it over employing registered disabled people and later recycling electrical goods. It was closed down in 2007.

M25

Warren Way
Chace Farm Stud.  Livery Stables.
Vodaphone Mast

Sources
Industrial Archaeology of the Mole Valley
Mole Valley District Council. Web site
Remploy. Web site
Vardey. Leatherhead

M25 Stane Street



Post to the west Leatherhead Ermyn Way


Addlestone Wood
Ancient semi-natural woodland. Hazel under oak with flora

M25
Where the M25 crosses Stane Street (Pebble Lane) it is alleged a tunnel was built for badgers.

Pebble Lane Stane Street
Stane Street is a Roman road and as such on this stretch is a designated ancient monument. Roman roads were artificially made-up routes built by the Roman army from AD 43. They were to facitate the Imperial mail service, were also commercial routes and provided a network for settlement and industry. Many of them have continued in use and are beneath modern roads but the 3km length of Stane Street from Mickleham Downs survives well as part of a major route originally from Chichester to London. It has a central agger with a ditch on each side - visible in places as a U-shaped depression. South of Thirty Acres Barn the road forms a terrace cut into the chalk. Pebbles from the original construction have given the lane its current name. The lane is now subject to restrictions because of adjacent wealthy properties.
Concrete blocks where the lane crosses Headley Road. These look like defence strucrture


Shepherds Walk Stane Street
Thirty Acres Barn. This is a racehorse training establishment
Barrow mounds appear to show in aeriel photographs of  the area around the barn

Sources
Archaeological Database. Surrey. Web site
Historic England. Web site
Mole Valley Council. Web site

Saturday, 11 February 2017

M25 Headley


Post to the east Hurst Road, Walton



Costal Wood
Wood with ‘regimented conifers’.
Headley Clay Pigeon Shoot – takes place in the wood on specific dates

Hurst Lane
Old Telephone Exchange
Hook Wood, Wingfield Stables – livery
Headley Park Farm. Livery stables

Hurst Road
Walton Hurst Farm. The farmhouse is 16th with a timber frame and brick infill.
Dovecote. This is at the farm and is probably 19th in flint. Inside the upper walls are lined with wooden nesting boxes.
Steeple cottage –house with a steeple

M25

Oyster Hill.
Woodland. Deposit of fossilised oyster shells found here. Said to have been an extensive deposit in Thanet Sands. The wood was bought for the National Trust as the result of local gifts in 1980

Tilley Lane
Headley Park. This was first called Headley House and owned by the Ladbroke family with a interest in horse racing and the development of Ladbroke Grove, In 1895 it was sold to the John Mappin of Mappin and Webb, Jewellers who added to the house but it was burnt down in 1896.. It re built in 1898. Second World War it was split into 5 houses, including Farriers, below.
Farriers , In the second world war this was a temporary home to Joseph Kennedy, the American Ambassador to Britain. It is actually a wing of Headley Park. It was later used by the Canadian High Commission. It is now private housing.
Oyster Hill Forge. This is now an interior decoration shop. In 2009 it was Bubear & Jones' blacksmith and forgemaster. The building is 18th in flint with some weatherboarding A chimney serves an  interior furnace at the back,.

Sources
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Headley Clay Pigeon Shoot.  Web site
Headley. The Parish Plan. Web site
Leatherhead Local History Society. Web site
Mole Valley Council. Web site
Reigate and Banstead Council. Web site
Surrey Life. Web site

M25 Hurst Road Walton




Post to the south Walton Park Wood
Post to the west Headley

Great Hurst Wood
The woodland is mainly coppiced hazel with a show of bluebells in the spring and is ancient woodland

Hurst Road
Ede’s Barn. This has an 18th or earlier flint boundary wall.
Ede’s Barn Cottage. House in flint and brick
Albion Stud. Horse riding school and livery
Mid Surrey Branch Pony Club. This club is based mainly in the square to the east but their Trial Course is here south of Hurst Road

M25

Sandhill Wood.
Natural woodland. A Neolithic adze was found here in 1948.

