Bulbourne flows south eastwards
The central area of this old Hertfordshire town which lies along the Bulborne, and latterly the Grand Union Canal. There were canal haulage and canal based industries here - and other industries, most notably the sheep dip works. There are however all the things you would expect in a proper town - the town hall, the old school, a parish church - and all the shops, cinemas, religious buildings, and much else.
Post to the north Berkhamsted
Post to the east Bank Mill
The town is in a deep valley on the River
Bulbourne and transversed by the Grand Junction Canal. It was a Royal Borough and in 1156 had trading
privileges throughout the area which was then controlled by the Crown. Edward
II gave the town to Piers Gaveston but internally it was controlled by a Portmoot.
narrow street is lined by 19th houses mostly in groups of three or four
developed on what had been the Pilkington Estate.
Court – sheltered accommodation on the site of part of Castle Wharf.
Wharf. The wharf dated from the opening of the Grand Union Canal here when it
was set up by a boat builder who also traded in salt and coal. The wharf was
later used by a timber merchant and part of it became a joinery works. There was
a boat shed on the site used by the Bridgewater Boat Hire business, with
internal rails and other features.
and ambulance station.
field, like other similar areas, probably derives its name from use as an
archery practice area and was once known as formerly known as the Buttericks or
the Buttfield. It was given to the town by Mrs Lionel Lucas in 1886. It was
levelled as a sports field in the 1930s and some is in use as allotments.
The section of the Grand Union Canal was
built in 1798. The impact on Berkhamsted and this stretch became known as 'the
Port of Berkhamsted'.
Lock. Also called Ravens Lane lock. The
lock still has its traditional wooden gates to both ends of the chamber, which
is brick lined below stone copings.
Cottage. This is a mid-19th
house, now private.
Bottom Lock. Also called Rising Sun lock
Enters the town down a very steep hill
Totem Pole. The pole was carved by a member of the
Kwakiutl tribe as a memento of the years of trading between this wharf and
Canada. It marks the site
of a boat builders' yard which in 1910 became a timer yard run by William Key
and Son timber merchants and in 1963 taken over by J Alsford Ltd, timber
merchants from Leyton
Castle Wharf. The Warehouse was once stabling and
warehousing for canal traders. The first boat yard here was for Peacock and
Willetts in 1799 who built the boat 'Berkhamsted Castle' in 1801. The boatyard
was subsequently run by Costins, followed by Keys and later by Bridgewater
1-4 two 18th houses and shops. Re-fronted in the 19th
5-8 four 19th
houses with an arched carriageway. There is also a
19th shop window
9 old shop now residential 19th and a shop window remains,
11 18th house.
12 - 12a two
19th shops and a house.
15 -16 two
School Old Building. This is a 16th Grammar
School. Founded by John Incent in 1523 and built in 1544 of red stone. It was reconstructed in 1841 in a new start after neglect.
Greene's father was headmaster here and he was a pupil. The present
school was formed in 1997 by the amalgamation of the original Berkhamsted School, with Berkhamsted School for Girls, and Berkhamsted Preparatory School. This
is the Castle Street Campus which was the original boys’ school. The school has
seen much expansion and new facilities in recent years.
School Chapel. Built 1894-5 by Charles
Henry Rew in Tudor style. Steps inside said to be inspired by Santa Maria de Miracoli
Berkhamsted School lych-gate. Black and white
timber with the date of the founding of the
school on the tablet at the top
Deans Hall. 20th hall.
Castle Pub. This overlooked the canal and is now a house
The Boote. This pub has the date 1605 on front. It has a stucco ground floor
and a timber frame
over the canal. Built in 1800 this is probably now the oldest unaltered canal
bridge in the area.
over the railway - in 1837 access to the castle was cut off by the railway. The road was originally named as the
principal access to the castle from the town.
