Monday, 16 April 2012

Moselle River - Highgate

Moselle River
A number of streams which feed into the Moselle start in this area:  Etheldene Stream. Priory Stream and Queens Wood Stream all flow eastwards.

Post to the north Muswell Hill
Post to the east Crouch End
Post to the south Highgate
Post to the west Highgate

Archway Road
Archway Road is a bypass road opened in 1813 to avoid the steep gradients though Highgate Village. It was intended to carters, coaches and drovers from Finchley to Holloway Road and Smithfield. It was intended to pass under the hill but this proved not to be possible. The road is named from the arched viaduct which carries Hornsey Lane across the road to the south of here. It was a toll road and tolls were levied by lessees of the Archway Road Co. until 1876.
Highgate Common Before the Enclosure Act of 1813 the area around the Woodman Pub was Highgate Common.
The Highgate Inn. Shop converted to a pub.
Boogaloo Pub. Originally this was The Birkbeck Public House and for a while the Shepherds Pub. It was built in the early 1860’s and served an artisan community in local roads
Coleridge Gardens – public open space.  Coleridge Model Building stood on the corner of Shepherds Hill. It was a four-storey block of flats for working people, which was demolished in 1944 by a V1.
438-440 19th cottages on a site backing over the Underground Railway tunnel.
422-428 19th cottages
Garden on corner of Muswell Park Road. Laid out as a public garden in 1982 and called The Peace Garden’. Privately owned, it was then enclosed and the Peace Tree felled.  All back now.
414 Woodman Pub.  Built as a local halt for horse drawn coaches and it is near the summit of the hill. It remained in its original state into the early 20th including a balcony as an observation point for guests -but this has now gone. The building’s flat white painted front has been replaced. Originating in 1828 it was rebuilt 1905 in Arts and Crafts style. In the car park, old sleepers were used from the never opened railway as fencing.
Jackson's Lane Community Centre with Gatehouse Theatre. Built as Highgate Wesleyan Methodist Church by W.H. Boney & Cartwright in brick.  The church bought the site in 1893 and opened in 1905 with a hall and a Sunday School with a hall which is almost as big as the church.  It stands high above Archway Road. The interior was radically transformed from around 1980.  There is a new entrance foyer between   church and hall by DEGW.  The church has an inserted floor and the hall was converted to a theatre by Tim Ronalds Architects, in 1989.
Police Station. Built to replace one on the other side of the road destroyed in Second World War by a V2
Highgate Station.  There are two stations here. The current tube station – the Low level Station and a disused overground rail station – the High Level Station.
The Low Level Station.  The tube station is on the northern line between Archway and East Finchley stations. The current station was built in the late 1930s as part of London Underground's Northern Heights plan and is only part of the planned station which was cancelled because of the Second World War. The project was to extend train services from the then terminus at Archway through new tunnels under the existing railway station here to connect to an existing line to East Finchley. Because it was originally planned to integrate the two stations these ‘low-level’ platforms were numbered 3 and 4.  During The Second World War the platforms were used as bomb shelters and it is said Jerry Springer was born there. It had been planned to rebuild the station to designs by Charles Holden with a large building at the top of the hill plus a statue of Dick Whittington and his cat by Eric Aumonier. This was abandoned, although serves to East Finchley ran from 1939, and even the intended escalators were used elsewhere. The planned escalator link to the high level exit was not built until 1957 and the concrete box in which it is housed was never finished and no down escalator was ever installed although the foundations for it were there.
The High Level Station. This older station was originally built by the Edgware, Highgate and London Railway on a line between Finsbury Park and Edgware. However it was acquired in 1867 by the Great Northern Railway whose trains ran from King's Cross through Finsbury Park on their way north and they opened this line to Edgware as a single-track line.  The station was in a deep cutting with tunnels into the hillside at each end. It had two platforms in the cutting, and a covered footbridge to them. Another entrance leading directly onto the up side was added later.  A branch line was also built from Highgate to Alexandra Palace, to serve the entertainments complex there, by the Muswell Hill Railway and opened in 1872. In 1880 the station was rebuilt by the London North East Railway to handle additional usage and the side platforms were replaced by a central island plus a booking office on the footbridge. The original platforms remained, stripped of their canopies. However, passengers to Alexandra Palace were often low in numbers and new tram services began to impact on commuter traffic from the intermediate stations.  In the 1930s it was planned to integrate this line with the tube and in 1935 the station was rebuilt again for the New Works Plan but kept its basic lay-out. A contract for reconstruction and electrification was going ahead when war was declared and so it was abandoned.  After 1941 trains only ran between Finsbury Park and Alexandra Palace. It was eventually decided in the 1950s to abandon the planned extension beyond Edgware and services from Finsbury Park ended in 1954 although some freight services continued for a couple more years. Down in the cutting between the East and West tunnels, there is now a ghost station. On its platform are the buildings for the tube extension that never was finished. It has been submerged under heavy undergrowth, and plastic sheeting covering part of the trackbed to prevent it becoming water logged. Beyond the station lie the twin bores of Highgate West Tunnel gated to allow bat roosts
Park Junction signal box, rebuilt in 1939, but abandoned. It was of LT design, with eighty-three levers. It was a stark modernistic form among ever-increasing trees and bushes. It was vandalised and partially burnt out – a ruin, frequented by drug addicts. Demolished.
GNR Park Junction signal box – this would have been unsuitable to deal with the demands of a frequent service of tube trains
Highgate Goods Yard. To the west of the former line, adjacent to Archway Road and was closed in 1962. 
Wellington Carriage Depot. This was north of the tunnels on the east side of the line. It is said the Royal Train was kept here.
Park Junction – this was almost immediately to the north of the second tunnel, and was where the Alexandra Palace line left the Barnet and Edgware line.
Highgate Wood Sidings. In the 'V of the junction, London Transport laid some lines to store trains as an extension of the Wellington Carriage Sheds. These were next to the Barnet and Edgware line, and in the 1930s under the New Works Plan were set up for Underground trains. They were rebuilt in 1970. 