Sources
Pastscape. Web site
Pony Club. Web  site
Reigate and Banstead Council. Web site
Surrey County Council. Web site


Friday, 10 February 2017

M25 Walton Park Wood


Post to the south Dorking Road, Walton
Post to the north Hurst Road Walton



Howard Close
Recreation Ground, Park with children's playground and football pitch.

M25

Walton Park Wood
Large area of woodland, now bisected by the M25

Sources
Reigate and Banstead Council. Web site

M25 Dorking Road Walton


Post to the east Walton Heath
Post to the north Walton Park Wood


Dorking Road
Toll Cottage. This was apparently a toll house on a turnpike road under the (Sutton (Surrey), Reigate and Povey Cross Road Act. Now a private house.
Queens Wood

Herring Grove
Woodland, apparently which has suffered bad storm damage

M25

Sturts Lane
DEP Frith Park. Frith Park was used by DEP Ltd - a company making printing ink. It had been founded in Frankfurt by Samuel Kahn in 1908 and moved to England to escape the Nazis persecution, Samuel brought his family and business to Britain and establish. Later the company moved here and became DEP Ltd with products for the Offset printing industry. Production is now based in Runcorn.
Frith Park. The mansion and other buildings are to be turned into flats and other housing.
Frith Park Farm. Farmhouse.  Half of the current build is 16th with a timber-frame but refronted in late 17th and extended again in the 19th and 20th. There are also stables and a flint walled piggery. The farm is surrounded by deciduous woodlands separated by fields, and the area is crossed by a network of accessible paths

Sources
Banstead and Reigate Council. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
DEP. Website
Turnpike and Toll House database. Web site
Woodland Trust, Web site

M25 Walton Heath


Post to the west Dorking Road Walton


Chequers Lane
Sturt House Priory Hospital. This is a private hospital for men with mental health issues. It provides a locked rehabilitation service in a rural setting. It is in a 19th listed building.

Dorking Road
Walton Oaks. This includes the commercial Headquarters in the Uk of Pfizer. They are – this an international innovative biopharmaceutical company working in medicines, vaccines and consumer healthcare.
Reservoir – this dates from 2007 and stores water to keep the golf course in good condition

M25

Walton Heath
Walton Heath Golf Course. The Club was founded in 1903.  The course was laid out by W. Herbert Fowler, as his first course venture; he was to become a leading course architect the UK. and US. It resembles a traditional seaside links from heather, gorse and bracken and is still one of the top 100 courses in the world. A new course opened in 1907 also designed by Fowler. The Old Course has hosted nearly 90 major championships including the Ryder Cup.


Sources
Pfizer. Web site
Priory Hospital. Web site
Walton Heath Golf Club. Web site

M25 Mogador


Post to the east Colley Hill


Coneybury Hill

Juniper Hill

M25

Margery Grove
Swiss House. Is owned by the Seva Corporation, or another organisation, connected to Prem Rawat, and used as his home. He heads a US based spiritual organisation with many different existences. The house appears to date from the 1930s when it was called Lueg is Land.

Mogador
This is a hamlet of which the south west portion is covered in this square. This appears to consist of 1930s housing on unnamed bridle paths.
There are two City of London coal tax posts in the area of houses and bridle paths west of Margery Grove and south of Mogador Road

Mount Hill

Sources
Avator. Lord from Heaven. Web site
Coal tax sites. Web site
Wikipedia. Mogador. Web site.

Thursday, 9 February 2017

M25 Colley Hill



Post to the east Reigate Hill
Post to the west Mogador


Buckland Road
This is a bridle way for the stretch which is on this square

Colley Hill
The National Trust along with Reigate and Banstead Council own the whole of the ridge here,.
Water tower,, Built in 1910 and owned by Surrey & District Water Co.
Colley Hill Hearthstone mines 1890, Reigate Mines until 1961, The main site is in the square to the south of this. There were also whiting extraction sites.
Natural chalk cave. This was in the area of the water tower. It appeared as a result of subsidence in 1966. It had a cavity 30ft long following the slope of the hill. In heavy rain  water flows into the cave and chalk is dissolved extending the cave.
Inglis Memorial drinking fountain. This was donated to the Borough by Lt Col Inglis in 1909. It was then for use by horses and was at the top of the original route up Reigate Hill. It houses a direction indicator and retains its mosaic roof
Obelisk. This is in memory of George Simpson Captain 5th Battalion The Queen's Royal West Surrey Regiment.
The Saddle Knob. This is a grassy slope, with an old quarry at its foot