Weighbridge by the canal
William Fiske house. Built on the site of
St. George’s/St Andrew’s church. In the
late 18th a barn here was used as a church and was rebuilt as the Countess of
Huntingdon’s Chapel. In 1834 this was replaced by an Independent Chapel and
that was itself replaced in 1867. These were congregational chapels but by the
late 1970s costs were rising and part of the land was sold to a housing
association and another new building built. In 1993 a joint pastorate was
formed with St. George’s United Reform Church in Hemel Hempstead and the church
was renamed St. Andrew’s. The final service was held in here in 2003.
housed first telephone exchange in Berkhamsted, in 1898
Brownlow Arms. Closed and now housing
Reformed Church this was originally the Congregational Chapel, on land to the
rear of William Fiske House. The burial ground remains and an associated
building is used as a gym
Mews. A fishpond was adjacent
Used by the 1st Berkhamsted Scouts since 1909. It was the No.2
single storey malting which belonged to the Foster family who had
pubs and other businesses in the town in the late 19th. It has been used by the
scouts following Henry Foster’s death. The name of Fosters could be seen on the
side of the building until recently.
Yard –development on a small ex-industrial site
was once called Grubs Lane and also Elvynway
Brewery. This was behind the Swan Inn and thus given with a High Street
address. A small pub based brewery taken over by George and Charles Foster in
the late 19th.
Johns. Built in 1890 this was one of
the boarding houses of Berkhamsted School. It is now a girls' boarding
house for the Berkhamsted Collegiate. Here, on the 2nd October 1904, Graham was
born when his father, was the Housemaster and Second Master of the School.
Incents Boarding House for Berkhamsted
School. The House was named after John
Incent, the School's founder
was previously Back Lane and part of a market area to the west of the church
and along the High Street. There are a number of small ex-industrial and
commercial buildings converted to housing – Candlemakers Cottage and so on.
Peter. Biggest church in the county. It was probably built around 1222 possibly
on the site of an earlier church. The church has tombs, brasses and memorials
to people who associated with the castle as well as the town. The church was restored in the 19th by Jeffry Wyattville, and later in
1870-71 by William
Butterfield. There are fragments of
a pre conquest arch and a 15th porch once used as chapel. The tower has bells
re-cast in the Whitechapel Foundry at between 1838 and 1946. The clock is by
Thwaites & Read of Clerkenwell and dates from 1838.
The churchyard was closed in the 19th. It is enclosed between the ancient highway
of Akeman Street and Castle Street. There are several mature trees – cedar and
limes and a yew tree, probably about 350 years old
Court House. This is a 16th building with a 19th ground floor of red brickwork
and knapped flints and a jettied timber 1st floor. The Borough Court or Port
Mote was held here. It is where the town's
corporation met after the town was granted a charter in 1618. It is used as St
Peter's church hall.
Gates – modern development
School – also called Courthouse School. This was in the Court House
Store. This is the base for the Dacorum Heritage Trust in Berkhamsted Old Fire
Station and has been there since 1993
for the originator of the Foundling Hospital, which was later based at Ashlyns.
Named after Captain Constable Curtis, who lived in
The Hall, a large house in the Hall Park area
area was developed in the mid-19th.
called the Elms was adjacent to the road.
Elmhouse School was on the corner
Southey who produced motorcycles from
1905 to 1922. Production was small-scale
and the company advertised directly to the public.
In the Second World War howitzers, were arranged
roughly where this road lies.
1 – 11 terraced cottages behind a wall and gardens
built in the 1800s. They are probably the earliest in the street
12 - 20 model-type cottages in red brick. They have
a plaque with “B.R.D.” probably indicating the sons of William Dwight
Sun. Canal side pub known locally as The Riser. The pub was
built before 1877 and is a typical alehouse of the 1800s with accommodation for
the publican's family upstairs. It has a two-storey brick front with bays that
overlook the lock
– a converted barn was leased and
the first service held on Good Friday 1881.