Bishop's Road
Built on land which belonged to the Penitentiary
Law Courts. Built in 1955 by Middlesex County Council.  The Architect was C. G. Stillman, and the area architect D. R. Duncan.  .

Bloomfield Road
Built on land which belonged to the Penitentiary
1 Highfield School. This was an Independent Roman Catholic School. Closed in 1996.

Church Road
The road was built in 1864 to link North Road with Archway Road and was called All Saints Road.
1 All Saints Church Hall. Used by a clinic and a nursery,

Highgate Woods
Gravel Wood – this was previously called “Gravel Pit Wood” – a gravel pit was here in the 19th but before enclosure in 1813 it was part of Highgate Common. Prehistoric flints have been found in the wood and excavations on the ridge at the northern end of the wood showed that Romano-Britons made pottery here AD 50-100.  It is hoped a kiln found here can be displayed. An ancient earthwork runs across the wood which may have been part of a deer enclosure for the Bishop of London or it could be a prehistoric boundary or a defensive work. In the middle ages it belonged to the Bishop of London and later known as "Brewer's Fell" and it was coppiced by various tenants. In 1886 the City of London Corporation acquired it from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners at no charge on condition that it was "maintained in perpetuity for the benefit of Londoners". It was renamed Highgate Wood and has been managed by the Corporation ever since.
Pavilion Café. In the woods near the cricket pitch - it is in fact the old cricket pavilion
Cricket Pitch – home to a number of clubs
Drinking fountain near the centre of the woods. It is in polished granite with a basin. Within the plinth is a dog trough. There is a bronze plaque which says: 'The Gift of a few Friends. Erected 1888'. And a quotation from Coleridge, who lived locally: "Drink, Pilgrim, here! Here rest! And if thy heart -- Be innocent, here too shalt thou refresh -- Thy spirit, listening to some gentle sound -- Or passing gale or hum of murmuring bees
Railway line - From Park junction, the now defunct Alexandra Palace branch passed through Highgate Wood, and curved towards the east.