Dents Farm. Stable and livery

Footpath between Margery Grove and Colley Hill
City of London Coal Tax post on the north side

Margery Grove
City of London Coal Tax post east side 200 yards from the south end
City of London Coal Tax post east side 100 yards from the south end
City of London Coal Tax post east side at the south end,. This is the most southerly post

Margery Wood
Woodland described as ‘fragmented habitat’ with lots of bluebells.

M25

Queen's Park
Parkland. This is an area of Colley Hill, presented to the borough of Reigate in 1902 by Mr. George Taylor as a pleasure ground.  This site is between 600 and 700 feet above sea-level with extensive views.

Sources
Chelsea Speleological Society. Newsletter
Coal tax duty posts. Web site
Dent’s Farm. Web site
London Transport. Country walks 
North Downs Landscapes. Web site
Penguin. Surrey
Reigate and Banstead Council. Web site
Wheatley and Meulenkamp. Follies

M25 Reigate Hill




Post to the east Gatton
Post to the west Colley Hill

Blackhorse Lane
The end of the road has been diverted slightly to the north of its original route, to make way for the M25 junction.
Old chalk pit. This is shown on 1890s maps as lying on the north side of the road, on a site which now appears to be part of Junction 8.

Brighton Road
Crossways House. This stood at the junction of Brighton Road and Reigate Hill. It offered refreshments – and dinner, bed and breakfast for six shillings. It also appears to have been the home of Arthur Sherwell, MP and temperance reformer. The site is now under the mway junction 8.

Fort Lane
Margery Hall. The house was built by George Taylor. He was the owner and operator of a hearthstone mine on Colley Hill, to the west, and the local water company. He wanted to provide Reigate with fresh water.  He sunk a well with feeder adits at the base near Margery Hall area, but wanted to tap the water from below. His idea was to drive boreholes upwards into the roof of mine galleries, and tap the water. His water company was bought by East Surrey Water Company before he could do this. Margery Hall, was supplied with water pumped from a well at the base of Colley Hill. At Margery Hall a pitch covered waer main has been found.
Furzefield Copse. In the 1890s two small covered reservoirs are shown here. The copse was north of Margery Hall.
Two Acre Wood. This wood is now south of Junction 8. In the 1890s it is shown as an old chalk pit
British Broadcasting Association Reigate Radio Transmitter Station
National Air Traffic Services Mast
Blackhorse Wood, woodland
East Surrey Water tower plus two telecoms masts.
Rock Farm
Reigate Fort. This was built in 1898 as part of the London Defence Scheme and was decommissioned and sold in 1907. In the Great War it was used for storing ammunition. It was reopened in the Second World War and is thought to have been part of the communications network for the army's South East Command which was based in nearby tunnels. After the war the fort was used by the Scout Association. It was designated as a Scheduled Ancient Monument in 1972 and has since been restored with the help of various grants and volunteers. The whole area of hillside below the fort is said to be full of tunnels, now inaccessible, where military activities took place during the Second World War.
Memorial on Bomber Crash site. In 1945, an area of mowed, open grass is where a US Flying Fortress bomber crashed having been on its flight home from a bombing raid on the Czech border. Clouds had made visibility impossible in the plane had descended to 300ft and collided with the hill.  In 2015  a sculpture was installed at the site, It is two wing tips the size and shape of a B-17(G) by sculptor Roger Day. Molten fuselage aluminium, from the crash site, has also been incorporated into it.
Fort Lodge. This was built in the 1940’s and used as the home of the Bishop of Woolwich.
East Fort Cottage. Hilltop Holiday Home for Cats.
Four Acre Upper Woods, Woodland