Cedars Flats – site of the iron church built on
land donated given by Earl Brownlow, This was built in 1886 and was used until
1909 and then as the church hall until 1983. It was then sold to fund a new
hall alongside the church. In the 19th there was also a smithy on this site.
on the site of a former coal yard. The wall surrounding it is the original from
Garage. Has kept one of the original carriage arches
plaque about Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee.
18 The Old Post Office with a post box in the front
Canal bridge – this was the earliest in the area to
cross the canal and was there before 1811. It has since been re-built
The Boat. Partly rebuilt canal side pub, this is a
Greene Field Road
The road was built
in the 1920s
to access the water works.
Pump house and
engine house. The Great Berkhamsted
Waterworks Company served the town from 1864.
Bungalow. 1930s house in its own grounds.
Lane formerly ran eastwards from Chesham Road. It has been taken up by Priory
Gardens/Cloister Garth built in the 1970s
Street on line of Roman Akeman Street. Exceptionally
wide, stretches for about a mile along the main Watford-Aylesbury Road. Many of
the buildings occupy medieval burgage plots. In the 1760s the High
Street became a turnpike road under the control of The Sparrows Herne Turnpike
post. This was recorded in 1996 but its present location is not known.
high up on the side wall is a bust
Hall. The hall was at the bottom of Swingate Lane and stood within a landscaped
park. It was owned by one of the Greene family. The estate was broken up after
the Second World War.
The Bull Public House. 17th building with a plaster covered ground floor,
The Black Horse pub. Early 19th. This is
now the Curry Garden
Sill’s Timber Yard and Saw Mill. On the site of
what is now Robertson Road housing
Pocock’s smithy in this area late 19th
51 17th or earlier stuccoed house
53 The Queens Arms with exposed timber frame. This
pub is closed and the building is now housing and offices.
71 The Poplars. With a blue plaque about the
birthplace of Michael Horden the actor
old house with a ground floor shop front built 1863, with later
alterations. Plaque with the date and
17th or earlier building in whitewashed brick with 19th shop fronts
Cinema with Gatsby Pub. This was built on the site of Egerton House. It was
designed by David Nye for the Shipman and
King circuit and opened in 1938. It has a marine motif in the auditorium. The projection booth was
cantilevered out above a side road. It was renamed the Studio Cinema in 1973
when it was adapted for bingo. Films were shown at the start of the week in two
small cinemas Rex 1 & 2 with bingo downstairs. It closed in 1988 and for
sixteen years was vandalised. Eventually the old car park and flats were sold
for housing development, and it was reopened as a cinema in 2004.
Egerton House. This was an Elizabethan house demolished in 1937. It had itself
been built on the site of medieval St.Clement’s Hospital. It had gardens and
orchards on the hillside southwards and may have a Dower House for the Ashridge
estate. In the late 19th it was the home
of the Llewellyn Davies family who were friends of J.M.Barrie and this is
recorded on a plaque in the cinema.
Church. Church and Sunday School
built in 1864 in brick. The Church dates from at least 1640 and was then
associated with the Chesham Baptists. In
1809 the Berkhamsted Baptist Church joined the recently established New
Connexion of General Baptists and became part of the Hertfordshire Union. Until
1722 meetings were held in the private properties of members but then a meeting
house was built in Water Lane and in 1864 it was demolished and the chapel
built in the High Street.
Centre. Built in 1938
103-109 Early 19th yellow brick town houses.
Central arched passageway.
plaque as birthplace of Clementine Churchill nee Hoosier
Dower House. Early 19th house.
Pilkington Manor flats. This is on the site of
Pilkingtons, a large 18th house, was demolished and replaced by flats with
shops to their ground floors – since replaced by these flats.
113 The Red
House. 18th house in red brick with adjoining 19th century
wing, now called the White House.
Early 19th house in yellow brick
late 18th stucco fronted house. Steps with wrought iron railings up to the door
House. Four-storey glass office building 1978.
late 18th building
Late 18th house of colour washed brick.