Jackson’s Lane
Named for Squire Jackson of Hillside. A road. Leading down to Shepherds Hill, and which was once part of a bridle-way across Highgate Common.
Bank Point. A stuccoed Georgian house wedged in the fork with Southwood Lane. It is the survivor of a row of houses and shops built c.1800.
Hillside. 18th house with an upper bay window overlooking the narrow part of the road.  It was the home of ‘Squire’ Jackson, who gave his name to the lane - he was actually a Colonel who bred horses.

Muswell Hill Road
Water from Highgate Wood flows under the road to wet areas in Queens Wood out of which rise the Queen’s Wood Stream
The boundary hedge of the Bishop's park survived as a field boundary and can be seen on 19th maps. Muswell Hill Road follows it southwards
42 Queens Wood Lodge. This was derelict but restored in 1998. Behind the Lodge is a garden surrounded by trees with flowers, fruit and vegetables and bee hives. It was the original garden of the Lodge Keeper, and had apple and quince trees, red, black currant and gooseberry bushes with flowers with a woodland edge effect.
14 Tuscan Studios
10 Blue plaque to Peter Sellers. The cottages are on the site of Wasteland Cottages which had been left to Hornsey as almshouses but had become derelict, and then became the centre of a campaign to prevent development on Queens Wood. Eight cottages had been built on waste land given in 1806 by the Bishop of London to provide sites for housing the poor. They were let at low rents or rent free and all but three of what became 27 houses were sold before 1975.
Southwood Hall stood near the junction of Archway Road on the south side.

North Hill
Broadlands block of art deco flats, 1930s
23 18th. A typical cottage
27 & 33 premises which were once grain merchants supplying oats and hay for horses
28 The Victoria Pub
33 Kingdom Hall. Jehovah’s Witnesses acquired this in 1964
35 Medlar Cottage. Weather boarded and in the 19th was a fruiterer's shop.
37-41, early 19th with giant pilasters.
43 - 45 cottage which was an extension of 47. 18th Red brick
44 Highgate Doctors Group Practice.  Building by Douglas Stephens & Partners which is a detached brick pavilion fronting the street. The facade is in simple brick over a glazed entry, leading to a waiting area, designed as outside space where references to a medical language are forbidden.  Looks very like a church.
Iron schoolroom was dedicated in 1873 on land bought by Rev. Dalton of All Saints Church at the corner of Church Road. A new building next to it was designed by C. H. M. Mileham and used as a mission. The iron schoolroom was replaced by one in brick in 1882, and was used as the predecessor church to St.Augustine, later built in Archway Road. A convalescent home occupied the upper floor of the mission house from 1880. The schoolroom was further extended in 1911 and closed in 1924.
47-49 probably built by a speculative developer using a standard pattern book. It may originally have been built as a single house
57 North Hill House. House of 18th. Inside is a house of 1700 with brick cellars stretching south below next houses.

Onslow Gardens
The Imperial Property Investment Co.  Bought farmland from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and built this area in 1890s.
The Etheldene Stream rises in what was the garden of a house called Woodlands and flows eastwards

Priory Gardens
The Priory Stream flows from north of Highgate Station along the back of the gardens of houses on the north side and emerges into the open on the southern edge of Queens Wood.
Station Cottage. Building from the defunct Highgate Station turned into a private house. This was the up side station platform. It is at the back of other houses.

Queens Wood
Queens Wood.  In 1886, Hornsey Local Board acquired the slopes known as Churchyard Bottom Wood and opened it as Queen’s Wood in honour of Queen Victoria in 1898. 
Queens Wood Stream rises in the wood – the western part of the wood is very damp. There are springs in the north west and in the south west areas of the wood which flow downhill, depending on the weather, to an area called Dogs Pool out of which the stream flows in a culvert.  At the edge of the wood is a 60ft long retaining wall through which the water flows through a grille.  It then continues eastwards.
The Priory Stream flows from Priory Road gardens along the southern edge of the wood as far as the footpath from Priory Road when it enters a culvert and there is a retaining wall.