M25
Reigate Lane Interchange Junction 8. The M25 here is crossed by the A217 Brighton Road via Reigate


Margery Lane
Margery Hall Pig Farm. This was in fact a well known garden where specialist varieties of exotic plants were developed, An arboretum is shown on site.
Kiln field pit – south of Margery Lane this seems to have been another chalk pit – maybe with lime kilns.
Margery Hall Nursery. This is a stables and stud
Margery Farm, Farm with a large covered reservoir on site


Sources
Lower Kingswood Village News. Web site
National Trust. Web site
Reigate and Banstead Council. Web site
Royal Automobile Society. Web site
SABRE. Web site
Surrey County Council. Web site
Wealden Cave and Mine Society. Web site
Wikipedia. As appropriate

Wednesday, 8 February 2017

M25 Gatton


Post to the north Upper Gatton
Post to the west Reigate Hill


Catsbrains Shaw
Woodland

Gatton Bottom
Little Buck Wood
Jubilee Plantation
Great Buck Wood. Woodland

Gatton Park
This is the southern section of Gatton Park. Most of the features, and the school lie in the square to the northeast
Half Moon Clump. Woodland
Nut Wood
Wingate Hill
Tower Lodge Cottages. These are at an entrance to Gatton Park and are built of Gatton stone.

M25

Reigate Hill
Bridge House Hotel

Wray Lane
Path off to the east going down to Gatton is the original carriage drive of the park.  This runs on to the North Downs Way.
National Trust woodland 
Car park at the top of Wingate Hill. Refreshment stall, toilets, and a bridge over the road to lead to Reigate Hill.


Sources
Gatton Park. Web site
National Trust. Web site

M25 Upper Gatton




Post to the east Gatton Bottom
Post to the south Gatton


Crossways Lane
Crossways Farm. This is a dairy farm

Gatlands Shaw
Woodland, first noted in 1770

Gatton Field Shaw
Woodland

Glebe Shaw
Woodland. Ancient and semi natural

High Road
The Old Forge.This site is shown as a smithy until the 1930s.

Majority Plantation
Woodland

M25

Manships Shaw
Woodland

Upper Gatton Park
This square covers the house of gardens of what was a grand estate. There is an 18th mansion, once used as a servants wing to a now demolished 19th house.

Sources
Archaeology Data Service. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Oxford Dictionary of Place names of Surrey

Tuesday, 7 February 2017

M25 Gatton Bottom



Post to the east Merstham Centre
Post to the west Upper Gatton


Ashstead Hill
Hill with what may be remains of prehistoric earthworks

Gatton Park
This square covers only a small part of the park. The town hall, the school and various monuments are in the square to the south.

Jubilee Plantations
Sites of nature conservation interest

M25

Rocky Lane
Whitehall Farm. Farm with barns where soft fruit was once a speciality. There are mine shafts on the site.
North Lodge. This lodge marks the main entrance to Gatton Park and the Royal Alexandra and Albert School. It is a small square, single storey building from the early 19th. White-washed and thatched with a thatch cat and bird on the roof, It is surrounded by a picket fence and a  gate with wrought iron ornament.
Orpington Nurseries. This nursery was well known post Second World War for its prize winning chrysanthemums and irises.

Tower Wood
This is predominantly beech and Yew with a sub canopy of box.
Stone mine. This was a source of Reigate Stone, used extensively for medieval and post-medieval buildings in London and the Home Counties. Quarrying was carried on in the 19th and was amongst the 109 quarries surveyed in 1834. Commercial quarrying was carried out until the 1870s. In the 2000s this quarry was opened for investigations and a. permanent access shaft of concrete rings was installed . Inside The pillar-and-stall quarry has seven or eight sub-parallel extraction tunnels running steeply down-dip, linked by narrow man-ways. The walls and working faces have toolmarks and low-level axle marks where low wheeled trolleys were used,


Sources
British Listed Buildings.
Gatton Park.Web site
Industrial Archaeology News
London Transport. Country walks
Penguin, Surrey, 
Pevsner. Surrey
Reigate and Banstead Council. Web site
Subterranea Brittanica. Web site
Surrey County Council. Web site
Wheatley and Meulenkamp. Follies

Monday, 6 February 2017

M25 Merstham centre



Post to the east Merstham Station
Post to the west Gatton Bottom


Church Path
Footpath leading from Quality Street to St.Katherine’s Church. This path, which was once a main road, once crossed the mill pond via a foot bridge and now crosses the motorway, also by a bridge. It also crosses Church Meadows.
Church Meadows. The M25 now runs across this area.