16th house, including parts of a medieval open hall refaced in brick in the
19th. Timber frame behind painted brickwork. The back yard accessed through a
Dean Incent’s House. This is 16th timber framed with plaster infilling. The
first owner was John Incent, Dean of Saint Paul's who founded Berkhamsted
Grammar School and died 1645. Inside are
remains of wall paintings.
box outside 129, Type K6. Designed 1935 by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott
18th houses in plum and red brick. Turned into 2 shops in the 19th. Called Grab
All Row- plaque on the building facing the church
memorial. This memorial from the Great War originally stood close to Water
Lane. The names of Second World War dead were added, and in the 1950s the
monument was moved to its present position. It bears the
inscription TO OUR GLORIOUS DEAD and has eight panels of names from 1914-18 and
four panels from 1939-45.
early 18th house.
the front range of the former Swan public house, is thought to have been an
open timber hall dating to the 14th later extended to the west and east
18th front to an earlier building with modern shop windows.
Old Market House burnt down in 1854. It had an open
ground floor and was opposite Prince Edward Street. The freehold was owned
by the Duchy of Cornwall leased to Earl Brownlow. When the building was nirmt
out The Duchy agreed to release the Earl from his obligation to rebuild it if
her gave at least £500 towards the new Market House.
The Crown Public House. 16th building with stucco and with exposed magpie
The King's Arms Public House. 17th or early 18th building with chequered
brickwork. It had stabling for up to
160 Tesco Metro.
On the site of the Court Cinema which closed in 1960 and was converted
into a Tesco Store which burned down in 1969. The cinema was opened before 1930
when it was acquired by the Shipman & King cinema circuit
165 17th or earlier buildings with modern ground floor shop windows
site of malting
White Hart pub. Long since gone.
late 13th, altered in the 17th, 19th and 21st. It is timber framed on a brick
plinth and was originally a crown-post roof structure with two bays end-on to
street, jettied with a medieval shop front with timbers dated to 1277-1297. It
now has 19th display windows and recessed entrance in the centre. Inside is a brick staircase to a cellar which
could be a medieval undercroft. It is thought it was built as a shop or
workshop. It is also thought to have been a service wing to a former aisled
hall. It is thought to be the oldest, jettied, urban building in the country.
British Legion Club. This lies behind the shops and is a 19th
baths. In the 1870s public baths lay between the waterworks and the White Hart
Police Station. Built 1972
was once called Sydney House. It is early 18th in Red and blue grey chequered
196 The Old Town Hall. Built 1859 in Gothic style brick with diamond patterns by Edward
Buckton Lamb. It is on the site of a
previous stable and carrier. There is a central entrance with large double and
a clock on a decorative iron bracket projecting. It was built in
1859 by a charitable trust. In the 1970s it became derelict and had been closed
because it failed fire regulations.
Eventually a new Trust was established in 1979 and it was restored. Originally
it was known as the Market House and Town Hall. The Market House was in the
front of the building and was used for trading and storage. In 1983 the Trust
converted the ground floor into a shopping arcade called Lambs' Shops and it
was opened by Bernard Miles in 1983. It is now a restaurant. Berkhamsted
Mechanics' Institute founded in 1845 met on the first floor. They also used the
ground floor of the Sessions Hall with a Card Room and the Billiard Room. The
Sessions Hall was previously used as a court room. The garden was created in 1890. The great
hall is now the Welcombe Hall following a donation from the Welcombe
was once called Prospect Street
House was at the top and replaced with local authority housing in the 1930s
Road Church. This was the Plymouth Brethren’s Hope Hall from 1870
Little Bridge Street
Leading to an inter-war pedestrian concrete bridge
over the canal which gives the reason for the road name
House once stood at the east end of the High Street, near Bank Mill, to collect
payment for using the road
Hall Walk. Shops with a plaque which says “1934 EG”. That is Edward Greene at
that time living in The Hall.