Shepherds Hill
Was once part of Jackson’s Lane but renamed when the posh houses were built in the 1880s.
Goldsmith’s Court. Sheltered housing run by Hornsey Housing Trist.
1 Highgate Library.  Designed 1901-2 by W.H. Hyde, half-timbered and domestic looking, at the end of a terrace.  A garden behind it was opened in 2007.
3-25, a string of tall detached houses of the 1900s,
12 this was the Garden View Hotel, converted to flats in 1996-7, with a variety of quirky windows.
14 London Mennonite Centre. The house was built in 1882 and opened as the Mennonite Centre in 1953. Mennonites are Anabaptists and have one church in the UK. The Centre has now closed.
14-16, 1882, were the first houses to be built in Shepherd's Hill
22 Nuffield Lodge. One of the Hill Homes set up by Margaret Hill for the elderly frail. This was acquired in the 1940s. In 1978 Nuffield Lodge was demolished and rebuilt as a new purpose built home opened in 1981. It was funded by the Housing Corporation.

South Close
Flats built in the 1930s which included a pioneering scheme by Ascot Gas Water Heater Limited

Southwood Lane
An old route leading uphill to Highgate from Archway Road. It was part of the ancient path across Highgate Common along the eastern side of the Bishop of London's park. The boundary hedge of the Bishop's park survived as a field boundary in the 19th along the Lane back to the Gatehouse Tavern.
Terraced housing of 1958 which replaced Southwood House. They housing encloses a communal garden by Andrews, Emmerson &-Sherlock, using trees planted in the grounds of the old house.
Southwood House was burnt down in 1953.
123 a pair of 18th cottages steep tiled roof behind a parapet.

Summersby Road
Until the 1930s this small enclave consisted of nine cottages, called Churchyard Bottom or Woodside Cottages, which were demolished by the council and replaced by a block of eighteen flats on a slightly different site.
Woodside Works. This was built on the site of the demolished cottages. A garment-makers, Brian Taylors, occupied it until 1951. The factory was then in two and half used by Austin & Hayes who made vulcanized fibre accessories. the other half by Gauges and Instruments, a family business from Palmers Green who took over the whole works in 1963. In 1976 they worked in the field of precision engineering, making components for the aircraft, motor, and electronic industries, and their own designed power press equipment

Talbot Road
All Saint Church small, stone church built in 1864 by A. W. Blomfield, Revd. C. B. Dalton's brother-in-law. In the 1860s as the area expanded church services were held in a house in North Hill. Thus The Ecclesiastical Commissioners and Lord Mansfield gave this site.  It suffered however from the tolls charged on Archway Road and was thus small.  A north aisle and vestries were added by John Stockdale in 1912. There was Second World War damage and by a fire in 1945 and the church was restored by W. C. Waymouth and rededicated in 1953.

The Park
The road goes round the mound of Hillcrest. The Park was developed on land belonging to the Penitentiary.
3 has a large garden with a pond and frogs.

Wood Lane
Flats and garden walls of Southwood Hall.
2- 12 early 19th houses on a modest scale:
28 cottage orne, with a ‘Tudor’ niche with a bust

Woodland Rise
Imperial Property Investments Co. sold off plots which were built up here in 1920s

Sources

All Saints Church web site
Blake. Northern Wastes,
Clunn. The Face of London
Disused stations web site
Field. Place Names,
Great North Road
Guide to the City of London
Highgate walks
Hill Homes web site
History of Highgate web site
Jackson’s Lane Theatre web site
LMA web site
London Borough of Haringey web site
London City and People
London Encyclopedia
Mennonite web site
Middlesex Churches
O’Connor. Forgotten Stations of London
Pevsner and Cherry. London North
Pinching and Dell. Haringeys Hidden Streams
Port of London Magazine
Rail Line
Smyth. City Wildspace
Stevenson, Middlesex
Walford. Highgate to the Lea
Walk round Highgate,
Wikipedia Highgate Station web site

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