Gatton Bottom
This road follows a dry valley from Reigate Hill and is an access road to Junction 8. It is on the border between the steep rise of the North Downs and the rise and then fall of Gatton Park to the south. Wellingtonia were planted here in the 19th,
Gatton Mine.  It is said that a brick-lined passage leads to a large chamber with a series of short, blocked passages. This was thought to have been worked by a steam crane in 1819 and was still open about a century.
Merstham House This was the home of the Joliffe family until 1899. William Joliffe had married the coal owning Hylton’s heiress – his son was later to be Lord Hylton. He built here in 1790 Mersham House, which was demolished in 1834. He also enlarged The Cottage which later too was called Merstham House. The family eventually moved to Somerset in the 1930s. The house was  was then let until the Second World War, when it was occupied by the Canadian forces. It was pulled down in the 1950s and the M25 was built through the grounds in the late 1970s. A stone wall, some of which remains, was built to contain a flat lawn in the garden of the house.
Great House. This was opposite to Mersham House but demolished in 1830 for structural reasons.
Wellhead Farm. This includes Wellhead which is a  house built in the late 17th with a timber frame. There is also a barn in Estate Yard which was built of Merstham stone in the 19th
Dovecote. This 14th structure stood originally on the land now used by Merstham Station. When the railway was built it was removed here onto a 19th brick foundation. Inside are stone shelves with nesting holes on each shelf.
Wellhead Wood
Old Church House. This was originally St. Katherine's Rectory. This is a 16th timber framed house with its hearth at the back. A brick house has been added at the front

Grange Court.
This is on the site of Merstham Grange
Merstham Grange. This was demolished in the 1970s or possibly earlier. It was a ‘prep’ school but the headmistress in the 1950s was a Miss Hummel closely involved in local drama and music events. Replaced with housing.

High Street
The short stretch of the High Street is the remains of the original through road. Before the construction of the turnpike in 1807 it would have connected to the south to School Hill and to the north to Quality Street and the current footpath to Marling Glen
Feathers Pub. The present building was built for the brewers in 1911 and on the building are signs for ‘N&C’ the Nalder & Collyer's Brewery Co Ltd of Croydon.Basically an 18th building was given an arts and crafts frontage and inside are art nouveau features – particularly fireplaces have been added. It was previously Ye Olde Feathers Hotel and was a coach stop for the Brighton coach, The building has retained some 18th structure to the back and there are 17th outbuildings.
Small garden with a display of rails and sleepers from the Godstone quarries – similar to those which would have been on the Croydon, Merstham and Godstone Railway. There is also a seat, recently repaired by a local councillor himself.
A tollgate for the 1804 turnpike road was just south of The Feathers.
Horse Trough. Erected 1888 for the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain & Cattle Trough Association
Thatched Barn. This stood here as a local landmark but was burnt down in 1969.
Village Pound. A walled enclosure.
7 Old Smithy. This is marked as ‘smithy’ on old maps and a building at the back show as ‘abattoir’
House, next to the old pub, was the innkeeper’s house. It later became a shop.
Cottage of Content Pub. This closed in the 1960s. They sold Pagden's ale which came from the Hope Brewery in Church Street, Epsom. It is now a private house
Townsend’s Meads, this is the name shown on 19th maps for the meadow land to the west of the High Street. It was also called Towney Mead and was the common land for the town’s men.

Home Farm Place
Housing on the site of  Home Farm. The 1769s barn has been converted to housing and other buildings incorporated.