Terrace, the canal footbridge and The Hall Walk were built on land belonging to
The Hall belonging to Edward Greene.
Lower Kings Road
road was built in 1885 by public
– this was built on the site of the Bulbourne factory which made clothing
Emery Mill marked pre-1930s which later was
subsumed into the sheep dip works.
School buildings. On either side of the road are large buildings
belonging to Berkhamsted School. These include the gym, the music school and
some staff cottages.
Berkeley Court. Housing
covering an old burial ground.19th maps show a chapel on the corner
of the road alongside the burial ground
Adelbert House. This is thought to be the
gas works manager’s house’
A dock structure seems to be shown on 19th
maps on the north side of the Bulborne on the west side of the road.
Upper Mill. This was on the east side of the
Street with a sluice by the bridge over the river. It was a comprised a four-bay house
made of timber and tiled. The site was
re-developed in the 1920s by Berkhamsted School.
The Moor Recreation Ground
Prince Edward Street
Church of England First School. The school has been on this site since 1897 and
began as part of the foundation of Thomas Bourne in the 18th.
Sheep Dip Works. In 1843, William Cooper moved here Shropshire and became a vet. He
began to manufacture and sell Cooper's Sheep Dipping Powder. In 1852 he took
over a mill Ravens Lane to manufacture in bulk. By 1900, Coopers had developed
successful companies in major stock-raising countries around the world and
introduced new dips under Cooper’s son. In
1917 The Cooper Technical Bureau was formed, and became a world centre on the
sheep and cattle dips. It moved to Berkhamsted in 1940. In 1925 following a merger it became part of Cooper
McDougall & Robertson Ltd. They continued to introduce many, now well
known, insecticides including the first organophosphorus compound for cattle
tick. In 1959 they were acquired by the
Wellcome Foundation. During the 1950s and 1960s, Coopers became the first firm
in Britain to produce aerosols on a large scale. They also made domestic
household goods - cleaners, toilet rolls and hair care products. In 1969 the
Berkhamsted works closed and in 1984 Cooper's Animal Health Ltd, was
established and along with Wellcome joined ICI. In 1989 it was sold to Pitman-Moore.
Cemetery. Created during the 1860s, on land
belonging to Egerton House. It was extended in the 19th
The Old Rectory. This is thought to date to
1840 and is on land that may have once belonged to Egerton House. William Cowper, the poet
and hymn writer was born in 1731 in the Rectory which stood on the same site as
the present one - 150 metres up the lane.
replacing Holliday Street and Till’s Timber Yard as well as Cooper’s Lower
Works. In 1925 Cooper’s has merged with McDougall and Roberts Ltd, to become
Cooper, McDougall and Robertson and these are used as road names in the housing
A burial ground lies to the east of the road
in the school grounds.
Three Close Lane
In the Second World War men of the Royal Artillery
were first housed in three large huts on ground between Beech Drive and Three
Close Lane. They were later replaced by Then the Dorsetshire Regiment
Velvet Lawn Recreation Ground
Baptist Chapel. In 1722 a site here was
purchased and a meeting house built which stayed here in use until 1864 when it
Gas Works. This was the site of the original
gas works. This was opened following the setting up of Gas Company in 1849 following a public subscription.
In 1906 the gas works moved to Billet Lane although some gas holders remained.
Locke and Smith Brewery. Dating from around
1811 they had 40 tied houses in the area and closed in 1914 when they were
taken over by Beskins. They also had a
maltings here. The buildings were later used as military stables
Data Service. Web site
Town Council. Web site
Listed Buildings. Web site
Treasures. Web site
Council. Web site
Dacorum Heritage Trust. Web site
Graces Guide. Web site
Hertfordshire Baptist. Web site
County Council. Web site
Dacorum. Web site
Sun. Web site
Church. Web site
Church. Web site
Hall. Web site.
Library. Web site.