London Road South
This is on the line of the 1804 turnpike road. Both London Roads north and south were created by the turnpike and thus changed the layout of the town with a new through road.
Merstham Primary School. A school is shown on this site since the 1890s. It would seem reasonable to suppose that this is the school built in 1898 as a replacement for the National School in Quality Street.
Old Saddlery. This sold saddles and stirrups and was restored by Paxton Watson in 1931. It is now private housing.

M25

Quality Street
This would have been the main road north out of the village before the construction of the turnpike road in the early 19th
Quality Street took its name from James Barrie's comedy. Ellaline Terris and Seymour Hicks were in the play and when they lived here the street was named after the play..
Gateposts at the end of the road here the entrance to the estate of Merstham House. The M25 motorway now goes through the estate where the house stood.
Copse next to Priory Mead, This copse was the site of an archaeological dig before the construction of the M25 Motorway in 1972. Two long banks were identified which where thought to be part of the landscaping for Merstham House.
Priory Mead. This is a 17th house which was the lodge to Merstham House.
The Glade House. This was built in the same style as Merstham House in its grounds by architect Gordon Jeeves,.  The ornamental mound from Merstham House is in the grounds.
Manor House. This was the manor house of Chilberton Manor . It has the date of 1598 on it and is a timber framed building fronted in red brick. It was restored by Paxton Watson in 1905 who also added Court Cottage alongside
National School. Set up in 1847 and was moved to London Road South in 1898, It is a half-H-shaped building with a timber frame but which has been rebuilt inside..
Almshouses and poorhouse. These are behind the school and are now three houses, A tablet on them records that "This Poorhouse was rebuilt and the land given by Hylton Joliffe Esq. 1816".
Merstham Cricket Club. Founded in 1864 and played at the Quality Street ground from 1890 thanks to Lord Hylton who also provided a pavilion nd a chain for protecting the pitch from cattle, Apart from breaks for the two world wars they have played here ever since.
Old Forge. This is the remains of a late mediaeval house which was, timber framed with brick infill. It was previously called 'Cromwell House', but was renamed by the Hicks family of actors. It was restored by Paxton Watson.
The Barn House. Built in 1902 by Paxton Watson for himself. Rough cast with plaster reliefs. It replaced the old wheelwrights shop.
Meadowside. Home of Paxton Watson’s sister
The Refreshment Rooms and White Elephant Coffee Tavern. This was in the cottages, dated 1897 which are now partly taken up by the garage in London Road.

Reigate Hill Golf Course
The Golf Course was designed by the David Williams as an 18 hole, par 72 course layout in 1995. The course appears to take up much of what was the grounds of Mersham House plus some common land

Rocky Lane
The lane was originally built as an entrance drive to the Gatton Estate
Middle Lodge. Single story house.

Sources
Archaeology database. Web site
Bourne Society. Web site
British Listed Buildings. Web site
Feathers. Web site
Geocaching. Web site
Historic England. Web site
London Transport. Country Walks
Pastscape. Web site
Penguin. Surrey
Pevsner. Surrey
Reigate and Banstead Council. Web site
Sowan. Firestone and hearthstone mines in the Upper Greensand of East Surrey 
Surrey County Council. Web site
Wikipedia, as appropriate. Web site

Sunday, 5 February 2017

M25 Merstham Station



Post to the east Merstham Rockshaw Road
Post to the south Redhill Brook Merstham
Post to the west Merstham Centre



Ashcombe Road
The road name could relate to Herbert Ashcombe Walker, at that time General Manager of Southern Region. The road is built along the line of a road descending into a quarry,
Houses. In 1930 20 terraced houses here were built by the Southern Region of British Railways to provide accommodation for its employees.

Brook Road
Brook Road Open Space. Recreation ground with play facilities etc.

Church Hill
St. Katharine's Church. This was originally a wooden church built on a knoll of Merstham firestone which was replaced around 1100, after the first Crusade. It is dedicated to Katharine a Christian Martyr and princess from Alexandria. In an alcove is a figure of her holding the wheel on which she was tortured. The font, and a few stones are all that remain of this church. Around 1220 a new Early English Church replaced it built of the greyish-green Merstham stone. The church was ‘restored’ in 1861 and again in 1875. The church tower is said to have a centre arch built with stone from old London Bridge..  . There is a memorial tablet to Lt. George Jolliffe, R.N., killed at the battle of the Nile. The mosaic floor of the north chapel was the work of Constance Kent in prison for murder. There is a memorial plaque to the dead of the Great War and the Second World War, including civilian dead.
Lych gate. This was made from the remains of Merstham Windmill, dismantled because of railway building in 1896. The tapering cast iron octagonal windshaft is the central  support and on either side are two peak millstones, faceworking side uppermost. This lychgate was given by the Stacey family in 1897.
Grave yard. Tombstone of Henry Hoof contractor on London to  Brighton Railway. There is a detailed memorial to Edward Banks - picture of London Bridge which he built and hus tomb us maintained by Bridge House Estates.

Delabole Road
Furzefield Primary School. Presumably this was built with the estate, post Second World War.

Furzefield Wood
Nature conservation area and woodland used as a local community resource. (the main part is in the square to the east)

Heronswood Mere
(the main part is in the square to the east)

High Street
Merstham Baptist Church. The first chapel was built in 1874 on the site of two derelict cottages bty Redhill Baptist Chapel using stone quarried from Nutfield and Reigate Hill. This remained in use until 1958 when it was demolished. The site is now a shop.
Millennium Clock erected in December 1999 on the corner of School Hill.

London Road North
London Road was part of the Croydon and Reigate turnpike set up in 1818 with a tollgate in the High Street.
St. Katherine’s New Graveyard. This is on the other side of the road from the church and maintained by the local authority.
Merstham Mill. A mill is listed here in Domesday. It is however undocumented until 1784 and by 1801 when water supply problems had begun to result from local quarrying. This was a water mill on a stream or leat which is said to have run from springs on Marlin Glen above Gatton Bottom to form the Merstham brook, a tributary of the Mole. At Merstham there was a large mill pond on the west side of London Road. Eventually it fell out of use and was demolished in 1938. The M25 now runs through the site and there are no remains.
Railway Pub,.

London Road South
War Memorial. This is on the corner with School Lane. It is a granite Celtic cross with names from the Great War on the front and the Second World War on the left hand side. The Inscription says "Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see God" .In memory of the men of Merstham who laid down their lives for their country in the Great War. To the memory of those who gave their lives for their country 3rd Sept 1939-15th Aug. 1945,

M25A footbridge carries a footpath from Malmstone Avenue across the M25
Drainage adit. At the northern end of the footbridge is said to be the ext to a drainage adit for Merstham Greystone Lime Works. This was built in 1810 under the Rockshaw Ridge to take water off to the south and to help prevent funding.  It ran for  half a mile but the water table restricted the length of the mine into the hill. It was the removal of this water which led to the Merstham water mill closing. It has been blocked since the 1820s.

Malmstone Avenue
Named after a firestone, known locally as Malm Stone, which was quarried in the area.
Merstham Bund. This is a massive earth bank built to shield Merstham from the noise of motorway traffic and it runs parallel to Malmstone Avenue. It is managed as a nature reserve and community resource.

Railway
There are a number of railway lines in Merstham and there have been more. One line serves the station and another through line bypasses it. There have also been numerous sidings and branch lines to serve the quarries
Merstham Station. The first station called Merstham was to the south (in a square to the south) and was served by both South Eastern and London and Brighton trains, who were in dispute. It existed 1841-1844.
Merstham Station. The present building dates from 1844 and was built by the South Eastern Railway.. The up side booking office was rebuilt in late 1980s and the footbridge dates 1905. This station was not used by London Brighton and South Coast Railway trains which passed through it until after the creation of the Southern Railway in 1923. These trains were on the South Eastern line to Dover.
Quarry Line. The sharing of the line to Brighton through Merstham  caused a great deal of friction between the South Eastern Railway  and the London Brighton and South Coast Railway . Eventually the London to Brighton got Parliamentary approval to build a line through here which bypassed South Eastern stations, including Merstham, this becae known as the Quarry Line. It runs parallel to the original line to the east.
Sidings. In the Second World War sidings were added between the station and the 'Quarry Line' used for goods trains. In the 1970s a siding was added for the construction of the M23 and M25, There was also a coal yard parallel to the west side of the line in an area which is now the station car park.
Land between the lines. This is a tract of derelict land, with chalk spoil tips deposited there as a result of the excavation of the tunnels and cuttings.  The lines went round some existing pits and one of these is now the site of railway housing in Ashcombe Road.  North of the station is an area of workshops and there is also some car parking, Archaeologists found a small section of quarry between the two railway lines west of Football Field. Also note an area known as Windmill Field (see below)
Merstham Signal Box. This was on the downside  platform. It was opened 1905 and built to a traditional design. It was thought to be to the top of an earlier cabin built onto a new brick base. In 1983 it was replaced by a panel in the Redhill 'A' Signal Box and later by the Area Signalling Centre at Crawley
Sidings to Greystone Lime Works. A standard gauge railway siding left the western main line just north of Merstham Station and crossed the eastern main line immediately in front of its tunnel portal. It then ran into the Greystone Lime pits through a cutting. It is said that the abutments of the bridge in front of the tunnel portal are till in place and that the track can still be partly traced.
Siding. Another siding ran south east  from the Lime Works siding soon after it left the main line. This ran to another quarry. By the early 20th this area had become a rifle range.(see note on Stonefield below)

Rockshaw Road
The road was formed in the 1880s when houses were first advertised and built there.
Windmill., This was built in 1756 and stood on the north side of the road.. At the end of the 19th it was disused and in a state of disrepair and it was on the line of a planned railway. It was demolished in 1896. Local children left school early to watch it coe down. Some of the wood was used in the church lychgate, as were some of the stones. Other stones are elsewhere in the area
Windmill Field. A quarry existed here before 1900. A part of the field survives between the railways and some workings were discovered and explored by Croydon Caving Club, east of the Quarry Line, which they called Potato Field Mine, This is thought to hafe been a surface quarry worked in 1839 which later developed to the north into underground galleries some of which have survived on either side of the Quarry Line.
Stone Field. In the 1860s a siding ran eastwards from the limeworks siding to a quarry mouth on the northern edge of the field and lasted until the Quarry Line was built in 1899.. Stone field is said to be east of Windmill Field. Some underground workings may underlie this area but it may also have been an open work site for the extraction of hearth stone.

School Hill
This follows the line of the old pre-turnpike route from Merstham to Reigate
8 The Golden Wheel. Small timber-framed cottage refaced with plaster and some timbering visible, There is a shop window on the front. This was once a dairy or a tea shop and a wheel hung outside on a pub type gantry.  The wheel now appears to be fixed to the front of the house.
8 The Limes 18th house in red brick


Station Road North
Bellway House. Offices and yard for housing developer.
Merstham Village Club. Merstham Village Club is a private members club that was founded after the Great War. Membership is open to Merstham residents..
Village Hall,. This was built in the 1920s
Fire Station. This is now an upholstery business although the words ‘Fire Station” remain on the building. It appears to have been a humble building probably converted from a previous use.
Telephone Exchange – still in use


Sources
Bayliss, Retracing the First Public Railway
British Listed Buildings. Web site   
Bygone Kent
London Transport. Country walks
Merstham Village Hall. Web site
Merstham History. Web site
Merstham Village Club. Web site
Moore. History of Redhill
Old Reigate. Web site
Penguin. Surrey
Pevsner. Surrey
Reigate and Banstead Council. Web site
Rockshaw Road. Web site
Stidder. Watermills of Surrey.
Surrey County Council. Web site
Surrey Fire Service Museum. Web site
Surrey Industrial Archaeology
War Memorials. Web site
Wealden Cave and Mine Society. Web sitej
Wheatley and Meulenkamp. Follies
Wikipedia. As appropriate